Industrial rev & nationalism review!


Published on

review of 2nd industrial revolution and late 19th century European nationalism.

Published in: Education
1 Comment
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Industrial rev & nationalism review!

  1. 1. Review!Review!
  2. 2. Communism &Communism & CapitalismCapitalism  Karl Marx and FredericKarl Marx and Frederic Engels witnessed theEngels witnessed the horrors ofhorrors of industrializationindustrialization  Together they wroteTogether they wrote The CommunistThe Communist ManifestoManifesto..
  3. 3. Capitalism Communism Founder Adam Smith Karl Marx Books The Wealth of Nations The Communist Manifesto Das Kapital
  4. 4. CapitalismCapitalism CommunismCommunism View ofView of GovernmentGovernment GovernmentGovernment should notshould not interfere withinterfere with economy:economy: laissez-fairelaissez-faire Everything isEverything is owned by theowned by the governmentgovernment GovernmentGovernment closely regulatesclosely regulates the economythe economy (sets prices, tells(sets prices, tells factories what tofactories what to make, etc.)make, etc.)
  5. 5. Industrial Revolution IIIndustrial Revolution II  The second industrial revolution began inThe second industrial revolution began in the early 1800’sthe early 1800’s  This is when other countries began toThis is when other countries began to industrialize.industrialize.
  6. 6.  Before long nations such as Germany andBefore long nations such as Germany and the United States had surpassed (gonethe United States had surpassed (gone beyond) Britain.beyond) Britain.  They were producing more goodsThey were producing more goods  They were producing faster and moreThey were producing faster and more efficientlyefficiently
  7. 7. What Effects didWhat Effects did industrialization have onindustrialization have on these countries?these countries?  The same effects it had on England.The same effects it had on England.  People working long hours for low payPeople working long hours for low pay  Terrible pollutionTerrible pollution  SlumsSlums  People being hurt or killed at workPeople being hurt or killed at work  Child LaborChild Labor
  8. 8. Technologies of theTechnologies of the second Industrialsecond Industrial RevolutionRevolution  1) Steel1) Steel  2) Chemicals2) Chemicals  3) Electricity3) Electricity  4) New methods of production4) New methods of production
  9. 9. Impacts of The SpreadImpacts of The Spread of the Industrialof the Industrial RevolutionRevolution  1) Population Growth1) Population Growth  2) Growth of Cities2) Growth of Cities  3) New Social Order3) New Social Order  4) Changes in Science and Religion4) Changes in Science and Religion
  10. 10. Bad Science!Bad Science!  Darwin’s theories lead to the racist theoryDarwin’s theories lead to the racist theory of “Social Darwinism”of “Social Darwinism”  Social Darwinists believe that whiteSocial Darwinists believe that white people are inherently superior to otherpeople are inherently superior to other people AND that rich people arepeople AND that rich people are inherently superior to poor people.inherently superior to poor people.  These ideas will lead to some terribleThese ideas will lead to some terrible thingsthings
  11. 11. What is Nationalism?What is Nationalism?  Nationalism is a feeling of belonging andNationalism is a feeling of belonging and loyalty that causes people to think ofloyalty that causes people to think of themselves as a nation.themselves as a nation.  During the 19During the 19thth and 20and 20thth centuries, nationalismcenturies, nationalism was awas a powerful force that could:powerful force that could:  Create one nation from many separateCreate one nation from many separate countries (ex. Italy and Germany)countries (ex. Italy and Germany)  Break one nation up into many countriesBreak one nation up into many countries (ex. Austria-Hungary, and Turkey)(ex. Austria-Hungary, and Turkey)
  12. 12. Otto von BismarkOtto von Bismark  German unification was ultimatelyGerman unification was ultimately achieved under the leadership of Ottoachieved under the leadership of Otto von Bismark, PM of Prussia and of thevon Bismark, PM of Prussia and of the Junker (wealthy landowner) background,Junker (wealthy landowner) background, who detested democracy but found itwho detested democracy but found it useful to rally the people around him touseful to rally the people around him to support his his policies.  Bismark would take specific steps toBismark would take specific steps to ensure that unification would be aensure that unification would be a reality.reality.
  13. 13. Bismark and MilitaryBismark and Military MightMight  Bismark’s steps ofBismark’s steps of unification:unification:  War with Denmark 1864War with Denmark 1864 over Schleswig-Holstein.over Schleswig-Holstein.  War with Austria 1866 andWar with Austria 1866 and the consequentthe consequent establishment of the northestablishment of the north German confederation inGerman confederation in 1866. Established the1866. Established the BundesratBundesrat andand Reichstag.Reichstag.  War with France 1870-71War with France 1870-71 to bring the southernto bring the southern states into Germany.states into Germany.
  14. 14. Final Determination ofFinal Determination of BoundariesBoundaries  To finally ensureTo finally ensure unification of allunification of all desired territory,desired territory, Bismark provoked aBismark provoked a fight with the French.fight with the French. The German statesThe German states united, and theunited, and the French had to cedeFrench had to cede Alsace and LorraineAlsace and Lorraine to Germany.
  15. 15.  Germany did notGermany did not become a liberalbecome a liberal democracy, but ademocracy, but a slightly limitedslightly limited monarchy, stillmonarchy, still dominated by thedominated by the old ruling class,old ruling class, and not theand not the bourgeoisie as inbourgeoisie as in other countries.other countries.
  16. 16. Factors That Led to Italian UnificationFactors That Led to Italian Unification  GeographyGeography • Italy is isolatedItaly is isolated • The Alps are to the North, surrounded by oceans.The Alps are to the North, surrounded by oceans. • Geographic isolation allows Italy to develop itsGeographic isolation allows Italy to develop its own ways, customs.own ways, customs.  HistoryHistory • Italians are very proud of their heritage, includingItalians are very proud of their heritage, including the Italian Renaissance.the Italian Renaissance. • Napoleon’s conquest of Italian states led to aNapoleon’s conquest of Italian states led to a desire not to be conquered againdesire not to be conquered again →→ Italian unity.Italian unity.  Efforts of Three Men: Mazzini, Garibaldi, CavourEfforts of Three Men: Mazzini, Garibaldi, Cavour
  17. 17. Giuseppe Mazzini,Giuseppe Mazzini, “Prophet of Italian Unification”“Prophet of Italian Unification”  He was a member of theHe was a member of the CarbonariCarbonari..  The Carbonari were a secretThe Carbonari were a secret group which used violence togroup which used violence to obtain what it wanted.obtain what it wanted.  He formedHe formed Young ItalyYoung Italy,, made up of young peoplemade up of young people whose job it was to arousewhose job it was to arouse enthusiasm for a unitedenthusiasm for a united nation.nation.  Tried revolution but it failed.Tried revolution but it failed.
  18. 18. Count Cavour,Count Cavour, “Architect of Italian Unification”“Architect of Italian Unification”  Count Camillo di Cavour was the “architect” (planner) ofCount Camillo di Cavour was the “architect” (planner) of Piedmont-Sardinia’s revolt against Austria.Piedmont-Sardinia’s revolt against Austria.  This revolt encouraged other Italian states to revolt.This revolt encouraged other Italian states to revolt.
  19. 19. Giuseppe Garibaldi,Giuseppe Garibaldi, “The Sword of Italian Unification”“The Sword of Italian Unification”  Garibaldi first invaded Sicily,Garibaldi first invaded Sicily, then urged them to jointhen urged them to join Piedmont-Sardinia under thePiedmont-Sardinia under the leadership of Victorleadership of Victor Emmanuel.Emmanuel.  Garibaldi handed over allGaribaldi handed over all conquered lands to Victorconquered lands to Victor Emmanuel.Emmanuel.
  20. 20. How Italy was UnitedHow Italy was United  The Addition of the Papal States:The Addition of the Papal States:  Victor Emmanuel conquers the Papal States; stopsVictor Emmanuel conquers the Papal States; stops  Garibaldi’s advance.Garibaldi’s advance.  Unification nears completion.Unification nears completion.  1860: elections were held in all of Italy, except1860: elections were held in all of Italy, except Venetia and Rome.Venetia and Rome.  1861: in the city of Turin, representatives of a united1861: in the city of Turin, representatives of a united nation formed a parliament and proclaimed the establishment ofnation formed a parliament and proclaimed the establishment of Italy under Victor Emmanuel II.Italy under Victor Emmanuel II.
  21. 21. Nationalism dividesNationalism divides two empirestwo empires  Austrian empireAustrian empire  Ottoman empireOttoman empire  Both large empires containing manyBoth large empires containing many ethnic groupsethnic groups
  22. 22.  The ethnic groups in Austrian andThe ethnic groups in Austrian and Ottoman empires wanted independenceOttoman empires wanted independence  The nationalism of these groups helpedThe nationalism of these groups helped to divide and bring down these empiresto divide and bring down these empires
  23. 23. Dual Monarchy inDual Monarchy in AustriaAustria
  24. 24. Dual MonarchyDual Monarchy  Austrian Empire became Austro-Austrian Empire became Austro- Hungarian EmpireHungarian Empire  Austria and Hungary becameAustria and Hungary became independent nationsindependent nations  Both nations ruled by same person:Both nations ruled by same person: Francis JosephFrancis Joseph
  25. 25. Decline of RussiaDecline of Russia  Russia remained an absoluteRussia remained an absolute monarchy while the rest of Europemonarchy while the rest of Europe was developing constitutions andwas developing constitutions and democraciesdemocracies
  26. 26. Emancipation of SerfsEmancipation of Serfs  Serfs (slaves) freed by Alexander IISerfs (slaves) freed by Alexander II 1861.1861.  Despite freedom, many serfs remainedDespite freedom, many serfs remained hopelessly poor, others traveled to citieshopelessly poor, others traveled to cities (industrialization) to work in factories(industrialization) to work in factories following Russia’s rapid industrializationfollowing Russia’s rapid industrialization in 1881.
  27. 27.  Zemstvos: Give Russians a chance aZemstvos: Give Russians a chance a local governmentlocal government  Assassination of Alexander II in 1881Assassination of Alexander II in 1881  His son Nicholas I cracked down onHis son Nicholas I cracked down on liberals and reformersliberals and reformers
  28. 28. PogromsPogroms  Jews forced into ghettosJews forced into ghettos  Two waves of pogroms kill thousands ofTwo waves of pogroms kill thousands of Jews, leave tens of thousands homelessJews, leave tens of thousands homeless  Many Jews leave Russia fro USA andMany Jews leave Russia fro USA and elsewhere.elsewhere.
  29. 29. Bloody Sunday & 1905Bloody Sunday & 1905 RevolutionRevolution  Peaceful march of workers to Czar’sPeaceful march of workers to Czar’s winter palace turns into massacre, troopswinter palace turns into massacre, troops slaughter marchers.slaughter marchers.  News of Bloody Sunday spreads,News of Bloody Sunday spreads, everyone in Russia upseteveryone in Russia upset  General strikeGeneral strike  Nicholas II announces reforms, createsNicholas II announces reforms, creates DumaDuma