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WAUKESHA COUNTY TECHNICAL COLLEGE
Nursing Clinical Simulation as a Teaching Tool

The	
  Importance	
  of	
  Data-­‐Based	
  Decisions	
  
        for	
  Curriculum	
  Development:	
  	
  
Why	
  Research	
  is	
  Everyone’s	
  Responsibility	
  
                          Eric	
  B.	
  Bauman,	
  PhD	
  
                                     RN,	
  Paramedic	
  
               DeVry,	
  Inc	
  Healthcare	
  Group	
  
                 Clinical	
  Playground	
  LLC	
  

            . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
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  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  .	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
                                                                                         ©Bauman	
  2012	
  All	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  
Professional	
  AffiliaIons	
  	
  
                              Disclosures/Conflict	
  of	
  Interest	
  	
  

DeVry	
  Inc.,	
  Healthcare	
  Group	
  
             •  Associate	
  Director	
  For	
  SimulaIon	
  –	
  Center	
  for	
  SimulaIon	
  Excellence	
  	
  
Managing	
  Member	
  –	
  Clinical	
  Playground,	
  LLC	
  
Managing	
  Member	
  –	
  Forensic	
  AnalyIcs,	
  LLC	
  
Games+Learning+Society	
  
             •  Affiliate	
  
Society	
  for	
  SimulaIon	
  in	
  Healthcare	
  (SSH)	
  
             •  Chair	
  –	
  Website	
  CommiVee	
  
             •  Co-­‐Chair	
  	
  –	
  Serious	
  Games	
  and	
  Virtual	
  Environments	
  Special	
  Interest	
  Group	
  	
  
Springer	
  –	
  contract	
  for	
  forthcoming	
  book	
  on	
  Game-­‐Based	
  learning	
  and	
  Clinical	
  EducaIon	
  
Adjunct	
  Faculty	
  –	
  CAE	
  Healthcare	
  
Relevant	
  Stock	
  –	
  CAE,	
  Zynga,	
  Pfizer,	
  GE	
  


                                . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  .	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
                                                                                                                   ©Bauman	
  2012	
  All	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  
ObjecIves	
  

•  ParIcipants	
  will	
  learn	
  the	
  importance	
  of	
  objecIve	
  driven	
  
   scenario	
  development	
  	
  
•  ParIcipants	
  will	
  explore	
  the	
  concept	
  of	
  fit	
  as	
  it	
  relates	
  to	
  
   simulaIon-­‐based	
  educaIonal	
  intervenIons	
  	
  
•  ParIcipants	
  will	
  be	
  able	
  to	
  idenIfy	
  how	
  educaIonal	
  
   research	
  influences	
  curriculum	
  decisions	
  
•  ParIcipants	
  will	
  discuss	
  and	
  explore	
  how	
  they	
  can	
  
   contribute	
  to	
  research	
  in	
  their	
  educaIonal	
  se_ng	
  and	
  
   develop	
  lesson	
  objecIves	
  that	
  meet	
  curriculum	
  goals	
  


                       . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  .	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
                                                                                                    ©Bauman	
  2012	
  All	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  
ObjecIve	
  Driven	
  Scenario	
  Development	
  	
  
 Why	
  is	
  ObjecIve	
  Driven	
  Scenario	
  Development	
  important?	
  

•  Poorly	
  wriVen	
  or	
  executed	
  scenarios	
  are	
  
   confusing	
  and	
  frustraIng	
  at	
  best	
  	
  

•  Worse	
  -­‐	
  they	
  may	
  insIll	
  poor	
  pracIce	
  
   habits	
  and	
  allow	
  learners	
  to	
  misinterpret	
  
   important	
  cues	
  relevant	
  to	
  future	
  pracIce	
  


             . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  .	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
                                                                                          ©Bauman	
  2012	
  All	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  
ObjecIve	
  Driven	
  Scenario	
  Development	
  	
  
       Why	
  is	
  ObjecIve	
  Driven	
  Scenario	
  Development	
  important?	
  


We	
  need	
  to	
  be	
  able	
  figure	
  out	
  why	
  our	
  students	
  get	
  to	
  very	
  
             dangerous	
  places	
  for	
  very	
  good	
  reasons!	
  


   We	
  are	
  ocen	
  the	
  reason	
  why	
  our	
  students	
  get	
  to	
  these	
  
                                dangerous	
  places!	
  



                    . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  .	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
                                                                                                 ©Bauman	
  2012	
  All	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  
ObjecIve	
  Driven	
  Scenario	
  Development	
  	
  
                       Picking	
  your	
  ObjecIve	
  


•  What	
  is	
  it	
  you	
  want	
  your	
  students	
  to	
  learn	
  
   and	
  what	
  is	
  the	
  basis	
  for	
  this	
  objecIve?	
  
•  Who	
  is	
  your	
  audience?	
  
•  Can	
  or	
  should	
  a	
  scenario	
  have	
  different	
  
   objecIves	
  or	
  more	
  than	
  one	
  objecIve	
  	
  	
  




                                                                  ©Bauman	
  2012	
  All	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  
ObjecIve	
  Driven	
  Scenario	
  Development	
  	
  
                     Tease	
  out	
  the	
  ObjecIve[s]	
  


•  The	
  high-­‐fidelity	
  learning	
  environment	
  is	
  
   best	
  suited	
  facilitaIng	
  behavioral	
  change	
  
   –  Do	
  not	
  try	
  to	
  make	
  the	
  scenario	
  excessively	
  
      hard	
  or	
  tricky	
  	
  
   –  Scenarios	
  must	
  be	
  realisIc	
  
   –  Scenarios	
  must	
  be	
  situated	
  
   –  Scenarios	
  should	
  be	
  engaging	
  -­‐	
  promoIng	
  
      interacIon	
  

                                                                      ©Bauman	
  2012	
  All	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  
ObjecIve	
  Driven	
  Scenario	
  Development	
  	
  
                         Novice	
  Learners	
  


•  Consider	
  scenarios	
  that	
  focus	
  on	
  just	
  ONE	
  
   objecIve	
  
    –  Calling	
  for	
  Help	
  
    –  Administering	
  a	
  medicaIon	
  
    –  Maintaining	
  the	
  airway	
  
    –  Assessing	
  the	
  paIent	
  	
  




                                                            ©Bauman	
  2012	
  All	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  
ObjecIve	
  Driven	
  Scenario	
  Development	
  	
  
              Intermediate	
  and	
  Advanced	
  Learners	
  

•  Consider	
  the	
  introducIon	
  of	
  events	
  that	
  
   focus	
  on	
  serial	
  objecAves	
  rather	
  than	
  
   mulIple	
  “All-­‐At-­‐Once”	
  events	
  
   –  Overly	
  complicated	
  scenarios	
  are	
  difficult	
  to	
  
      evaluate	
  	
  
       •  Unpredictable	
  
       •  Ocen	
  lack	
  fidelity	
  
       •  Can	
  be	
  very	
  confusing	
  for	
  learners	
  -­‐	
  and	
  are	
  ocen	
  
          not	
  believable	
  


                                                                                   ©Bauman	
  2012	
  All	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  
ObjecIve	
  Driven	
  Scenario	
  Development	
  	
  
                     Research	
  and	
  Data	
  Driven	
  ObjecIves	
  


          How	
  do	
  I	
  know	
  what	
  is	
  and	
  is	
  not…	
  
            	
  Research	
  and	
  Data	
  Driven?	
  

SimulaIon	
  scenarios	
  and	
  their	
  objecIves	
  should	
  support	
  your	
  curriculum	
  


  Your	
  curriculum	
  should	
  reflect	
  accreditaIon	
  guidelines	
  

                       …and	
  best	
  pracIces!	
  	
  
                                                                                  ©Bauman	
  2012	
  All	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  
ObjecIve	
  Driven	
  Scenario	
  Development	
  	
  
                       Research	
  and	
  Data	
  Driven	
  ObjecIves	
  


  SimulaIon	
  scenarios	
  and	
  their	
  objecIves	
  should	
  support	
  your	
  curriculum	
  


   Commission	
  on	
  Collegiate	
  Nursing	
  EducaIon	
  (CCNE)	
  	
  
NaIonal	
  League	
  for	
  Nursing	
  AccrediIng	
  Commission	
  (NLNAC)	
  
                 School	
  Curriculum	
  CommiVee	
  	
  
                                                                                    ©Bauman	
  2012	
  All	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  
ObjecIve	
  Driven	
  Scenario	
  Development	
  	
  
                    Research	
  and	
  Data	
  Driven	
  ObjecIves	
  
                                                                         ©Bauman	
  2012	
  All	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  



                    EvaluaIng	
  the	
  Source	
  
Best	
  PracIces	
  are	
  defined	
  by	
  research	
  and	
  are	
  peer	
  
reviewed:	
  	
  
   •  	
  
        Peer	
  Reviewed	
  Journals 	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
  	
  
   •  	
  
        Other	
  Peer	
  Reviewed	
  PublicaIons	
  
   •  	
  Books	
  
   •  	
  White	
  Papers	
  
   •  	
  
        Government	
  PublicaIons/Websites	
  
   •  	
  
        VeVed	
  Conference	
  PresentaIons	
  
ObjecIve	
  Driven	
  Scenario	
  Development	
  	
  
                      Research	
  and	
  Data	
  Driven	
  ObjecIves	
  
                                                                           ©Bauman	
  2012	
  All	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  


         In	
  General	
  Research	
  ReporIng	
  Should	
  Include	
  
•          Problem	
  statement	
  
           	
  
•          	
  Purpose	
  and	
  research	
  quesIons	
  
•          Hypothesis	
  
           	
  
•          Literature	
  review	
  
           	
  
•          	
  Framework	
  or	
  theory	
  
• 	
     	
  Methods	
  secIon	
  
•          Results	
  secIon	
  based	
  on	
  analysis	
  of	
  a	
  dataset	
  
           	
  
•          	
  Findings	
  
•          Discussion	
  secIon	
  	
  
           	
  
ObjecIve	
  Driven	
  Scenario	
  Development	
  	
  
                                                Research	
  and	
  Data	
  Driven	
  ObjecIves	
  
                                                                                                                                                   ©Bauman	
  2012	
  All	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  



                                                           Types	
  of	
  Research	
  
                            QualitaAve	
                                                           QuanAtaAve	
  

       Quality	
  of	
  Design	
                                                      Experimental	
  Design	
  

       TheoreIcal	
  Basis	
                                                          Quasi	
  Experimental	
  Design	
  

       Quality	
  of	
  Analysis	
                                                    ObservaIonal	
  Study	
  


            (QualitaIve	
  facets	
  are	
  NOT	
  linear	
  -­‐	
  they	
  are	
             (Types	
  of	
  design	
  are	
  hierarchical)	
  
                              cumulaIve)	
  	
  	
  



QualitaIve	
  Research	
  can	
  and	
  does	
  stand	
  on	
  it’s	
  own	
  but	
  is	
  also	
  ocen	
  used	
  to	
  inform	
  quanItaIve	
  research	
  
ObjecIve	
  Driven	
  Scenario	
  Development	
  	
  
                                                            Resources	
                                            ©Bauman	
  2012	
  All	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  


SimulaIon	
  in	
  Healthcare:	
  The	
  Journal	
  of	
  the	
  Society	
  for	
  SimulaIon	
  in	
  Healthcare	
  (SSH)	
  

hVp://www.ssih.org/	
  
hVp://journals.lww.com/simulaIoninhealthcare/pages/default.aspx	
  

Clinical	
  SimulaIon	
  in	
  Nursing:	
  The	
  Journal	
  for	
  the	
  InternaIonal	
  Nursing	
  AssociaIon	
  for	
  Clinical	
  
SimulaIon	
  and	
  Learning	
  (INACSL)	
  

hVp://www.inacsl.org/INACSL_2010/	
  
hVp://www.nursingsimulaIon.org/	
  

Games	
  and	
  SimulaIon	
  for	
  Healthcare	
  online	
  library	
  and	
  portal	
  

hVp://healthcaregames.wisc.edu/	
  
ObjecIve	
  Driven	
  Scenario	
  Development	
  	
  
                                    Research	
  and	
  Data	
  Driven	
  ObjecIves	
  
                                                                                                                          ©Bauman	
  2012	
  All	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  



            Challenges	
  related	
  to	
  best	
  pracIces!	
  	
  
           American	
  Heart	
  AssociaIon	
  ResuscitaIon	
  Guidelines	
  

                    Established	
  and	
  Published	
  Guidelines	
  by	
  AHA	
  

    Best	
  PracIces	
  based	
  on	
  Peer	
  Reviewed	
  ScienIfic	
  Literature	
  
Ewy,	
  G.	
  (2007).	
  Cardiac	
  arrest—guideline	
  changes	
  urgently	
  needed.	
  Lancet,	
  369(1),	
  882-­‐884.	
  
Kellum,	
  M.,	
  Kennedy,	
  K.W.,	
  Ewy,	
  G.	
  (2006).	
  Cardiocerebral	
  ResuscitaIon	
  Improves	
  Survival	
  ofPaIents	
  with	
  
Out-­‐of-­‐Hospital	
  Cardiac	
  Arrest.	
  The	
  American	
  Journal	
  of	
  Medicine.	
  119(4),	
  335-­‐349.	
  
Kanto-­‐SOS	
  Study	
  Group	
  (2007).	
  Cardiopulmonary	
  resuscitaIon	
  by	
  bystanders	
  with	
  chest	
  compression	
  only	
  
(SOS-­‐KANTO):	
  an	
  observaIonal	
  study.	
  Lancet,	
  369(1),	
  920-­‐926.	
  
ObjecIve	
  Driven	
  Scenario	
  Development	
  	
  
                                         Research	
  and	
  Data	
  Driven	
  ObjecIves	
  
                                                                                                                                         ©Bauman	
  2012	
  All	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  



             Challenges	
  related	
  to	
  best	
  pracIces!	
  	
  
        SimulaIon-­‐based	
  Experience	
  counIng	
  for	
  Clinical	
  hours	
  
Gore,	
  T.,	
  Van	
  Gele,	
  P.,	
  Ravert,	
  P.,	
  &	
  Mabire,	
  C.	
  (2012).	
  A	
  Survey	
  of	
  INACSL	
  membership	
  about	
  simulaIon	
  use.	
  
Clinical	
  Simula:on	
  in	
  Nursing,	
  8(4),	
  e125-­‐e133.	
  

Faragher,	
  J.F.,	
  Boese,	
  T.,	
  &	
  Decker,	
  S.,	
  Sando,	
  C.	
  (2011).	
  Standards	
  of	
  best	
  pracIce:	
  SimulaIon.	
  Simula:on	
  in	
  
Nursing,	
  7(4),	
  S1-­‐S20.	
  


Nursing	
  Midwifery	
  Council	
  (2007).	
  Nursing	
  and	
  Midwifery	
  Council	
  Circular,	
  36(2007),	
  United	
  Kingdom.	
  


Utah	
  AdministraIve	
  Code,	
  Nurse	
  PracIce	
  Act,	
  Rule	
  R156-­‐31b,	
  SecIon	
  E,	
  Sub	
  ii.	
  Accessed	
  electronically	
  
01/15/2012	
  


Wisconsin	
  Department	
  of	
  Health	
  Services,	
  WMS	
  SecIon	
  (2011).	
  Wisconsin	
  Standardized	
  Paramedic	
  
Curriculum.	
  
ObjecIve	
  Driven	
  Scenario	
  Development	
  	
  
                           Research	
  and	
  Data	
  Driven	
  ObjecIves	
  
                                                                                          ©Bauman	
  2012	
  All	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  



         Challenges	
  related	
  to	
  best	
  pracIces!	
  	
  
Can	
  be	
  difficult	
  to	
  adequately	
  evaluate	
  sources	
  

The	
  research	
  associated	
  with	
  best	
  pracIces	
  and	
  simulaIon	
  and	
  game-­‐
based	
  learning	
  in	
  the	
  health	
  sciences	
  is	
  sIll	
  immature	
  	
  

Best	
  pracIce	
  must	
  relate	
  not	
  only	
  to	
  paIent	
  outcome	
  but	
  also	
  clinical	
  
educaIon	
  


       BeVer	
  PreparaIon	
  =	
  	
  BeVer	
  PracIce	
  =	
  BeVer	
  PaIent	
  Outcome	
  
TranslaIonal	
  Effect	
  
                                                                               ©Bauman	
  2012	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  




BeVer	
  PreparaIon	
  =	
  	
  PracIce	
  PracIce	
  =	
  BeVer	
  PaIent	
  Outcome	
  
Good	
  Fit	
  and	
  SimulaIon	
  
                                                                                                       ©Bauman	
  2012	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  


•  Are	
  you	
  using	
  simulaIon	
  to	
  meet	
  your	
  needs	
  or	
  your	
  students	
  needs	
  

•  Using	
  technology	
  for	
  the	
  sake	
  of	
  technology	
  ocen	
  leaves	
  students	
  confused	
  
   and	
  faculty	
  frustrated	
  	
  

•  Understand	
  that	
  all	
  forms	
  of	
  technology	
  have	
  their	
  limitaIons	
  

•  Play	
  down	
  the	
  “coolness”	
  and	
  “be-­‐all…	
  end	
  all”	
  factor	
  with	
  students.	
  	
  




R.	
  Kyle	
  
Good	
  Fit	
  and	
  SimulaIon	
  

•  Mannikin-­‐based	
  simulaIon	
  taking	
  place	
  in	
  
   created	
  spaces	
  	
  or	
  simulaIon	
  occurring	
  in	
  digital	
  
   environments	
  are	
  best	
  leveraged	
  for	
  lessons	
  that	
  
   encompass	
  designed	
  experiences	
  that	
  focus	
  on	
  
   behavioral	
  or	
  decision	
  aspects	
  of	
  pracIce	
  and	
  
   some	
  forms	
  of	
  targeted	
  psychomotor	
  training…	
  
    –  AcculturaIon	
  
    –  Decision	
  Making	
  
    –  Team	
  Training	
  	
  
    –  Workload/Time	
  Management	
  
    –  Procedural	
  DemonstraIon	
  
               . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  .	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
                                                                                               ©Bauman	
  2012	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  
Good	
  Fit	
  and	
  SimulaIon	
  
               RelaIonship	
  between	
  objecIves	
  and	
  Fit	
  
                 Remember	
  ObjecAves	
  First	
  
          …	
  Everything	
  else	
  follows,	
  including:	
  

                                     Technology	
  

In	
  other	
  words	
  how	
  can	
  technology	
  help	
  you	
  meet	
  
                your	
  curriculum	
  objecAves!!!!!!!	
  

                . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  .	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
                                                                                                ©Bauman	
  2012	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  
Research	
  and	
  Curriculum	
  
   	
  New	
  Curricula	
  and	
  the	
  Technology	
  supporIng	
  it	
  should	
  be	
  evaluated	
  
                   for	
  its	
  potenIal	
  fit	
  within	
  an	
  exisIng	
  curriculum	
  	
  




IntegraIng	
  technology	
  and	
  teaching	
  techniques	
  that	
  include	
  SimulaIon	
  
  &	
  Game-­‐Based	
  Learning	
  into	
  your	
  curriculum	
  represents	
  a	
  change	
  in	
  
                   your	
  curriculum	
  and	
  must	
  be	
  evaluated	
  
                                                                                       ©Bauman	
  2012	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  
Research	
  and	
  Curriculum	
  
                                                                                                  ©Bauman	
  2012	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  



                       Research:	
  Best	
  PracIces	
  &	
  ContribuIon…	
  

•  The	
  concept	
  of	
  Best	
  PracIce	
  applies	
  to	
  educaIonal	
  processes	
  as	
  
   well	
  as	
  paIent	
  intervenIons	
  and	
  outcomes!	
  
•  InvesIgaIon	
  defines	
  Best	
  PracIce?	
  
•  Defining	
  Best	
  PracIce	
  is	
  fluid?	
  
    –  Best	
  PracIce	
  is	
  defined	
  by	
  current	
  knowledge.	
  The	
  knowledge	
  base	
  of	
  
       any	
  discipline,	
  parIcularly	
  in	
  the	
  health	
  and	
  biological	
  sciences	
  is	
  rapidly	
  
       evolving	
  and	
  changing.	
  
Your	
  ContribuIon	
  to	
  Research	
  and	
  Curriculum	
  
                                                                                                                           ©Bauman	
  2012	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  



                                              Why	
  should	
  I	
  contribute?	
  
•  Curriculum	
  Change	
  is	
  expensive	
  and	
  risky	
  given	
  the	
  tradiIonal	
  high	
  pass	
  rates	
  
   associated	
  with	
  the	
  NCLEX	
  
      –  It	
  is	
  your	
  job	
  to	
  validate	
  both	
  curriculum	
  and	
  pedagogy	
  used	
  to	
  implement	
  your	
  curriculum	
  
      –  Graduate	
  marketability	
  and	
  success	
  are	
  a	
  direct	
  reflecIon	
  of	
  your	
  program:	
  On-­‐boarding	
  and	
  
         new	
  hire	
  orientaIon	
  is	
  expensive.	
  Are	
  you	
  grads	
  standouts	
  for	
  the	
  right	
  reasons?	
  

•  SimulaIon	
  is	
  here	
  to	
  stay	
  many	
  schools	
  have	
  already	
  invested	
  in	
  the	
  hardware	
  
      –  AdministraIve	
  Code	
  and	
  AccreditaIon	
  Agencies	
  are	
  going	
  to	
  require	
  simulaIon:	
  Are	
  you	
  
         going	
  to	
  meet	
  minimum	
  standards	
  or	
  define	
  best	
  pracIce?	
  
      –  What	
  is	
  your	
  responsibility	
  to	
  the	
  profession	
  and	
  your	
  graduates:	
  Are	
  you	
  leveraging	
  
         innovaIon	
  to	
  define	
  educaIonal	
  pracIce?	
  
Your	
  ContribuIon	
  to	
  Research	
  and	
  Curriculum	
  
                                                                                                     ©Bauman	
  2012	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  



                                         How	
  do	
  I	
  contribute?	
  

•  All	
  of	
  your	
  all	
  new	
  and	
  exisIng	
  curriculum	
  should	
  be	
  evaluated	
  
•  Start	
  Small:	
  “All”	
  contribuIons	
  are	
  important	
  to	
  the	
  field	
  
     –  Look	
  for	
  projects	
  that	
  represent	
  program	
  CQI	
  or	
  Internal	
  Curriculum	
  validaIons	
  
     –  Avoid	
  student	
  percepIon-­‐based	
  research	
  
•  Partner	
  with	
  more	
  experienced	
  invesIgators	
  and	
  intuiIons	
  
•  Use	
  consultants	
  to	
  increase	
  the	
  breadth	
  of	
  your	
  experience	
  
•  Set	
  up	
  research	
  guidelines	
  and	
  expectaIons	
  at	
  your	
  insItuIon	
  
Your	
  ContribuIon	
  to	
  Research	
  and	
  Curriculum	
  
                                                                                                                                                             ©Bauman	
  2012	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  



   An	
  evaluaIon	
  of	
  bag-­‐valve-­‐mask	
  venIlaIon	
  using	
  an	
  ergonomically	
  
 designed	
  face-­‐mask	
  among	
  novice	
  users:	
  a	
  simulaIon-­‐based	
  pilot	
  study	
  




               Evaluated	
  and	
  compared	
  	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  a	
  standard	
  facemask	
  for	
  
               posiIve	
  pressure	
  venIlaIon	
  and	
  an	
  ergonomically	
  designed	
  
                                    facemask	
  among	
  novice	
  users	
  	
  	
  
Bauman,	
  E.B.,	
  Joffe,	
  A.M.,	
  Lenz,	
  L.,	
  Hetzel,	
  S.J.,	
  DeVries,	
  S.A.,	
  Seider,	
  S.P.	
  (2010).	
  An	
  evaluaIon	
  of	
  bag-­‐valve-­‐mask	
  venIlaIon	
  
using	
  an	
  ergonomically	
  designed	
  face-­‐mask	
  among	
  novice	
  users:	
  a	
  simulaIon-­‐based	
  pilot	
  study.	
  Resuscita:on	
  81(2010),	
  
1161-­‐1165,	
  doi:	
  10.1016/j.resuscitaIon.2010.05.005.	
  	
  
Bag-­‐valve-­‐mask	
  study	
  data	
  
                                                                                                                                            ©Bauman	
  2012	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  



        Partnership	
  between	
  Western	
  Technical	
  College	
  &	
  UW-­‐Madison	
  




The	
  effect	
  of	
  each	
  mask	
  during	
  venIlaIon	
  over	
  Ime	
  was	
  assessed	
  using	
  repeated-­‐measures	
  ANOVA.	
  Assessment	
  of	
  mask	
  
   technique	
  among	
  parIcipants	
  and	
  associaIon	
  between	
  mask	
  type	
  and	
  hand	
  reposiIoning	
  were	
  analyzed	
  using	
  the	
  
                                Wilcoxon-­‐Rank	
  Sum	
  Test	
  and	
  McNemar’s	
  paired	
  proporIons	
  test,	
  respecIvely.	
  	
  
Wrap-­‐up	
  &	
  Review	
  
                                                                                                     ©Bauman	
  2012	
  	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  



•  We	
  Reviewed	
  and	
  Emphasized	
  the	
  importance	
  of	
  objecIve	
  
   driven	
  scenario	
  development	
  	
  
•  We	
  explored	
  and	
  emphasized	
  the	
  concept	
  of	
  fit	
  as	
  it	
  relates	
  
   to	
  simulaIon-­‐based	
  educaIonal	
  intervenIons	
  	
  
•  We	
  idenIfied	
  and	
  discussed	
  how	
  educaIonal	
  research	
  
   influences	
  curriculum	
  decisions	
  
•  We	
  discussed	
  and	
  explored	
  how	
  parIcipants	
  can	
  contribute	
  
   to	
  research	
  in	
  their	
  educaIonal	
  se_ng	
  and	
  develop	
  lesson	
  
   objecIves	
  that	
  meet	
  curriculum	
  goals	
  

                     . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  . 	
  .	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
R.	
  Kyle	
  
QuesIons?	
  
                                 ©Bauman	
  2012	
  	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  




R.	
  Kyle	
  
Selected	
  References	
  &	
  Recommended	
  Readings	
  
Bauman,	
  E.	
  (2007).	
  High	
  fidelity	
  simulaIon	
  in	
  healthcare.	
  Ph.D.	
  dissertaIon,	
  The	
  University	
  of	
  Wisconsin-­‐Madison,	
  United	
  States.	
  DissertaIons	
  &	
  Thesis	
  @	
  CIC	
  InsItuIons	
  database.	
  (PublicaIon	
  no.	
  AAT	
  3294196)	
  	
  

Bauman,	
  E.	
  B.	
  (2012).	
  Game-­‐based	
  Teaching	
  and	
  Simula:on	
  in	
  Nursing	
  &	
  Healthcare.	
  New	
  York,	
  NY:	
  Springer	
  Publishing	
  Company.	
  	
  


Bauman,	
  E.	
  (2010).	
  Virtual	
  reality	
  and	
  game-­‐based	
  clinical	
  educaIon.	
  In	
  Gaberson,	
  K.B.,	
  &	
  Oermann,	
  M.H.	
  (Eds)	
  Clinical	
  teaching	
  strategies	
  in	
  nursing	
  educa:on	
  (3rd	
  ed).New	
  York,	
  Springer	
  Publishing	
  Company.	
  

Bauman,	
  E.B.	
  and	
  Games,	
  I.A.	
  (2011).	
  Contemporary	
  theory	
  for	
  immersive	
  worlds:	
  Addressing	
  engagement,	
  culture,	
  and	
  diversity.	
  In	
  Cheney,	
  A.	
  and	
  Sanders,	
  R.	
  (Eds)	
  Teaching	
  and	
  Learning	
  in	
  3D	
  Immersive	
  Worlds:	
  Pedagogical	
  models	
  and	
  construc:vist	
  approaches.	
  IGI	
  Global.	
  	
  

Bauman,	
  E.B.,	
  Joffe,	
  A.M.,	
  Lenz,	
  L.,	
  Hetzel,	
  S.J.,	
  DeVries,	
  S.A.,	
  Seider,	
  S.P.	
  (2010).	
  An	
  evaluaIon	
  of	
  bag-­‐valve-­‐mask	
  venIlaIon	
  using	
  an	
  ergonomically	
  designed	
  face-­‐mask	
  among	
  novice	
  users:	
  a	
  simulaIon-­‐based	
  pilot	
  study.	
  Resuscita:on	
  81(2010),	
  1161-­‐1165,	
  doi:	
  10.1016/j.resuscitaIon.2010.05.005.	
  	
  

Benner,	
  P.	
  (1984).	
  From	
  novice	
  to	
  expert:	
  Excellence	
  and	
  power	
  in	
  clinical	
  nursing	
  prac:ce.	
  Menlo	
  Park,	
  CA:	
  Addison-­‐Wesley.	
  

Benner,	
  P.,	
  Tanner,	
  C.,	
  &	
  Chesla,	
  C.	
  (2009).	
  Exper:se	
  in	
  nursing:	
  Caring,	
  clinical	
  judgment,	
  and	
  ethics.	
  New	
  York:	
  Springer	
  Publishing	
  Company	
  	
  

Culhane-­‐Pera,	
  K.A.,	
  Reif,	
  C.,	
  Egli,	
  E.,	
  Baker,	
  N.J.,	
  and	
  Kassekert	
  (1997).	
  A	
  curriculum	
  for	
  mulIcultural	
  educaIon	
  in	
  family	
  medicine.	
  Family	
  Medicine,	
  29(10),	
  719-­‐723.	
  

Ewy,	
  G.	
  (2007).	
  Cardiac	
  arrest—guideline	
  changes	
  urgently	
  needed.	
  Lancet,	
  369(1),	
  882-­‐884.	
  

Faragher,	
  J.F.,	
  Boese,	
  T.,	
  &	
  Decker,	
  S.,	
  Sando,	
  C.	
  (2011).	
  Standards	
  of	
  best	
  pracIce:	
  SimulaIon.	
  Simula:on	
  in	
  Nursing,	
  7(4),	
  S1-­‐S20.	
  


Fitz-­‐Walter,	
  Z.	
  (2012).	
  hVp://gamasutra.com/blogs/ZacharyFitzWalter/20120426/169287/GamificaIon_Thoughts_on_definiIon_and_design.php	
  

Games,	
  I.	
  and	
  Bauman,	
  E.	
  (2011)	
  Virtual	
  worlds:	
  An	
  environment	
  for	
  cultural	
  sensiIvity	
  educaIon	
  in	
  the	
  health	
  sciences.	
  	
  Interna:onal	
  Journal	
  of	
  Web	
  Based	
  Communi:es	
  7(2).	
  	
  

Gee,	
  J.P.	
  (2003)	
  What	
  Videogames	
  Have	
  to	
  Teach	
  Us	
  About	
  Learning	
  and	
  Literacy.	
  New	
  York,	
  NY:	
  Palgrave-­‐McMillan.	
  

Gore,	
  T.,	
  Van	
  Gele,	
  P.,	
  Ravert,	
  P.,	
  &	
  Mabire,	
  C.	
  (2012).	
  A	
  Survey	
  of	
  INACSL	
  membership	
  about	
  simulaIon	
  use.	
  Clinical	
  Simula:on	
  in	
  Nursing,	
  8(4),	
  e125-­‐e133.	
  

Jenson,	
  M.	
  (2012).	
  Engaging	
  the	
  learner:	
  GamificaIon	
  strives	
  to	
  keep	
  the	
  user’s	
  interest.	
  T	
  &D,	
  	
  January,	
  2012,	
  41-­‐44.	
  


Kanto-­‐SOS	
  Study	
  Group	
  (2007).	
  Cardiopulmonary	
  resuscitaIon	
  by	
  bystanders	
  with	
  chest	
  compression	
  only	
  (SOS-­‐KANTO):	
  an	
  observaIonal	
  study.	
  Lancet,	
  369(1),	
  920-­‐926.	
  

Kellum,	
  M.,	
  Kennedy,	
  K.W.,	
  Ewy,	
  G.	
  (2006).	
  Cardiocerebral	
  ResuscitaIon	
  Improves	
  Survival	
  ofPaIents	
  with	
  Out-­‐of-­‐Hospital	
  Cardiac	
  Arrest.	
  The	
  American	
  Journal	
  of	
  Medicine.	
  119(4),	
  335-­‐349.	
  


Kolb,	
  D.	
  (1984).	
  ExperienIal	
  learning:	
  Experience	
  as	
  the	
  source	
  of	
  learning	
  and	
  development.	
  	
  Upper	
  Saddle	
  River,	
  NJ:	
  PrenIce	
  Hall.	
  

Larew,	
  C.,	
  Lessans,	
  S.,	
  Spunt,	
  D.,	
  Foster,	
  D.,	
  &	
  Covington,	
  B.	
  (2006).	
  InnovaIons	
  in	
  clinical	
  simulaIon:	
  ApplicaIon	
  of	
  Benner's	
  theory	
  in	
  an	
  interacIve	
  paIents	
  care	
  simulaIon.	
  Nursing	
  Educa:on	
  Perspec:ves,	
  27(1),	
  16-­‐21.	
  	
  


Nursing	
  Midwifery	
  Council	
  (2007).	
  Nursing	
  and	
  Midwifery	
  Council	
  Circular,	
  36(2007),	
  United	
  Kingdom.	
  

Prensky,	
  M.	
  (2001).	
  Digital	
  naIves,	
  digital	
  immegrants,	
  part	
  1.	
  On	
  the	
  Horizon	
  9(5).	
  

Popkewitz,	
  T.	
  (2007).	
  CosmopoliIanism	
  and	
  the	
  age	
  of	
  school	
  reform:	
  science,	
  educaIon	
  and	
  making	
  a	
  society	
  by	
  making	
  the	
  child.	
  Routledge.	
  

Taekman	
  J.M.,	
  Segall	
  N.,	
  Hobbs	
  G.,	
  and	
  Wright,	
  M.C.	
  (2007).	
  3DiTeams:	
  Healthcare	
  team	
  training	
  in	
  a	
  virtual	
  environment.	
  Anesthesiology.	
  2007:	
  107:	
  A2145.	
  

Schön,	
  D.	
  A.	
  (1983).	
  The	
  reflec:ve	
  prac::oner:	
  How	
  professionals	
  think	
  in	
  ac:on.	
  New	
  York:	
  	
  Basic	
  Books.	
  

Skiba,	
  D.	
  J.	
  (2009).	
  Nursing	
  educaIon	
  2.0:	
  A	
  second	
  look	
  at	
  Second	
  Life.	
  Nursing	
  Educa:on	
  Perspec:ves,	
  30,	
  129-­‐131.	
  

Squire,	
  K.	
  (2006).	
  	
  From	
  content	
  to	
  context:	
  Videogames	
  as	
  designed	
  experience.	
  	
  EducaIonal	
  Researcher.	
  	
  35(8),	
  19-­‐29.	
  	
  

Squire,	
  K.,	
  GiovaneVo,	
  L.,	
  DeVane,	
  B,.	
  &	
  Durga,	
  S.	
  (2005).	
  From	
  users	
  to	
  designers:	
  Building	
  a	
  self-­‐organizing	
  game-­‐based	
  learning	
  environment.	
  Technology	
  Trends,	
  49(5),	
  34-­‐42.	
  

Taekman	
  J.M.,	
  Segall	
  N.,	
  Hobbs	
  G.,	
  and	
  Wright,	
  M.C.	
  (2007).	
  3DiTeams:	
  Healthcare	
  team	
  training	
  in	
  a	
  virtual	
  environment.	
  Anesthesiology.	
  2007:	
  107:	
  A2145.	
  

Tervalon,	
  M.	
  and	
  Murray-­‐Garcia,	
  J.	
  (1998).	
  Cultural	
  humility	
  versus	
  cultural	
  competence:	
  A	
  criIcal	
  disIncIon	
  in	
  defining	
  physician	
  training	
  outcomes	
  in	
  mulIcultural	
  educaIon.	
  Journal	
  of	
  Health	
  Care	
  for	
  the	
  Poor	
  and	
  Underserved,	
  9(2),	
  117-­‐125.	
  	
  

Turkle,	
  S.	
  (1995)	
  Life	
  on	
  the	
  screen.	
  Iden:ty	
  in	
  the	
  age	
  of	
  the	
  Internet.	
  New	
  York:	
  Touchstone.	
  

Utah	
  AdministraIve	
  Code,	
  Nurse	
  PracIce	
  Act,	
  Rule	
  R156-­‐31b,	
  SecIon	
  E,	
  Sub	
  ii.	
  Accessed	
  electronically	
  01/15/2012	
  

Wisconsin	
  Department	
  of	
  Health	
  Services,	
  WMS	
  SecIon	
  (2011).	
  Wisconsin	
  Standardized	
  Paramedic	
  Curriculum.	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ©Bauman	
  2012	
  Rights	
  Reserved	
  
Contact	
  InformaIon	
  


                                             Eric	
  B.	
  Bauman,	
  PhD	
  
                                       ebauman@clinicalplayground.com	
  
                                          www.clinicalplayground.com	
  
                                    hVp://www.linkedin.com/in/ericbbauman	
  
                                      hVp://www.slideshare.net/ebauman	
  




Clinical	
  Playground	
  LLC	
                                                 @bauman1967	
  

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The Importance of Data-Based Decisions for Curriculum Development ©Bauman 2012 All Rights Reserved

  • 1. WAUKESHA COUNTY TECHNICAL COLLEGE Nursing Clinical Simulation as a Teaching Tool The  Importance  of  Data-­‐Based  Decisions   for  Curriculum  Development:     Why  Research  is  Everyone’s  Responsibility   Eric  B.  Bauman,  PhD   RN,  Paramedic   DeVry,  Inc  Healthcare  Group   Clinical  Playground  LLC   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2012  All  Rights  Reserved  
  • 2. Professional  AffiliaIons     Disclosures/Conflict  of  Interest     DeVry  Inc.,  Healthcare  Group   •  Associate  Director  For  SimulaIon  –  Center  for  SimulaIon  Excellence     Managing  Member  –  Clinical  Playground,  LLC   Managing  Member  –  Forensic  AnalyIcs,  LLC   Games+Learning+Society   •  Affiliate   Society  for  SimulaIon  in  Healthcare  (SSH)   •  Chair  –  Website  CommiVee   •  Co-­‐Chair    –  Serious  Games  and  Virtual  Environments  Special  Interest  Group     Springer  –  contract  for  forthcoming  book  on  Game-­‐Based  learning  and  Clinical  EducaIon   Adjunct  Faculty  –  CAE  Healthcare   Relevant  Stock  –  CAE,  Zynga,  Pfizer,  GE   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2012  All  Rights  Reserved  
  • 3. ObjecIves   •  ParIcipants  will  learn  the  importance  of  objecIve  driven   scenario  development     •  ParIcipants  will  explore  the  concept  of  fit  as  it  relates  to   simulaIon-­‐based  educaIonal  intervenIons     •  ParIcipants  will  be  able  to  idenIfy  how  educaIonal   research  influences  curriculum  decisions   •  ParIcipants  will  discuss  and  explore  how  they  can   contribute  to  research  in  their  educaIonal  se_ng  and   develop  lesson  objecIves  that  meet  curriculum  goals   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2012  All  Rights  Reserved  
  • 4. ObjecIve  Driven  Scenario  Development     Why  is  ObjecIve  Driven  Scenario  Development  important?   •  Poorly  wriVen  or  executed  scenarios  are   confusing  and  frustraIng  at  best     •  Worse  -­‐  they  may  insIll  poor  pracIce   habits  and  allow  learners  to  misinterpret   important  cues  relevant  to  future  pracIce   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2012  All  Rights  Reserved  
  • 5. ObjecIve  Driven  Scenario  Development     Why  is  ObjecIve  Driven  Scenario  Development  important?   We  need  to  be  able  figure  out  why  our  students  get  to  very   dangerous  places  for  very  good  reasons!   We  are  ocen  the  reason  why  our  students  get  to  these   dangerous  places!   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2012  All  Rights  Reserved  
  • 6. ObjecIve  Driven  Scenario  Development     Picking  your  ObjecIve   •  What  is  it  you  want  your  students  to  learn   and  what  is  the  basis  for  this  objecIve?   •  Who  is  your  audience?   •  Can  or  should  a  scenario  have  different   objecIves  or  more  than  one  objecIve       ©Bauman  2012  All  Rights  Reserved  
  • 7. ObjecIve  Driven  Scenario  Development     Tease  out  the  ObjecIve[s]   •  The  high-­‐fidelity  learning  environment  is   best  suited  facilitaIng  behavioral  change   –  Do  not  try  to  make  the  scenario  excessively   hard  or  tricky     –  Scenarios  must  be  realisIc   –  Scenarios  must  be  situated   –  Scenarios  should  be  engaging  -­‐  promoIng   interacIon   ©Bauman  2012  All  Rights  Reserved  
  • 8. ObjecIve  Driven  Scenario  Development     Novice  Learners   •  Consider  scenarios  that  focus  on  just  ONE   objecIve   –  Calling  for  Help   –  Administering  a  medicaIon   –  Maintaining  the  airway   –  Assessing  the  paIent     ©Bauman  2012  All  Rights  Reserved  
  • 9. ObjecIve  Driven  Scenario  Development     Intermediate  and  Advanced  Learners   •  Consider  the  introducIon  of  events  that   focus  on  serial  objecAves  rather  than   mulIple  “All-­‐At-­‐Once”  events   –  Overly  complicated  scenarios  are  difficult  to   evaluate     •  Unpredictable   •  Ocen  lack  fidelity   •  Can  be  very  confusing  for  learners  -­‐  and  are  ocen   not  believable   ©Bauman  2012  All  Rights  Reserved  
  • 10. ObjecIve  Driven  Scenario  Development     Research  and  Data  Driven  ObjecIves   How  do  I  know  what  is  and  is  not…    Research  and  Data  Driven?   SimulaIon  scenarios  and  their  objecIves  should  support  your  curriculum   Your  curriculum  should  reflect  accreditaIon  guidelines   …and  best  pracIces!     ©Bauman  2012  All  Rights  Reserved  
  • 11. ObjecIve  Driven  Scenario  Development     Research  and  Data  Driven  ObjecIves   SimulaIon  scenarios  and  their  objecIves  should  support  your  curriculum   Commission  on  Collegiate  Nursing  EducaIon  (CCNE)     NaIonal  League  for  Nursing  AccrediIng  Commission  (NLNAC)   School  Curriculum  CommiVee     ©Bauman  2012  All  Rights  Reserved  
  • 12. ObjecIve  Driven  Scenario  Development     Research  and  Data  Driven  ObjecIves   ©Bauman  2012  All  Rights  Reserved   EvaluaIng  the  Source   Best  PracIces  are  defined  by  research  and  are  peer   reviewed:     •    Peer  Reviewed  Journals                 •    Other  Peer  Reviewed  PublicaIons   •   Books   •   White  Papers   •    Government  PublicaIons/Websites   •    VeVed  Conference  PresentaIons  
  • 13. ObjecIve  Driven  Scenario  Development     Research  and  Data  Driven  ObjecIves   ©Bauman  2012  All  Rights  Reserved   In  General  Research  ReporIng  Should  Include   •  Problem  statement     •   Purpose  and  research  quesIons   •  Hypothesis     •  Literature  review     •   Framework  or  theory   •     Methods  secIon   •  Results  secIon  based  on  analysis  of  a  dataset     •   Findings   •  Discussion  secIon      
  • 14. ObjecIve  Driven  Scenario  Development     Research  and  Data  Driven  ObjecIves   ©Bauman  2012  All  Rights  Reserved   Types  of  Research   QualitaAve   QuanAtaAve   Quality  of  Design   Experimental  Design   TheoreIcal  Basis   Quasi  Experimental  Design   Quality  of  Analysis   ObservaIonal  Study   (QualitaIve  facets  are  NOT  linear  -­‐  they  are   (Types  of  design  are  hierarchical)   cumulaIve)       QualitaIve  Research  can  and  does  stand  on  it’s  own  but  is  also  ocen  used  to  inform  quanItaIve  research  
  • 15. ObjecIve  Driven  Scenario  Development     Resources   ©Bauman  2012  All  Rights  Reserved   SimulaIon  in  Healthcare:  The  Journal  of  the  Society  for  SimulaIon  in  Healthcare  (SSH)   hVp://www.ssih.org/   hVp://journals.lww.com/simulaIoninhealthcare/pages/default.aspx   Clinical  SimulaIon  in  Nursing:  The  Journal  for  the  InternaIonal  Nursing  AssociaIon  for  Clinical   SimulaIon  and  Learning  (INACSL)   hVp://www.inacsl.org/INACSL_2010/   hVp://www.nursingsimulaIon.org/   Games  and  SimulaIon  for  Healthcare  online  library  and  portal   hVp://healthcaregames.wisc.edu/  
  • 16. ObjecIve  Driven  Scenario  Development     Research  and  Data  Driven  ObjecIves   ©Bauman  2012  All  Rights  Reserved   Challenges  related  to  best  pracIces!     American  Heart  AssociaIon  ResuscitaIon  Guidelines   Established  and  Published  Guidelines  by  AHA   Best  PracIces  based  on  Peer  Reviewed  ScienIfic  Literature   Ewy,  G.  (2007).  Cardiac  arrest—guideline  changes  urgently  needed.  Lancet,  369(1),  882-­‐884.   Kellum,  M.,  Kennedy,  K.W.,  Ewy,  G.  (2006).  Cardiocerebral  ResuscitaIon  Improves  Survival  ofPaIents  with   Out-­‐of-­‐Hospital  Cardiac  Arrest.  The  American  Journal  of  Medicine.  119(4),  335-­‐349.   Kanto-­‐SOS  Study  Group  (2007).  Cardiopulmonary  resuscitaIon  by  bystanders  with  chest  compression  only   (SOS-­‐KANTO):  an  observaIonal  study.  Lancet,  369(1),  920-­‐926.  
  • 17. ObjecIve  Driven  Scenario  Development     Research  and  Data  Driven  ObjecIves   ©Bauman  2012  All  Rights  Reserved   Challenges  related  to  best  pracIces!     SimulaIon-­‐based  Experience  counIng  for  Clinical  hours   Gore,  T.,  Van  Gele,  P.,  Ravert,  P.,  &  Mabire,  C.  (2012).  A  Survey  of  INACSL  membership  about  simulaIon  use.   Clinical  Simula:on  in  Nursing,  8(4),  e125-­‐e133.   Faragher,  J.F.,  Boese,  T.,  &  Decker,  S.,  Sando,  C.  (2011).  Standards  of  best  pracIce:  SimulaIon.  Simula:on  in   Nursing,  7(4),  S1-­‐S20.   Nursing  Midwifery  Council  (2007).  Nursing  and  Midwifery  Council  Circular,  36(2007),  United  Kingdom.   Utah  AdministraIve  Code,  Nurse  PracIce  Act,  Rule  R156-­‐31b,  SecIon  E,  Sub  ii.  Accessed  electronically   01/15/2012   Wisconsin  Department  of  Health  Services,  WMS  SecIon  (2011).  Wisconsin  Standardized  Paramedic   Curriculum.  
  • 18. ObjecIve  Driven  Scenario  Development     Research  and  Data  Driven  ObjecIves   ©Bauman  2012  All  Rights  Reserved   Challenges  related  to  best  pracIces!     Can  be  difficult  to  adequately  evaluate  sources   The  research  associated  with  best  pracIces  and  simulaIon  and  game-­‐ based  learning  in  the  health  sciences  is  sIll  immature     Best  pracIce  must  relate  not  only  to  paIent  outcome  but  also  clinical   educaIon   BeVer  PreparaIon  =    BeVer  PracIce  =  BeVer  PaIent  Outcome  
  • 19. TranslaIonal  Effect   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved   BeVer  PreparaIon  =    PracIce  PracIce  =  BeVer  PaIent  Outcome  
  • 20. Good  Fit  and  SimulaIon   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved   •  Are  you  using  simulaIon  to  meet  your  needs  or  your  students  needs   •  Using  technology  for  the  sake  of  technology  ocen  leaves  students  confused   and  faculty  frustrated     •  Understand  that  all  forms  of  technology  have  their  limitaIons   •  Play  down  the  “coolness”  and  “be-­‐all…  end  all”  factor  with  students.     R.  Kyle  
  • 21. Good  Fit  and  SimulaIon   •  Mannikin-­‐based  simulaIon  taking  place  in   created  spaces    or  simulaIon  occurring  in  digital   environments  are  best  leveraged  for  lessons  that   encompass  designed  experiences  that  focus  on   behavioral  or  decision  aspects  of  pracIce  and   some  forms  of  targeted  psychomotor  training…   –  AcculturaIon   –  Decision  Making   –  Team  Training     –  Workload/Time  Management   –  Procedural  DemonstraIon   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  • 22. Good  Fit  and  SimulaIon   RelaIonship  between  objecIves  and  Fit   Remember  ObjecAves  First   …  Everything  else  follows,  including:   Technology   In  other  words  how  can  technology  help  you  meet   your  curriculum  objecAves!!!!!!!   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  • 23. Research  and  Curriculum    New  Curricula  and  the  Technology  supporIng  it  should  be  evaluated   for  its  potenIal  fit  within  an  exisIng  curriculum     IntegraIng  technology  and  teaching  techniques  that  include  SimulaIon   &  Game-­‐Based  Learning  into  your  curriculum  represents  a  change  in   your  curriculum  and  must  be  evaluated   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  • 24. Research  and  Curriculum   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved   Research:  Best  PracIces  &  ContribuIon…   •  The  concept  of  Best  PracIce  applies  to  educaIonal  processes  as   well  as  paIent  intervenIons  and  outcomes!   •  InvesIgaIon  defines  Best  PracIce?   •  Defining  Best  PracIce  is  fluid?   –  Best  PracIce  is  defined  by  current  knowledge.  The  knowledge  base  of   any  discipline,  parIcularly  in  the  health  and  biological  sciences  is  rapidly   evolving  and  changing.  
  • 25. Your  ContribuIon  to  Research  and  Curriculum   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved   Why  should  I  contribute?   •  Curriculum  Change  is  expensive  and  risky  given  the  tradiIonal  high  pass  rates   associated  with  the  NCLEX   –  It  is  your  job  to  validate  both  curriculum  and  pedagogy  used  to  implement  your  curriculum   –  Graduate  marketability  and  success  are  a  direct  reflecIon  of  your  program:  On-­‐boarding  and   new  hire  orientaIon  is  expensive.  Are  you  grads  standouts  for  the  right  reasons?   •  SimulaIon  is  here  to  stay  many  schools  have  already  invested  in  the  hardware   –  AdministraIve  Code  and  AccreditaIon  Agencies  are  going  to  require  simulaIon:  Are  you   going  to  meet  minimum  standards  or  define  best  pracIce?   –  What  is  your  responsibility  to  the  profession  and  your  graduates:  Are  you  leveraging   innovaIon  to  define  educaIonal  pracIce?  
  • 26. Your  ContribuIon  to  Research  and  Curriculum   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved   How  do  I  contribute?   •  All  of  your  all  new  and  exisIng  curriculum  should  be  evaluated   •  Start  Small:  “All”  contribuIons  are  important  to  the  field   –  Look  for  projects  that  represent  program  CQI  or  Internal  Curriculum  validaIons   –  Avoid  student  percepIon-­‐based  research   •  Partner  with  more  experienced  invesIgators  and  intuiIons   •  Use  consultants  to  increase  the  breadth  of  your  experience   •  Set  up  research  guidelines  and  expectaIons  at  your  insItuIon  
  • 27. Your  ContribuIon  to  Research  and  Curriculum   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved   An  evaluaIon  of  bag-­‐valve-­‐mask  venIlaIon  using  an  ergonomically   designed  face-­‐mask  among  novice  users:  a  simulaIon-­‐based  pilot  study   Evaluated  and  compared    the  use  of  a  standard  facemask  for   posiIve  pressure  venIlaIon  and  an  ergonomically  designed   facemask  among  novice  users       Bauman,  E.B.,  Joffe,  A.M.,  Lenz,  L.,  Hetzel,  S.J.,  DeVries,  S.A.,  Seider,  S.P.  (2010).  An  evaluaIon  of  bag-­‐valve-­‐mask  venIlaIon   using  an  ergonomically  designed  face-­‐mask  among  novice  users:  a  simulaIon-­‐based  pilot  study.  Resuscita:on  81(2010),   1161-­‐1165,  doi:  10.1016/j.resuscitaIon.2010.05.005.    
  • 28. Bag-­‐valve-­‐mask  study  data   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved   Partnership  between  Western  Technical  College  &  UW-­‐Madison   The  effect  of  each  mask  during  venIlaIon  over  Ime  was  assessed  using  repeated-­‐measures  ANOVA.  Assessment  of  mask   technique  among  parIcipants  and  associaIon  between  mask  type  and  hand  reposiIoning  were  analyzed  using  the   Wilcoxon-­‐Rank  Sum  Test  and  McNemar’s  paired  proporIons  test,  respecIvely.    
  • 29. Wrap-­‐up  &  Review   ©Bauman  2012    Rights  Reserved   •  We  Reviewed  and  Emphasized  the  importance  of  objecIve   driven  scenario  development     •  We  explored  and  emphasized  the  concept  of  fit  as  it  relates   to  simulaIon-­‐based  educaIonal  intervenIons     •  We  idenIfied  and  discussed  how  educaIonal  research   influences  curriculum  decisions   •  We  discussed  and  explored  how  parIcipants  can  contribute   to  research  in  their  educaIonal  se_ng  and  develop  lesson   objecIves  that  meet  curriculum  goals   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               R.  Kyle  
  • 30. QuesIons?   ©Bauman  2012    Rights  Reserved   R.  Kyle  
  • 31. Selected  References  &  Recommended  Readings   Bauman,  E.  (2007).  High  fidelity  simulaIon  in  healthcare.  Ph.D.  dissertaIon,  The  University  of  Wisconsin-­‐Madison,  United  States.  DissertaIons  &  Thesis  @  CIC  InsItuIons  database.  (PublicaIon  no.  AAT  3294196)     Bauman,  E.  B.  (2012).  Game-­‐based  Teaching  and  Simula:on  in  Nursing  &  Healthcare.  New  York,  NY:  Springer  Publishing  Company.     Bauman,  E.  (2010).  Virtual  reality  and  game-­‐based  clinical  educaIon.  In  Gaberson,  K.B.,  &  Oermann,  M.H.  (Eds)  Clinical  teaching  strategies  in  nursing  educa:on  (3rd  ed).New  York,  Springer  Publishing  Company.   Bauman,  E.B.  and  Games,  I.A.  (2011).  Contemporary  theory  for  immersive  worlds:  Addressing  engagement,  culture,  and  diversity.  In  Cheney,  A.  and  Sanders,  R.  (Eds)  Teaching  and  Learning  in  3D  Immersive  Worlds:  Pedagogical  models  and  construc:vist  approaches.  IGI  Global.     Bauman,  E.B.,  Joffe,  A.M.,  Lenz,  L.,  Hetzel,  S.J.,  DeVries,  S.A.,  Seider,  S.P.  (2010).  An  evaluaIon  of  bag-­‐valve-­‐mask  venIlaIon  using  an  ergonomically  designed  face-­‐mask  among  novice  users:  a  simulaIon-­‐based  pilot  study.  Resuscita:on  81(2010),  1161-­‐1165,  doi:  10.1016/j.resuscitaIon.2010.05.005.     Benner,  P.  (1984).  From  novice  to  expert:  Excellence  and  power  in  clinical  nursing  prac:ce.  Menlo  Park,  CA:  Addison-­‐Wesley.   Benner,  P.,  Tanner,  C.,  &  Chesla,  C.  (2009).  Exper:se  in  nursing:  Caring,  clinical  judgment,  and  ethics.  New  York:  Springer  Publishing  Company     Culhane-­‐Pera,  K.A.,  Reif,  C.,  Egli,  E.,  Baker,  N.J.,  and  Kassekert  (1997).  A  curriculum  for  mulIcultural  educaIon  in  family  medicine.  Family  Medicine,  29(10),  719-­‐723.   Ewy,  G.  (2007).  Cardiac  arrest—guideline  changes  urgently  needed.  Lancet,  369(1),  882-­‐884.   Faragher,  J.F.,  Boese,  T.,  &  Decker,  S.,  Sando,  C.  (2011).  Standards  of  best  pracIce:  SimulaIon.  Simula:on  in  Nursing,  7(4),  S1-­‐S20.   Fitz-­‐Walter,  Z.  (2012).  hVp://gamasutra.com/blogs/ZacharyFitzWalter/20120426/169287/GamificaIon_Thoughts_on_definiIon_and_design.php   Games,  I.  and  Bauman,  E.  (2011)  Virtual  worlds:  An  environment  for  cultural  sensiIvity  educaIon  in  the  health  sciences.    Interna:onal  Journal  of  Web  Based  Communi:es  7(2).     Gee,  J.P.  (2003)  What  Videogames  Have  to  Teach  Us  About  Learning  and  Literacy.  New  York,  NY:  Palgrave-­‐McMillan.   Gore,  T.,  Van  Gele,  P.,  Ravert,  P.,  &  Mabire,  C.  (2012).  A  Survey  of  INACSL  membership  about  simulaIon  use.  Clinical  Simula:on  in  Nursing,  8(4),  e125-­‐e133.   Jenson,  M.  (2012).  Engaging  the  learner:  GamificaIon  strives  to  keep  the  user’s  interest.  T  &D,    January,  2012,  41-­‐44.   Kanto-­‐SOS  Study  Group  (2007).  Cardiopulmonary  resuscitaIon  by  bystanders  with  chest  compression  only  (SOS-­‐KANTO):  an  observaIonal  study.  Lancet,  369(1),  920-­‐926.   Kellum,  M.,  Kennedy,  K.W.,  Ewy,  G.  (2006).  Cardiocerebral  ResuscitaIon  Improves  Survival  ofPaIents  with  Out-­‐of-­‐Hospital  Cardiac  Arrest.  The  American  Journal  of  Medicine.  119(4),  335-­‐349.   Kolb,  D.  (1984).  ExperienIal  learning:  Experience  as  the  source  of  learning  and  development.    Upper  Saddle  River,  NJ:  PrenIce  Hall.   Larew,  C.,  Lessans,  S.,  Spunt,  D.,  Foster,  D.,  &  Covington,  B.  (2006).  InnovaIons  in  clinical  simulaIon:  ApplicaIon  of  Benner's  theory  in  an  interacIve  paIents  care  simulaIon.  Nursing  Educa:on  Perspec:ves,  27(1),  16-­‐21.     Nursing  Midwifery  Council  (2007).  Nursing  and  Midwifery  Council  Circular,  36(2007),  United  Kingdom.   Prensky,  M.  (2001).  Digital  naIves,  digital  immegrants,  part  1.  On  the  Horizon  9(5).   Popkewitz,  T.  (2007).  CosmopoliIanism  and  the  age  of  school  reform:  science,  educaIon  and  making  a  society  by  making  the  child.  Routledge.   Taekman  J.M.,  Segall  N.,  Hobbs  G.,  and  Wright,  M.C.  (2007).  3DiTeams:  Healthcare  team  training  in  a  virtual  environment.  Anesthesiology.  2007:  107:  A2145.   Schön,  D.  A.  (1983).  The  reflec:ve  prac::oner:  How  professionals  think  in  ac:on.  New  York:    Basic  Books.   Skiba,  D.  J.  (2009).  Nursing  educaIon  2.0:  A  second  look  at  Second  Life.  Nursing  Educa:on  Perspec:ves,  30,  129-­‐131.   Squire,  K.  (2006).    From  content  to  context:  Videogames  as  designed  experience.    EducaIonal  Researcher.    35(8),  19-­‐29.     Squire,  K.,  GiovaneVo,  L.,  DeVane,  B,.  &  Durga,  S.  (2005).  From  users  to  designers:  Building  a  self-­‐organizing  game-­‐based  learning  environment.  Technology  Trends,  49(5),  34-­‐42.   Taekman  J.M.,  Segall  N.,  Hobbs  G.,  and  Wright,  M.C.  (2007).  3DiTeams:  Healthcare  team  training  in  a  virtual  environment.  Anesthesiology.  2007:  107:  A2145.   Tervalon,  M.  and  Murray-­‐Garcia,  J.  (1998).  Cultural  humility  versus  cultural  competence:  A  criIcal  disIncIon  in  defining  physician  training  outcomes  in  mulIcultural  educaIon.  Journal  of  Health  Care  for  the  Poor  and  Underserved,  9(2),  117-­‐125.     Turkle,  S.  (1995)  Life  on  the  screen.  Iden:ty  in  the  age  of  the  Internet.  New  York:  Touchstone.   Utah  AdministraIve  Code,  Nurse  PracIce  Act,  Rule  R156-­‐31b,  SecIon  E,  Sub  ii.  Accessed  electronically  01/15/2012   Wisconsin  Department  of  Health  Services,  WMS  SecIon  (2011).  Wisconsin  Standardized  Paramedic  Curriculum.   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  • 32. Contact  InformaIon   Eric  B.  Bauman,  PhD   ebauman@clinicalplayground.com   www.clinicalplayground.com   hVp://www.linkedin.com/in/ericbbauman   hVp://www.slideshare.net/ebauman   Clinical  Playground  LLC   @bauman1967