Communism &Communism &
Karl Marx and FredericKarl Marx and Frederic
Engels witnessed theEngels witnessed the
horrors ofhorrors of
Together they wroteTogether they wrote
The CommunistThe Communist
Founder Adam Smith Karl Marx
Books The Wealth of Nations The Communist
View ofView of
should notshould not
interfere withinterfere with
Everything isEverything is
owned by theowned by the
closely regulatesclosely regulates
the economythe economy
(sets prices, tells(sets prices, tells
factories what tofactories what to
make, etc.)make, etc.)
Industrial Revolution IIIndustrial Revolution II
The second industrial revolution began inThe second industrial revolution began in
the early 1800’sthe early 1800’s
This is when other countries began toThis is when other countries began to
Before long nations such as Germany andBefore long nations such as Germany and
the United States had surpassed (gonethe United States had surpassed (gone
beyond) Britain.beyond) Britain.
They were producing more goodsThey were producing more goods
They were producing faster and moreThey were producing faster and more
What Effects didWhat Effects did
industrialization have onindustrialization have on
these countries?these countries?
The same effects it had on England.The same effects it had on England.
People working long hours for low payPeople working long hours for low pay
Terrible pollutionTerrible pollution
People being hurt or killed at workPeople being hurt or killed at work
Child LaborChild Labor
Technologies of theTechnologies of the
second Industrialsecond Industrial
1) Steel1) Steel
2) Chemicals2) Chemicals
3) Electricity3) Electricity
4) New methods of production4) New methods of production
Impacts of The SpreadImpacts of The Spread
of the Industrialof the Industrial
1) Population Growth1) Population Growth
2) Growth of Cities2) Growth of Cities
3) New Social Order3) New Social Order
4) Changes in Science and Religion4) Changes in Science and Religion
Bad Science!Bad Science!
Darwin’s theories lead to the racist theoryDarwin’s theories lead to the racist theory
of “Social Darwinism”of “Social Darwinism”
Social Darwinists believe that whiteSocial Darwinists believe that white
people are inherently superior to otherpeople are inherently superior to other
people AND that rich people arepeople AND that rich people are
inherently superior to poor people.inherently superior to poor people.
These ideas will lead to some terribleThese ideas will lead to some terrible
What is Nationalism?What is Nationalism?
Nationalism is a feeling of belonging andNationalism is a feeling of belonging and
loyalty that causes people to think ofloyalty that causes people to think of
themselves as a nation.themselves as a nation.
During the 19During the 19thth
and 20and 20thth
centuries, nationalismcenturies, nationalism
was awas a
powerful force that could:powerful force that could:
Create one nation from many separateCreate one nation from many separate
countries (ex. Italy and Germany)countries (ex. Italy and Germany)
Break one nation up into many countriesBreak one nation up into many countries
(ex. Austria-Hungary, and Turkey)(ex. Austria-Hungary, and Turkey)
Otto von BismarkOtto von Bismark
German unification was ultimatelyGerman unification was ultimately
achieved under the leadership of Ottoachieved under the leadership of Otto
von Bismark, PM of Prussia and of thevon Bismark, PM of Prussia and of the
Junker (wealthy landowner) background,Junker (wealthy landowner) background,
who detested democracy but found itwho detested democracy but found it
useful to rally the people around him touseful to rally the people around him to
support his policies.support his policies.
Bismark would take specific steps toBismark would take specific steps to
ensure that unification would be aensure that unification would be a
Bismark and MilitaryBismark and Military
Bismark’s steps ofBismark’s steps of
War with Denmark 1864War with Denmark 1864
over Schleswig-Holstein.over Schleswig-Holstein.
War with Austria 1866 andWar with Austria 1866 and
the consequentthe consequent
establishment of the northestablishment of the north
German confederation inGerman confederation in
1866. Established the1866. Established the
BundesratBundesrat andand Reichstag.Reichstag.
War with France 1870-71War with France 1870-71
to bring the southernto bring the southern
states into Germany.states into Germany.
Final Determination ofFinal Determination of
To finally ensureTo finally ensure
unification of allunification of all
desired territory,desired territory,
Bismark provoked aBismark provoked a
fight with the French.fight with the French.
The German statesThe German states
united, and theunited, and the
French had to cedeFrench had to cede
Alsace and LorraineAlsace and Lorraine
to Germany.to Germany.
Germany did notGermany did not
become a liberalbecome a liberal
democracy, but ademocracy, but a
slightly limitedslightly limited
monarchy, stillmonarchy, still
dominated by thedominated by the
old ruling class,old ruling class,
and not theand not the
bourgeoisie as inbourgeoisie as in
other countries.other countries.
Factors That Led to Italian UnificationFactors That Led to Italian Unification
• Italy is isolatedItaly is isolated
• The Alps are to the North, surrounded by oceans.The Alps are to the North, surrounded by oceans.
• Geographic isolation allows Italy to develop itsGeographic isolation allows Italy to develop its
own ways, customs.own ways, customs.
• Italians are very proud of their heritage, includingItalians are very proud of their heritage, including
the Italian Renaissance.the Italian Renaissance.
• Napoleon’s conquest of Italian states led to aNapoleon’s conquest of Italian states led to a
desire not to be conquered againdesire not to be conquered again →→ Italian unity.Italian unity.
Efforts of Three Men: Mazzini, Garibaldi, CavourEfforts of Three Men: Mazzini, Garibaldi, Cavour
Giuseppe Mazzini,Giuseppe Mazzini,
“Prophet of Italian Unification”“Prophet of Italian Unification”
He was a member of theHe was a member of the
The Carbonari were a secretThe Carbonari were a secret
group which used violence togroup which used violence to
obtain what it wanted.obtain what it wanted.
He formedHe formed Young ItalyYoung Italy,,
made up of young peoplemade up of young people
whose job it was to arousewhose job it was to arouse
enthusiasm for a unitedenthusiasm for a united
Tried revolution but it failed.Tried revolution but it failed.
Count Cavour,Count Cavour,
“Architect of Italian Unification”“Architect of Italian Unification”
Count Camillo di Cavour was the “architect” (planner) ofCount Camillo di Cavour was the “architect” (planner) of
Piedmont-Sardinia’s revolt against Austria.Piedmont-Sardinia’s revolt against Austria.
This revolt encouraged other Italian states to revolt.This revolt encouraged other Italian states to revolt.
Giuseppe Garibaldi,Giuseppe Garibaldi,
“The Sword of Italian Unification”“The Sword of Italian Unification”
Garibaldi first invaded Sicily,Garibaldi first invaded Sicily,
then urged them to jointhen urged them to join
Piedmont-Sardinia under thePiedmont-Sardinia under the
leadership of Victorleadership of Victor
Garibaldi handed over allGaribaldi handed over all
conquered lands to Victorconquered lands to Victor
How Italy was UnitedHow Italy was United
The Addition of the Papal States:The Addition of the Papal States:
Victor Emmanuel conquers the Papal States; stopsVictor Emmanuel conquers the Papal States; stops
Garibaldi’s advance.Garibaldi’s advance.
Unification nears completion.Unification nears completion.
1860: elections were held in all of Italy, except1860: elections were held in all of Italy, except
Venetia and Rome.Venetia and Rome.
1861: in the city of Turin, representatives of a united1861: in the city of Turin, representatives of a united
nation formed a parliament and proclaimed the establishment ofnation formed a parliament and proclaimed the establishment of
Italy under Victor Emmanuel II.Italy under Victor Emmanuel II.
Nationalism dividesNationalism divides
two empirestwo empires
Austrian empireAustrian empire
Ottoman empireOttoman empire
Both large empires containing manyBoth large empires containing many
ethnic groupsethnic groups
The ethnic groups in Austrian andThe ethnic groups in Austrian and
Ottoman empires wanted independenceOttoman empires wanted independence
The nationalism of these groups helpedThe nationalism of these groups helped
to divide and bring down these empiresto divide and bring down these empires
Dual Monarchy inDual Monarchy in
Dual MonarchyDual Monarchy
Austrian Empire became Austro-Austrian Empire became Austro-
Hungarian EmpireHungarian Empire
Austria and Hungary becameAustria and Hungary became
independent nationsindependent nations
Both nations ruled by same person:Both nations ruled by same person:
Francis JosephFrancis Joseph
Decline of RussiaDecline of Russia
Russia remained an absoluteRussia remained an absolute
monarchy while the rest of Europemonarchy while the rest of Europe
was developing constitutions andwas developing constitutions and
Emancipation of SerfsEmancipation of Serfs
Serfs (slaves) freed by Alexander IISerfs (slaves) freed by Alexander II
Despite freedom, many serfs remainedDespite freedom, many serfs remained
hopelessly poor, others traveled to citieshopelessly poor, others traveled to cities
(industrialization) to work in factories(industrialization) to work in factories
following Russia’s rapid industrializationfollowing Russia’s rapid industrialization
in 1881.in 1881.
Zemstvos: Give Russians a chance aZemstvos: Give Russians a chance a
local governmentlocal government
Assassination of Alexander II in 1881Assassination of Alexander II in 1881
His son Nicholas I cracked down onHis son Nicholas I cracked down on
liberals and reformersliberals and reformers
Jews forced into ghettosJews forced into ghettos
Two waves of pogroms kill thousands ofTwo waves of pogroms kill thousands of
Jews, leave tens of thousands homelessJews, leave tens of thousands homeless
Many Jews leave Russia fro USA andMany Jews leave Russia fro USA and
Bloody Sunday & 1905Bloody Sunday & 1905
Peaceful march of workers to Czar’sPeaceful march of workers to Czar’s
winter palace turns into massacre, troopswinter palace turns into massacre, troops
slaughter marchers.slaughter marchers.
News of Bloody Sunday spreads,News of Bloody Sunday spreads,
everyone in Russia upseteveryone in Russia upset
General strikeGeneral strike
Nicholas II announces reforms, createsNicholas II announces reforms, creates