Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Reconstruction 2009


Published on

rundown of reconstruction plans and failures, DBQ ijnstructions at the end

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Reconstruction 2009

  1. 1. Reconstruction of the South
  2. 2. The End Results <ul><li>258,000 Confederates died in the war </li></ul><ul><li>Most were adult males </li></ul><ul><li>South’s economy & society needed rebuilding </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Reconstruction </li></ul>
  4. 4. Everybody had a plan … <ul><li>Lincoln’s 10% plan </li></ul><ul><li>10% of states’ voters vowed loyalty to Union </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form a new government & constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No slavery </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Lincoln Was Soft on the South <ul><li>Punishment served no useful purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Offered amnesty/swear loyalty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to Confederate leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Right to vote to African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Force equal rights in Southern states (states rights vs. federal government) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Some jumped in quick <ul><li>Louisiana, Arkansas & Tennessee agreed in 1864 </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln’s congress refused to let it occur </li></ul>
  7. 7. Plan 2- The Radical Republicans <ul><li>Thought Lincoln was too mild </li></ul><ul><li>Congress should decide the South’s fate </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Wade-Davis Bill <ul><li>July 1864 </li></ul><ul><li>51% swear loyalty to Union </li></ul><ul><li>Only males who never took arms against the North could vote on new state congress & constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Former Confederates – no public office </li></ul><ul><li>No slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln refused to sign this into law </li></ul>
  9. 9. Freedmen’s Bureau-What was life like for African Americans <ul><li>Helped African Americans freed from slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Established- March 1865 </li></ul><ul><li>Food, clothes, medical services </li></ul><ul><li>Established schools </li></ul><ul><li>Established universities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Howard, Atlanta, Fisk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helped them acquire land </li></ul>
  10. 10. Tragedy <ul><li>President Lincoln Assassinated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 days after Civil War ended </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ford’s Theater </li></ul><ul><li>John Wilkes Booth </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sic Semper Tyrannus!” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ford’s Theater
  12. 12. Lincoln Memorial
  13. 13. O Captain My Captain by Walt Whitman <ul><li>O Captain my Captain! our fearful trip is done, The ship has weathered every rack, the prize we sought is won, The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting, While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring; But O heart! heart! heart! O the bleeding drops of red, Where on the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead. O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells; Rise up--for you the flag is flung for you the bugle trills, For you bouquets and ribboned wreaths for you the shores a-crowding, For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning; Here Captain! dear father! This arm beneath your head! It is some dream that on the deck, You've fallen cold and dead. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still; My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will; The ship is anchored safe and sound, its voyage closed and done; From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object won; Exult O shores, and ring O bells! But I, with mournful tread, Walk the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead. </li></ul>
  15. 15. A New President <ul><li>Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes President </li></ul><ul><li>Not quite as “gentle” as Lincoln </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to punish South </li></ul><ul><li>No desire to help African Americans </li></ul>
  16. 16. Johnson’s Plan <ul><li>Restoration </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Amnesty – for those who swore an oath to the Union </li></ul><ul><li>High ranking officials had to do it personally </li></ul><ul><li>Appointed governors </li></ul><ul><li>Only pardoned, whites could vote </li></ul><ul><li>No equal rights for African Americans, no voting </li></ul><ul><li>Left it up to individual states to “manage their freed people” </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>No slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Denounce secession </li></ul><ul><li>Ratify the 13 th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolished slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>End of 1865 most of the South was “restored” </li></ul>
  19. 19. South “Restored” but not settled <ul><li>Struggle in Washington D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress did not want to readmit southern states on Johnson’s terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>felt it robbed the Union of it’s victory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>treatment of African Americans was not improving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ku Klux Klan emerged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>terrorized African Americans in the South– burning houses, churches, schools, rioting and murder </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Black Codes <ul><li>passed by southern states </li></ul><ul><li>to control freed men, women children </li></ul><ul><li>helped plantation owners exploit them as workers </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to “slave codes” </li></ul>
  21. 22. Examples of the Code <ul><li>could be arrested for not having a job </li></ul><ul><li>forced to work for plantation owner to pay off the fine </li></ul><ul><li>some laws refused to let freed slaves own or rent farms </li></ul><ul><li>orphaned babies were taken as unpaid apprentices </li></ul><ul><li>Freed slaves could neither vote nor own guns </li></ul>
  22. 23. Radical Republicans vs. Black Codes <ul><li>Republicans in Congress very angry about Black Codes. </li></ul><ul><li>They blamed Johnson’s Restoration Plan for encouraging southern states to pass these codes </li></ul><ul><li>In response to Black Codes, Republicans pass the Civil Rights Act of 1866 </li></ul>
  23. 24. Civil Rights Act of 1866-passed by Congress <ul><li>full citizenship to African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Federal government could intervene in state affairs </li></ul><ul><li>overturned black codes </li></ul><ul><li>Dred Scott decision </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans were no longer seen as “property,” they were now citizens </li></ul>
  24. 25. President Johnson says no! <ul><li>Vetoes both the Freedmen’s Bureau Bill and Civil Rights Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Congress had enough votes to override </li></ul><ul><li>Rift between Congress and President grew </li></ul>
  25. 26. 14 th Amendment of 1866 <ul><li>Congress passed Amendment to ensure Civil Rights Act was not overturned by Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Full citizenship to anyone born in the USA </li></ul><ul><li>No state could take away ones life, liberty or property without due process </li></ul><ul><li>all had equal protection of the laws </li></ul>
  26. 27. The 14 th Amendment <ul><li>Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State , excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election … is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. </li></ul>
  28. 29. -Johnson to Congress, “It’s on NOW!” <ul><li>Johnson encourages southern states to reject 14 th Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson campaigns against his own (Republican) party and their reconstruction plan in 1866 </li></ul>
  29. 30. Election of 1866 <ul><li>Johnson rallied for rejection of Amendment from North and South </li></ul><ul><li>campaigned against the Republicans </li></ul><ul><li>Republicans gained control of congress </li></ul><ul><li>created their own reconstruction plan </li></ul>
  30. 31. Radical Reconstruction <ul><li>Congress was in control </li></ul><ul><li>could override any veto that Johnson issued </li></ul><ul><li>10 remaining states that did not accept 14 th amendment divided into 5 MILITARY districts </li></ul><ul><li>African American males allowed to vote </li></ul><ul><li>former Confederate leaders could not hold office </li></ul>
  31. 32. How to get back into the Union… <ul><li>ratify the 14 th amendment </li></ul><ul><li>submit new constitutions for approval </li></ul>
  32. 33. Johnson and Congress Fight <ul><li>Congress passed Tenure of Office Act; didn’t allow the President to remove government officials without Senate approval </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Johnson suspends the Secretary of War without approval Appointed commanders to southern districts that congress opposed </li></ul>
  34. 35. Impeach, Impeach, Impeach <ul><li>House of Representatives vote to impeach </li></ul><ul><li>trial lasted 3 months </li></ul><ul><li>both sides saying it was just politically motivated </li></ul><ul><li>35-19 to convict. 1 vote short of 2/3rds majority </li></ul>
  35. 36. Identify & evaluate the Reconstruction Plans conditions Proposed by Rad Reconstruction Restoration Wade-Davis 10% Plan Plan
  36. 37. New Election, New President <ul><li>1868 Gen. Ulysses S. Grant– Republican </li></ul><ul><li>Horatio Seymour– Democrat </li></ul><ul><li>Grant won; also received 500,000 African American votes in the South </li></ul>
  37. 38. 15 th Amendment– 1869 <ul><li>prohibited state and federal governments from denying the right to vote to any MALE citizen because of race, color or previous condition of servitude </li></ul>
  38. 39. The Reconstruction Amendments 15 th Amendment 14 th Amendment 13 th Amendment
  39. 40. The South During Reconstruction <ul><li>3 groups in the South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African Americans- supported Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>white Southerners– supported Democrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>white settlers from the North- supported Republicans </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Group 1– African Americans <ul><li>important in politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>helped with Republican victories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>held some positions in political office at state level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national level: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hiram Revels– senator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blanche K Bruce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>former runaway slave </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>established a school for African Americans </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>became superintendent of schools in MS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US senator </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Scalawags <ul><li>Some southerners didn’t want to secede </li></ul><ul><li>agreed with Republicans in the North </li></ul><ul><ul><li>non-slave holding farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>businessmen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Called Scalawags </li></ul>
  42. 43. Carpetbaggers <ul><li>Northerners who moved South to make a new life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>doctors, lawyers, teachers, former Union soldiers </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. Resistance to Reconstruction <ul><li>Some white Southerners could not let go of old ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wouldn’t let ex-slaves leave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>refused to rent land to ex-slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stores refused to grant credit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>employers would not hire them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used fear to keep them in line </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. Ku Klux Klan <ul><li>formed in 1866 </li></ul><ul><li>“midnight rides” </li></ul><ul><li>kept African Americans from voting or standing up for their rights </li></ul>
  45. 46. The White League <ul><li>Terrorist organization </li></ul><ul><li>Kept African Americans from voting or asserting their rights </li></ul><ul><li>They operated openly – no masks – their identities weren’t secret </li></ul>
  46. 47. Some Improvements <ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedmen’s bureau helped create schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teachers from North came South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by 1870 50% white kids and 40% African Americans in public school; segregated </li></ul></ul>
  47. 48. Life for the freed slaves <ul><li>Sharecropping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rented: land, crude shacks, seeds, tools, mule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>% of crop back to landowner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not much better than slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always owed the landlord </li></ul></ul>
  48. 49. End of Reconstruction <ul><li>Both sides tired of it; ready to move on </li></ul><ul><li>Amnesty act– 1872 pardoned most Confederates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They could vote, hold office, & get their land back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democrats regained political power in the South </li></ul></ul>
  49. 50. Democrats take control <ul><li>Democrats easily took over in former Confederate states </li></ul><ul><li>Ku Klux Klan & White league helped democrats gain control in heavily African American populated states by terrorizing black voters </li></ul>
  50. 51. Republican Scandals <ul><li>Grant chose old war buddies instead of qualified people to be in his cabinet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many of those friends were very corrupt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They got caught in large scandals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grant pardoned them or did nothing </li></ul></ul>
  51. 52. 1876 election <ul><li>Grant does not run for a third term (scandals) </li></ul><ul><li>Rutherford B. Hayes (R) vs. Samuel Tilden (D) </li></ul><ul><li>Close election </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 electoral vote (20 disputed votes) </li></ul></ul>
  52. 53. Compromise of 1877 <ul><li>deal made to settle election dispute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republicans get Presidency if… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more aid ($) to the South </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>withdraw troops from Southern states </li></ul></ul></ul>
  53. 54. Hayes: no friend to the African American <ul><li>states would deal with the “African American” issue alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction was over </li></ul><ul><li>Republicans traded Presidency for an end to Reconstruction (party abandons African Americans) </li></ul>
  54. 55. Changes in the South <ul><li>Democrats in control </li></ul><ul><li>Redeemers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ save” the south from republican rule </li></ul></ul>
  55. 56. The South’s Economy <ul><li>lags behind the nation </li></ul><ul><li>industrialization slow </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of “New South” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry Grady </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rise of textile mills; Northern companies moved south </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>James Duke; tobacco </li></ul></ul>
  56. 57. The “New South” <ul><li>industry grew (not as fast as North) </li></ul><ul><li>workers worked hard, long hours </li></ul><ul><li>cheap wages </li></ul><ul><li>child labor </li></ul><ul><li>RR boom </li></ul>
  57. 58. A divided society <ul><li>15 th Amendment allowed African Americans to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Southern states looked for loop holes </li></ul>
  58. 59. Loopholes <ul><ul><li>poll tax – had to pay before you could vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>literacy test – read & explain constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grandfather clause – if father or grandfather voted before Reconstruction; didn’t have to pass literacy test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very few African Americans voted </li></ul></ul>
  59. 60. Jim Crow Laws <ul><li>1890’s– segregation was prominent </li></ul><ul><li>Laws required separation in most public places </li></ul>
  60. 61. Who was Jim Crow? <ul><li>‘ Jim Crow’ was a character in an old song who was revived by a white comedian called ‘Daddy’ Rice. Rice used the character to make fun of African Americans and the way that they spoke. The term ‘Jim Crow’ came to be used as an insult against African Americans. </li></ul>
  61. 64. Segregation becomes Legal <ul><li>Plessy vs. Ferguson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>separate section on train </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>access to public facilities = to whites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kept segregation in south for 50 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Separate but equal” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilities for African Americans were not equal </li></ul></ul>
  62. 66. Legal Segregation <ul><li>African Americans lost jobs in government, which they gained after the Civil War. </li></ul><ul><li>Whites owned the land, the police, the government, the courtrooms, the law, the armed forces, and the press. The political system denied blacks the right to vote. </li></ul>
  63. 67. Terror <ul><li>Murders were conducted in secret and in public by white men. The blacks were harassed and abused, physically and verbally. These violent acts became a part of their life. </li></ul>
  64. 68. <ul><ul><li>“ The slave went free, stood a brief moment in the sun then moved back again toward slavery.” W.E.B. DuBois </li></ul></ul>
  65. 69. Writing a DBQ <ul><li>There is no right or wrong answer. Your answer is YOUR interpretation of what’s in of the documents. As long as your answer makes sense and is supported by the content of the document you are correct. </li></ul>
  66. 70. <ul><li>1. Read carefully the question and the historical background. Underline the tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Read the documents carefully. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Make sure that you understand the content of the document. </li></ul><ul><li>b) What is the author's Point of View? </li></ul>
  67. 71. <ul><li>3. Don’t just list the documents, organize them into categories and use them appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>4. Re-read the question just to make sure </li></ul>
  68. 72. Steps 1-4 <ul><li>Read Question, Read Documents, organize documents, re-read question </li></ul>
  69. 73. Thesis <ul><li>Topic + What you’re trying to prove </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Social Studies (Topic) is the most important subject in school (what you’re trying to prove) </li></ul>
  70. 74. Use the Documents to support your thesis <ul><li>You have already organized the docs and you understand what each is trying to say </li></ul><ul><li>Plug them in and cite them in some way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ shown in document 2” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“… according to document 5” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“… the population of immigrants steadily rose (doc. 7).” </li></ul></ul>
  71. 75. Using Documents <ul><li>Use at least ½ the number of documents + 1, for example; if there are 8 documents use at least 5 in your essay. </li></ul>
  72. 76. Outside Information <ul><li>In order to get the highest DBQ score possible, you must use outside information. </li></ul>
  73. 77. Conclusion <ul><li>Restate (don’t recopy) thesis </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize your points </li></ul>