The end of imperialism & colonialism


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The end of imperialism & colonialism

  1. 1. The end of Imperialism & Colonialism
  2. 2. India & Pakistan
  3. 3. Seeds of Independence: <ul><li>From the mid-1800's many well educated Indians, Muslim and Hindu alike, studied the democratic principles and nationalist movements of the west </li></ul>Gandhi in London
  4. 4. Indian Independence <ul><li>Sepoy mutiny: 1 st revolt against British colonialism by people of India. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1 st organized Independence Groups <ul><li>Indian National Congress organized in 1885 by Hindus </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim League organized in 1906 </li></ul>Division between Hindus & Muslims
  6. 6. World War I  <ul><li>British made use of Indian soldiers during the war with the promise of political reforms toward Indian self-government </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms did not come as Indians expected and many used terrorism and violence against the British to show their anger </li></ul>
  7. 7. Amritsar Massacre <ul><li>Protest of Hindus and Muslims gathered in the city of Amritsar  </li></ul><ul><li>British said meeting was illegal and opened fire on the unarmed peaceful protest killing 100's and wounding over 1000 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Effect of the Armistar Massacre <ul><li>The massacre created a revolutionary Indian nationalistic movement </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mohandas K. Gandhi <ul><li>lawyer educated in Great Britain, Gandhi launched a new campaign of non-violent, non-cooperation against the British </li></ul><ul><li>civil disobedience or the refusal to obey unjust laws </li></ul><ul><li>Satyagraha or &quot;truth force&quot; became the driving force behind the campaign of civil disobedience </li></ul>
  10. 10. Gandhi’s Protests <ul><li>1.  Boycott of British made cloth and other goods </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Homespun movement encouraged Indians to spin their own cloth rather than purchase British cloth </li></ul><ul><li>3.  Massive strikes shut down British run communications, transportation and businesses  </li></ul>
  11. 12. Salt March <ul><li>1.  March to protest the Salt Acts whereby Indians could only buy salt through the British government  </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Gandhi led a 240 mile journey to the sea with thousands of followers </li></ul><ul><li>3.  Gandhi and his followers produced their own salt </li></ul><ul><li>4.  A brutal attack against unarmed protestors at a salt works gained international support for Gandhi </li></ul>
  12. 13. Home-Rule to India <ul><li>In 1935, the Government of India Act was passed granting self-rule and democratic political reforms </li></ul><ul><li>As India moved toward Independence, Hindu and Muslims disagreed on the future of its government (Hindus were the majority) </li></ul>
  13. 14. 1947, Partition of India <ul><li>India given independence and immediately partitioned into 2 nations </li></ul>Colonial India India (Hindu majority) Pakistan (Muslim majority) East Pakistan (now Bangladesh)
  14. 15. The violence between India & Pakistan began with Partition <ul><li>1.  Millions of refugees fled into India or Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Minorities of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs were massacred </li></ul><ul><li>3.  Bitter rivalries ensued and continue into the 21st century </li></ul>
  15. 16. Death of Gandhi <ul><li>Mohandas K. Gandhi did not support the partitioning movement and he was assassinated on January 30, 1948 by a Hindu extremist </li></ul>
  16. 17. India’s 1 st Prime Minister <ul><li>Jawaharlal Nehru </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian National Congress Party </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tried to unite India </li></ul><ul><li>Helped to modernize India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modernization of agriculture: Green Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More food = more people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased urbanization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased poverty </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Indira Gandhi <ul><li>Nehru’s daughter </li></ul><ul><li>Accused of corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Elected prime minister in 1966 </li></ul><ul><li>Violently put down a Sikh rebellion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assassinated by one of her Sikh bodyguards </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Mother Theresa <ul><li>Catholic nun tried to ease suffering in Indian city of Calcutta </li></ul>
  19. 20. Pakistan <ul><li>Muhammad Ali Jinnah 1 st head of state </li></ul><ul><li>Died in 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan became a military dictatorship </li></ul>
  20. 21. Division of Pakistan <ul><li>Civil war between East and West Pakistan led to the creation of a new country: Bangladesh </li></ul>
  21. 22. 1 st India Pakistan War <ul><li>India & Pakistan went to war in 1947 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause: Kashmir </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result: Stalemate… militarization of Kashmir </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. 1971; 2 nd war India & Pakistan <ul><li>Cause: India intervened in Pakistan’s civil war </li></ul><ul><li>Effect: India won, Bhutto became Prime Minister of Pakistan </li></ul>
  23. 24. 1974… <ul><li>India successfully tested nuclear weapon </li></ul>
  24. 25. 1987 <ul><li>Pakistan successfully tested nuclear weapon </li></ul><ul><li>Arms race between India & Pakistan </li></ul>
  25. 27. Current problems <ul><li>India & Pakistan continue to disagree about Kashmir </li></ul><ul><li>Tamil rebels in Southern India are demanding independence </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism & Islamic extremism in Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty & massive population growth in India </li></ul><ul><li>NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION </li></ul>
  26. 28. African Independence
  27. 29. Gaining Independence <ul><li>African colonies demanded independence from their European colonizers following World War II </li></ul>
  28. 30. Problems facing independent African Nations <ul><li>1) Multi-ethnic populations that didn’t get along </li></ul><ul><li>2) Tribalism: loyalty to one’s tribe, rather than to a nation or government </li></ul><ul><li>3) No experience with democracy meant bad governments or brutal dictatorships </li></ul><ul><li>4) Lack of education; illiteracy </li></ul><ul><li>5) Lack of infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>6) Disease </li></ul><ul><li>7) Old, imperial borders led to Civil war </li></ul>
  29. 31. Ghana <ul><li>(formerly the Gold Cost, a British colony) was led by Kwame Nkrumah  </li></ul>
  30. 32. Kwame Nkrumah <ul><li>Protested for independence using non-violent protests, strikes and boycotts </li></ul><ul><li>Jailed by the British </li></ul><ul><li>Nkrumah eventually won Ghana's independence in 1957 and became its first Prime Minister   </li></ul>
  31. 33. Pan-Africanism <ul><li>Nkrumah worked on Pan-African goals and hoped to create a &quot;United States of Africa&quot; and was the founder of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) </li></ul>Black is . . . for black people.  Red shows . . . [that] the blood of an African is the same color as the blood of a European, and green shows . . . [that] when we were given this country by God it was green, fertile, and good
  32. 34. Nigeria <ul><li>formerly a British colony won its independence in 1960 but faced great obstacles like many of its African neighbors </li></ul>
  33. 35. <ul><li>Nigeria was a multi-ethnic region and attempted to adopt a democratic government and a federal system  </li></ul><ul><li>Tribalism and ethnic tensions led to civil war in 1963 between the northern rivals Muslim Hausa and Fulani versus the  Christian Ibo and Yoruba people of the south </li></ul>
  34. 36. Civil War <ul><li>Thirty years of war led to massacres, starvation, the splitting of the nation (Biafra) and an eventual reunification and a military run government </li></ul>
  35. 37. 1999 <ul><li>Nigeria held its first democratic elections in decades </li></ul>
  36. 38. Kenya <ul><li>former British colony, won its independence in 1963 </li></ul>
  37. 39. Armed rebellion <ul><li>Mau Mau Rebellion was a secret society of Kikuyu farmers that used violence to scare the British off their lands </li></ul>
  38. 40. Jomo Kenyatta <ul><li>A freedom fighter who led the Kikuyu people  </li></ul><ul><li>Kenyatta, although not connected with the Mau Mau Rebellion refused to condemn their methods and was jailed by the British for 7 years </li></ul>
  39. 41. <ul><li>By 1963, Kenyatta had become the first Prime Minister of a free and independent Kenya </li></ul>
  40. 42. South Africa and Apartheid <ul><li>South Africa became independent in 1910, however the white majority controlled all political power and in 1948 developed a policy that totally separated blacks from whites called apartheid   </li></ul>
  41. 43. Enforcing Apartheid <ul><li>blacks and whites could not live together or marry;  whites were given the best land while the black majority lived on only 13% of the land  </li></ul><ul><li>Separate transportation systems, separate public restrooms, separate schools, separate neighborhoods </li></ul>
  42. 46. Anti-Apartheid Movement <ul><li>African National Congress (ANC) was formed and worked to end apartheid by leading strikes, boycotts and public demonstrations </li></ul>
  43. 47. The Sharpeville Massacre <ul><li>One demonstration turned violent and became known as the Sharpeville Massacre, 69 people were killed </li></ul>
  44. 48. ANC Leaders Bishop Desmond Tutu  Won Nobel Peace Prize  Called on nations to boycott South Africa Nelson Mandela  Jailed for 27 years  Became 1 st black President of South Africa Stephen Biko  Beaten to death while in custody for his part in leading protest  His death was the turning point for apartheid
  45. 49. The End of Apartheid <ul><li>International pressure and internal unrest led to sweeping changes during the mid-1980's </li></ul><ul><li>newly elected white president F. W. de Klerk legalized the ANC and released activist Nelson Mandela after 27 years in prison </li></ul>
  46. 50. <ul><li>apartheid laws were repealed, multi-racial free elections took place, and a new constitution was written based on equality, justice and protected all people from discrimination and guaranteed the rights of all South Africans </li></ul>
  47. 51. Human Rights Violations Sudan (Darfur) Rwanda
  48. 53. Dates Sudan (Darfur) 2003 - present Rwanda 1994
  49. 54. Causes Sudan separated into North & South by British North vs. South civil war Drought in Sudan caused migration Ethnic differences between Northern & Southern Sudanese Dictator of Sudan (Omar Al-Bashir) has encouraged “ethnic cleansing” Belgium took over Rwanda from Germans Put Tutsis in charge Handed out “ethnic identity cards” Education only open to Tutsis Hutus could only be laborers or low level workers Rwanda given independence in 1962 Civil war between Hutus & Tutsis ended with power sharing President Habyarimana assassinated
  50. 55. The Conflict Arab northerners & Janjaweed vs. Southern (darker-skinned) Sudanese The genocide in Darfur has claimed 400,000 lives and displaced over 2,500,000 people. More than one hundred people continue to die each day; five thousand die every month. Hutus vs. Tutsis Between April and June 1994, an estimated 800,000 Rwandans were killed in the space of 100 days.
  51. 56. Effect Sudanese people voted to split into two separate countries (North & South) Massacres, displacement, human rights violations continue Sudan will become 2 different countries this summer Rwanda is currently trying to reconcile ethnic tensions. Both Hutus & Tutsis still live in the same country DISTRUST
  52. 57. UN Response The UN did not intervene in Sudan The UN sent in 2,500 peacekeepers to help Rwanda They were told not to intervene in the genocide UN troops fled Rwanda
  53. 58. Rwanda A Story of Genocide
  54. 59. Background <ul><li>Small African nation </li></ul><ul><li>Two ethnic groups lived in Rwanda: Hutus and Tutsis </li></ul><ul><li>Generally lived peacefully until the Europeans came </li></ul>
  55. 60. Background <ul><li>Hutus </li></ul><ul><li>Majority - 80% </li></ul><ul><li>Migrated from southern Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Worked as laborers and farmers </li></ul>
  56. 61. Background <ul><li>Tutsis </li></ul><ul><li>Minority - 20% </li></ul><ul><li>Migrated from Northern Africa (Egypt) </li></ul><ul><li>Became the elite and political rulers </li></ul>
  57. 62. Background <ul><li>German colony until 1918 (end of WWI) </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium took it over </li></ul><ul><li>Put Tutsis in charge </li></ul><ul><li>Handed out “ethnic identity cards” </li></ul><ul><li>Education only open to Tutsis </li></ul><ul><li>Hutus could only be laborers or low level workers </li></ul>
  58. 63. Independence <ul><li>Once Belgium granted independence in 1962, Hutu majority took control </li></ul><ul><li>Over 200,000 Tutsis fled to neighboring countries and formed a rebel guerrilla army, the Rwandan Patriotic Front. </li></ul>
  59. 64. Civil War <ul><li>In 1990, the rebel army invaded Rwanda and forced Hutu President Juvenal Habyarimana into signing an accord mandating that Hutus and Tutsis share power. </li></ul>
  60. 65. Escalating Conflict <ul><li>Ethnic tensions heightened in October 1993 upon the assassination of Melchior Ndadaye </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations peacekeeping force of 2,500 is dispatched to preserve the cease-fire </li></ul>
  61. 66. Assassination <ul><li>On April 6, 1994, Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana was assassinated when his plane is shot down </li></ul><ul><li>Hutu extremists begin killing Tutsis </li></ul>
  62. 67. Unite Nations Response <ul><li>The U.N. Security Council votes unanimously to abandon Rwanda. The remainders of U.N. peacekeeping troops are pulled out, leaving only a tiny force of 200 soldiers for the entire country. </li></ul>
  63. 68. Genocide <ul><li>Between April and June 1994, an estimated 800,000 Rwandans were killed in the space of 100 days. </li></ul>
  64. 69. Still at Large <ul><li>Hundreds of men are still wanted in connection with the Rwandan genocide </li></ul>
  65. 70. The Darfur Conflict
  66. 71. Geography <ul><li>Sudan in the Region </li></ul>Darfur 1 Sudan in the World
  67. 72. Darfur Conflict <ul><li>Who is fighting? </li></ul><ul><li>Janjaweed , a militia group recruited from the tribes of the Abbala (camel-herding Arabs) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Baggara people (mostly land-tilling tribes) of the region </li></ul><ul><li>Nomad peoples v. Sedentary peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting over land and resources </li></ul>
  68. 73. Darfur Conflict <ul><li>The Sudanese government, while publicly denying that it supports the Janjaweed, has provided arms and assistance and has participated in joint attacks with the group—Janjaweed </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict began in July of 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated deaths so far might reach 450,000 </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 million displaced </li></ul>
  69. 75. General Summary of the situation in Darfur <ul><li>The Sudanese Government, using Arab &quot;Janjaweed&quot; militias, its air force, and organized starvation, is systematically killing the black Sudanese of Darfur </li></ul><ul><li>Over a million people, driven from their homes, now face death from starvation and disease as the Government and militias attempt to prevent humanitarian aid from reaching them. </li></ul>
  70. 76. Darfur Conflict <ul><li>Following air raids by government aircraft, the Janjaweed would ride into villages on horses and camels </li></ul><ul><li>They would then slaughter the men, rape the women, and steal whatever they could find </li></ul>