The Industrial Revolution II


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spread of I.R. ideas & technology to rest of world

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The Industrial Revolution II

  1. 1. The Industrial Revolution…the Sequel “This time it’s personal!”
  2. 2. The Second Industrial revolution <ul><li>As we learned, the Industrial revolution took place in Britain (England, the U.K, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>The first Industrial Revolution was driven by new technologies such as steam engines and iron </li></ul>
  3. 3. Industrial Revolution II <ul><li>The second industrial revolution began in the early 1800’s </li></ul><ul><li>This is when other countries began to industrialize. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Other countries began to steal British plans and technologies so that they too could industrialize.
  5. 5. <ul><li>Before long nations such as Germany and the United States had surpassed (gone beyond) Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>They were producing more goods </li></ul><ul><li>They were producing faster and more efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul>
  6. 6. What Effects did industrialization have on these countries? <ul><li>The same effects it had on England. </li></ul><ul><li>People working long hours for low pay </li></ul><ul><li>Terrible pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Slums </li></ul><ul><li>People being hurt or killed at work </li></ul><ul><li>Child Labor </li></ul>
  7. 7. Technologies of the second Industrial Revolution <ul><li>1) Steel </li></ul><ul><li>2) Chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>3) Electricity </li></ul><ul><li>4) New methods of production </li></ul>
  8. 8. Steel <ul><li>Bessemer Process : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New way to make steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made better steel faster and cheaper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everything from bridges to boats to buildings began to be made of steel. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Chemicals <ul><li>New chemicals created new products: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspirin, perfume, soap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do you think cheaper, better soap was such an important contribution to society? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical fertilizers meant that more food could be grown </li></ul><ul><li>Increased food production… what would that mean to society? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Electricity <ul><li>Invention of the dynamo led to power plants, bringing electricity to more people in society through cables </li></ul><ul><li>Edison’s light bulb allowed factories to stay open longer </li></ul><ul><li>Production increased. </li></ul>
  11. 11. New Methods of Production <ul><li>Interchangeable parts </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly line </li></ul><ul><li>These inventions allowed factories to produce products faster and more efficiently. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Planes, Trains, and Automobiles <ul><li>Thousands of miles of train track constructed all over the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Otto invents internal combustion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benz and Daimler invent and improve automobile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wright Brothers’ 1 st flight at Kitty Hawk. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Communications <ul><li>Samuel Morse invents telegraph </li></ul><ul><li>A.G. Bell invents telephone </li></ul><ul><li>Marconi invents radio </li></ul><ul><li>What did these inventions mean for communication? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Changes in Business <ul><li>Businesses grew into large corporations </li></ul><ul><li>People invest in corporations by buying stock </li></ul><ul><li>People who own stock own a small part of a corporation </li></ul>
  15. 16. Corporations <ul><li>A corporation is a form of business organization recognized by law as a separate legal entity having all the rights of an individual </li></ul>
  16. 17. Illegal business practices <ul><li>Large corporations soon became monopolies </li></ul><ul><li>A monopoly is when one corporation controls one industry </li></ul><ul><li>Cartels : when several corporations get together to set the price for something </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Why are monopolies and cartels bad things? </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Lack of competition due to illegal business practices caused many governments to try to regulate these giant corporations </li></ul>
  19. 20. Impacts of The Spread of the Industrial Revolution <ul><li>1) Population Growth </li></ul><ul><li>2) Growth of Cities </li></ul><ul><li>3) New Social Order </li></ul><ul><li>4) Changes in Science and Religion </li></ul>
  20. 21. Population Growth <ul><li>Cause of Rapid population growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People weren’t having more children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were just living longer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Reasons for population growth <ul><li>Advances in farm equipment and chemical fertilizers meant more food could be grown cheaply </li></ul><ul><li>Result: More people could afford to buy better food </li></ul>
  22. 23. Reasons for population growth <ul><li>Germ theory & understanding microbes led to chemical soaps and better sanitation in cities </li></ul><ul><li>Result: Doctors and hospitals were cleaner, fewer people died from infection. The spread of disease was slowed down by better sanitation, sewer systems, etc. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Reasons for urbanization <ul><li>1) Fewer people were needed to farm, so more people moved to the city. </li></ul><ul><li>2) The promise of factory jobs in cities </li></ul><ul><li>3) The excitement of living in a city </li></ul>
  24. 25. New people in cities meant a new social order
  25. 26. New Social Order <ul><li>Things didn’t change that much for many people, but the middle classes were starting to develop some social and political power. </li></ul>
  26. 27. New Social Order <ul><li>The new social order led to the growth of public education </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>1) Countries wanted to produce better citizens (NATIONALISM) </li></ul><ul><li>2) People had to be able to read and write to work and live in cities </li></ul>
  27. 28. Science & Religion <ul><li>Atomic Theory: John Dalton proved that everything was made of different combinations of different atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic table of elements is developed by Mendeleyev </li></ul>
  28. 29. Science & Religion <ul><li>Geologists (people who study rocks and the earth in general) discover that the earth is much older than the bible (if taken literally) says </li></ul><ul><li>Neanderthal man is discovered in Germany! </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin introduces his theory of natural selection </li></ul>
  29. 30. Science & Religion <ul><li>Many of the aforementioned ideas are seen as challenges to the church (think about Galileo & Copernicus) These ideas remain controversial (especially in this country) to this day </li></ul>
  30. 31. Bad Science! <ul><li>Darwin’s theories lead to the racist theory of “Social Darwinism” </li></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinists believe that white people are inherently superior to other people AND that rich people are inherently superior to poor people. </li></ul><ul><li>These ideas will lead to some terrible things </li></ul>
  31. 32. Good Religion! <ul><li>Protestant churches encouraged their members to do good and charitable things in the community. </li></ul><ul><li>This movement was called the social gospel </li></ul><ul><li>The social gospel movement is the reason we have the Salvation Army. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Homework Questions <ul><li>1) Why were Germany and the U.S.A. able to produce more goods faster than Great Britain? </li></ul><ul><li>2) Identify two reasons why population grew so much during the second industrial revolution </li></ul><ul><li>3) How did the social order change in industrialized nations? </li></ul><ul><li>4) Why are cartels and monopolies bad for consumers? </li></ul>