E.Beer.Presentation

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Politeness Presentation

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E.Beer.Presentation

  1. 1. POLITENESS STRATEGIES AND REAL ESTATE AGENTS Politeness
  2. 2. Brief overview <ul><li>Discuss politeness theory and some of the ways in which strategies are used within a Real Estate context </li></ul><ul><li>Give examples of real-life situations to illustrate ideas </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Politeness Theory? <ul><li>Politeness theory was put forward by Brown and Levinson (1987). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Politeness theory asserts that the strategies individuals use depend on the context of the social relationship between the speakers” (Ambady et all, 1996) </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Face? <ul><li>The term face may be defined as the “positive social value a person effectively claims for himself” (Goffman, 1967) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Face is not what one thinks of oneself, but rather, what one thinks others should think of ones worth” (Lim, 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Face : one’s desire to be sociable and liked. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative face : one’s want to privacy, one’s right not to participate in discourse </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Politeness <ul><li>Negative Politeness </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When the speaker tries to minimise imposition and interaction required from the other party </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive Politeness </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appeals to solidarty and invites participation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Politeness strategies are used to save a persons ‘face’. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Interviewee <ul><li>Steph is a Real Estate Agent in Wellington </li></ul><ul><li>Everyday she has to deal with situations which could be potentially threatening to her or her listeners face. </li></ul><ul><li>A Face Threatening Act (FTA) is one which could be damaging to ones face. Politeness strategies are used to avoid/ minimize a FTA. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Silence is Golden <ul><li>Steph said often the best way to deal with difficult clients was to just stay quiet. “Being silent is very powerful” </li></ul><ul><li>“ As power over the listener increases, more politeness is needed to communicate face-threatening acts” ( Ambady et all, 1996) – The more powerful the other, the more politeness one must use </li></ul><ul><li>“ I just stop talking” “Let them rant until they get it all out, then begin to address the issues” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Threats to positive face – Accusations & Complaints <ul><li>Real Estate agents are often faced with people complaining about things. </li></ul><ul><li>Expressions of disapproval and criticism are Positive FTA’s – they impede on the listeners want for approval </li></ul><ul><li>“ First I would acknowledge it was a real issue for them”, “De-escalation – buy into their perception even if I don’t agree, find out specifically what it is that they are unhappy with” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Threats to negative face – Orders & Requests <ul><li>Being told what to do, can be threatening to the listeners negative face - it impedes on their need for individuality. </li></ul><ul><li>Clients can be very pushy </li></ul><ul><li>It took Steph a long time to be able to set-up boundaries with clients and not answer the phone every time it rang. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Politeness and Humor <ul><li>Humor is something that is only appropriate in some contexts. </li></ul><ul><li>Ngaio Gorge </li></ul><ul><li>The statement could taint the view of potential buyers </li></ul><ul><li>Here, humor served to relax the situation and de-escalate it. </li></ul><ul><li>But, as the women didn’t understand the joke it is possible Steph also, inadvertently, threatened the woman’s positive face by embarrassing her </li></ul>
  11. 11. Conclusion <ul><li>Politeness is more than just saying Please and Thank-you </li></ul><ul><li>Many ways in which your face could be threatened </li></ul><ul><li>Just as many ways of dealing with it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>De-escalation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politeness is something we all must work on everyday if we wish to create and maintain relationships. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. References <ul><li>Ambandy, N., Koo, J., Lee, F., & Rosenthal, R. (1996). More than words: Linguistic and non-linguistic politeness in two cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 996-101. </li></ul><ul><li>Brown, P., & Levinson, S. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage . Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Interview with Steph*, Septemeber, 14 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Lim. (1994). Language, Discourse & Power lecture notes, Semester 1, Palmerston North, NZ. </li></ul><ul><li>ttp://logos.uoregon.edu/explore/socioling/politeness.html </li></ul>

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