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Game-Based Learning: A workshop to inform educators and engage contemporary learners


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Game-Based Learning: A workshop to inform educators and engage contemporary learners was presented on May 17, 2011 at the Making it Happen: Enhancing Education through Games & Storytelling. This event was co-provided by the Community Nursing Staff Development Group and the University of Michigan Health System’s MLearning and Professional Development & Education for Nursing Departments. Copyright E.B. Bauman 2012 All Rights Reserved

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Game-Based Learning: A workshop to inform educators and engage contemporary learners

  1. 1. Making  It  Happen:  Enhancing  Educa@on  through  Games  &  Storytelling   Game-­‐Based  Learning:  A  workshop  to   inform  educators  and  engage   contemporary  learners     Eric  B.  Bauman,  PhD   RN,  Paramedic   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  2. 2. Professional  Affilia@ons     Disclosures/Conflict  of  Interest    DeVry  Inc.,  Healthcare  Group   •  Associate  Director  For  Simula@on  –  Center  for  Simula@on  Excellence    Managing  Member  –  Clinical  Playground,  LLC  Managing  Member  –  Forensic  Analy@cs,  LLC  Games+Learning+Society   •  Affiliate  Society  for  Simula@on  in  Healthcare  (SSH)   •  Chair  –  Website  Commi[ee   •  Co-­‐Chair    –  Serious  Games  and  Virtual  Environments  Special  Interest  Group    Springer  –  contract  for  forthcoming  book  on  Game-­‐Based  learning  and  Clinical  Educa@on  Adjunct  Faculty  –  CAE  Healthcare  Relevant  Stock  –  CAE,  Zynga,  Pfizer,  GE   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  3. 3. Objec@ves  Par@cipants  will  recognize  the  poten@al  for  student  engagement  by  integra@ng  game-­‐ based  learning  into  today’s  digital  and  media  rich  educa@onal  environments.  Par@cipants  will  iden@fy  the  importance  of  objec@ve  iden@fica@on  and  “fit”  when   using  digital  and  game-­‐based  learning  pedagogy.  Par@cipants  will  examine  contemporary  theory  for  game-­‐based  and  virtual  learning   environments.  Par@cipants  will  be  able  to  include  game-­‐based  learning  in  their  own  professional   environments.  Par@cipants  will  experience  Game-­‐Based  Learning.         .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  4. 4. Icebreaker  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  5. 5. What  are  we  going  to  Explore  &  Talk  about  Components  of  Game-­‐Based  Learning  Developing  a  game  versus  repurposing  High  Tech  versus  Low  Tech  –  Spectrum  of  possibili@es    Integra@ng  Game-­‐Based  Learning  –  Return  on  Investment  (ROI)   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  6. 6. Wait,  Wait,  Wait   Hold  on  a  minute…  What  sort  of  games  is  this   guy  talking  about?  h[p://     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  7. 7. OK…  A  bit  of  Background   Rela@onship  between  Learning  and  Play   Rela@onship  between  Simula@on  and  Game-­‐Based  Learning  h[p://    h[p://     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  8. 8. Instruc@onal  or  Serious  Games,  and  Simula@on   •  Tradi@onal  Perspec@ve  on  Games   –  Goal  Oriented   –  Rule  Based   –  Sense  of  Consequence     •  Rewards  or  otherwise   •  Tradi@onal  Perspec@ve  on  Simula@on   –  Imita@on  of  something  real   –  Representa@on  of  key  design  elements  or   variables  of  a  system  or  process   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  9. 9. Review  of  historical  pedagogy  suppor@ng  simula@on-­‐ &  now  game-­‐based  learning  for  clinical  educa@on     Note  the  term  clinical  educa5on  is  being  used  very  broadly  here   •  Experien@al  Learning   –  Kolb’s  Learning  Cycle   –  Benner:  Thinking-­‐in-­‐ac@on   –  Schön  :  Thinking-­‐on-­‐ac@on   While  these  theories  predate  modern  Simula@on  and   Game-­‐Based  Learning,  they  do  share  the  common  and   useful  theme  of  experien@al  learning   ©Bauman  2011  Rights  Reserved  
  10. 10. Kolb’s  Learning  Cycle   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  11. 11. Schön: Thinking-on/in-action ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved          In  Schön’s  theory  the  professional  engages  in  a   dialog  with  a  problema@c  situa@on  or  experience  and   listens  to  back-­‐talk,  a  form  of  self  generated   feedback  that  helps  guide  and  inform  decision-­‐ making     •  Thinking-­‐on-­‐ac@on     •  Thinking-­‐in-­‐ac@on  
  12. 12. Benner: Thinking-in-action ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved        Argues  that  thinking-­‐in-­‐ac5on,  the  use  of   previous  experiences  to  reflect  on  during  real   world  prac@ce,  differen@ates  the  quality  of  the   decisions  made  by  novices  and  experts  
  13. 13. Contemporary  Perspec@ve  on  Games  and  Simula@on  Higher  Order  Simula/on  Higher  order  simula@on  includes  and  integrates  behavioral  components  of  learning  based  on  situated  cogni5on  into  designed  experiences  exis@ng  within  created  spaces,  whether  those  spaces  exist  in  a  fixed  or  virtual  environment     ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  14. 14. Contemporary  Perspec@ve  on  Games  and  Simula@on   Ludology   A  rela@vely  new  term  that  relates  to  the  study  of  games   and  other  forms  of  play…   Badges   Interac@vity  Narra@ve   Engagement   Leader  Board   High  Scores     System  of  Rewards   Consequence   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved   Does  higher  order  simula@on  cons@tute   Ludology?  
  15. 15. Games  +  Simula@on  •  Goal  Oriented    •  Rule  Based  •  Sense  of  Consequence  •  Imita@on  of  something  real  (Authen@city)  •  Accurate  representa@on  of  system(s)  and   related  processes   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2011  Rights  Reserved  
  16. 16. Ludology   “We  are  entering  the  Ludic  Century…  …  we  will  use  games  to  shape  the  future  of  educa@on”     Eric  Zimmerman,  NYU  Games  Center   6/15/2011  at  GLS7   h[p://­‐zimmerman   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  17. 17. Gamifica@on  "the  use  of  game  design  elements  in  non-­‐game  contexts”                                Fitz-­‐Walker,  2012             “To  some,  gamifica@on  is  the  Next  Great  Hope  for  deep  user  engagement”                            Ma[hew  Jensen,  2012  Makes    content  more  engaging  Encourages  users  to  engage  in  desired  behaviors  Illustrates  a  path  to  mastery  &  autonomy  Provide  incen@ve  to  complete  chores  or  tasks  otherwise  seen  as  boring  Data  from  “gamified”  applica@ons  can  be  leveraged  for  CQI  Projects,  Curricula  &  ROI  Evalua@on                                                  h[p://  While  much  of  the  current  discussion  over  the  last  two-­‐years  focuses  on  technology  and  gamifica@on,  the  concept  is  valid  in  any  curricular  context   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  18. 18. Gamifica@on  While  much  of  the  current  discussion  over  the  last  two-­‐years  focuses  on  technology  and  gamifica@on,   the  concept  is  valid  in  any  curricular  context   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  19. 19. Gamifica@on  Faculty,  teachers,  and  training  staff  have  to  open  their  minds   to  find  crea@ve  ways  to  engage  contemporary  learners  and   con5nuing  educa5on  learners  who  are  disengaged  out  of  a   sense  of  repe@@ve  or  boring  curriculum   How  many  healthcare  clinicians  are  in  the  audience?   How  many  @mes  have  you  taken  a  CPR  or  ACLS  Course  in  your  career?   How  about  HIPAA  Training?       ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  20. 20. Metagaming  It  is  the  use  of  out-­‐of-­‐game  [out  of  curriculum]  informa@on  or  resources  to  affect  ones  in-­‐game  [prac@ce]  decisions…  Transcends  a  prescribed  rule  set  …uses  external  factors  to  affect  the  game  [prac@ce],  or  goes  beyond  the  supposed  limits  of  the  game  [prac@ce]  environment  h[p://   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  21. 21. Ludic  Pedagogy   The  manner  through  which  games  teach  [learners]   players  to  play  [Learn]…  h[p://­‐11092011-­‐154402/unrestricted/jbroussard_disserta@on.pdf   The  ac@vity  of  play,  par@cularly  when  engaging  a  new   game  always  represents  a  learning  process   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  22. 22. Food  for  Thought?   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  …What  is  the  rela@onship  between  Higher  Order  Simula@on   and  Ludology…   …let’s  think  about  how  games  are  related  to  simula@on…    …and  how  they  can  be  leveraged  for  clinical  educa@on  and   inter-­‐professional  collabora@on  in  ways  that  prepare   students  for  simula@on-­‐based  learning….   …and  later  actual  clinical  prac@ce  
  23. 23. Contemporary  Perspec@ve  on  Games  and  Simula@on   •  Created  Environment   •  Designed  Experience   •  Socially  Situated  Cogni/on   •  Ecology  of  Culturally  Competent  Design  
  24. 24. Contemporary  Perspec@ve  on  Games  and  Simula@on   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  Created  Environment  An  environment  that  has  been  specifically  engineered  to  accurately  replicate  an  actual  exis@ng  space,  producing  sufficient  authen@city  and  fidelity  to  allow  for  the  suspension  of  disbelief.  Simulated  environments,  whether  fixed  in  the  case  of  mannikin-­‐based  simula@on  laboratories  resembling  elaborate  theatrical  sets,  or  exis@ng  in  virtual  reality,  as  in  a  game-­‐based  environments  are  created  environments.   -­‐  Bauman  2007  -­‐    
  25. 25. Contemporary  Perspec@ve  on  Games  and  Simula@on   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  Designed  Experience  A  designed  experience  is  engineered  to  include  structured  ac@vi@es  targeted  to  facilitate  interac@ons  that  drive  an@cipated  experiences.    These  ac@vi@es  are  created  to  embody  par@cipant  experience  as  performance.  Many  theme  parks  are  based  in  part  on  the  theory  of  designed  experience.    -­‐  Squire,  2006  -­‐    
  26. 26. Contemporary  Perspec@ve  on  Games  and  Simula@on   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved    Socially  Situated  Cogni/on    Refers  to  learning  theory  that  is  situated  within  a  material,   social,  and  cultural  world.    Learning  that  is  situated  takes   place  in  contextually  specific  and  authen@c  environments   with  a  host  of  values  and  expecta@ons     -­‐  Gee,1991,1993  -­‐    
  27. 27. Contemporary  Perspec@ve  on  Games  and  Simula@on   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  Ecology  of  Culturally  Competent  Design  Addresses  the  rigors  and  challenges  of  accurately  situa@ng  culture  within  virtual  environments  using  a  four-­‐element  model  that  emphasizes  the  importance  of  ac5vi5es,  contexts,  narra5ves,  and  characters.-­‐  Bauman  &  Games  2010;  Games  &  Bauman,  2011  -­‐      
  28. 28. Who  Cares…  and  why  does  any  of  this  ma[er?   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  Because  the  best  and  brightest  learners  become:   Our  next  genera@on  of  scholars   Well  trained  and  excep@onally  educated  people  [clinicians,  teachers,     administrator,  etc..]  are  a  major  part  of  the  solu@on  to  the   healthcare  &    educa@on  crises  that  we  face  locally,  na@onally,  and   interna@onally  
  29. 29. Engagement…    Why  is  Game-­‐Based  Learning  Important   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  30. 30. M.  Presky,  2001  Digital  Na/ves  People  who  were  born  with  (contemporary)  digital  technologies    already  in  existence.  Digital  Immigrants  Those  who  were  born  prior  to  (contemporary)  digital  technologies  and  migrated  into  the  digital  realm  adop@ng  the  technology  later  in  life.   ©Bauman  2011  Rights  Reserved  
  31. 31. Advantages  to  Game-­‐Based  Learning  •  Different  way  engaging  learners  •  A[ends  to  challenges  of  @me  and  distance   inherent  to  distribu@ve  educa@on  •  A[ends  to  aspects  of  accultura@on  not  always   available  in  the  tradi@onal  learning   environment  •  There  is  evidence  to  support  videogame   playing  and  some  types  of  procedural  training   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  32. 32. About  Today’s  Students    •  Today’s  students/learners  have  a  degree  of   technical  and  digital  literacy  that  generally  far   exceed  that  of  their  instructors  •  They  have  a  host  of  expecta@ons  in  how   informa@on  dissemina@on,  presenta@on,  and   transfer  will  take  place  •  Those  ins@tu@ons  that  fail  to  address  these   expecta@ons  will  fail  to  a[ract  and  retain  the  best   and  brightest  students   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2011  Rights  Reserved  
  33. 33. Transla@onal  Effect    Serious  Games  [ludic  pedagogy]  leverage  created   environments  so  that  learning  takes  place  as   performance  though  carefully  designed   experiences  that  o|en  use  a  contextually  situated   narra5ve  to  promote  curriculum  objec@ves   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  34. 34. Transla@onal  Effect   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved   If  you  find  be[er  ways  to  engage  today’s  students  that  address   expecta@ons  of  professional  prac@ce  that  authen@cally  address  context,  performance,  accultura@on,  and    clinical  expecta@ons  you   will  effect  the  prac@ce  of  future  clinicians   Be[er  Prepara@on  =    Be[er  Prac@ce  =  Be[er  Pa@ent  Outcome  
  35. 35. Transla@onal  Effect   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  Be[er  Prepara@on  =    Prac@ce  Prac@ce  =  Be[er  Pa@ent  Outcome  
  36. 36. Good  Fit   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved   •  Using  technology  for  the  sake  of  technology  o|en   leaves  students  confused  and  faculty  frustrated     •  Understand  that  all  forms  of  technology  have  their   limita@ons   •  Play  down  the  “coolness”  and  “be-­‐all…  end  all”  factor   with  students.    R.  Kyle  
  37. 37. Fit  and  the  role  of  Orienta@on   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved   Students  must  be  oriented  to  all  learning     environments  whether  they  are  in  actual  or  real-­‐world   pa@ent  care  se~ngs,  the  simula@on  laboratory,  or  spaces  occupying  virtual  spaces  in  on-­‐line   or  game-­‐based  environments    
  38. 38. More  On  Good  Fit…  •  O|en  using  virtual  environments  whether  online     or  found  in  fixed  gaming  environments  are  best   leveraged  for  lessons  that  center  on  behavioral  or   decision  aspects  of  prac@ce  and  some  forms  of   targeted  psychomotor  training…   –  Accultura@on   –  Decision  Making   –  Team  Training     –  Workload/Time  Management   –  Procedural  Demonstra@on   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  39. 39. Rela@onship  between  Objec@ves  &  Fit   Remember  Objec/ves  First   ….  Everything  else  follows,  including:   Technology  In  other  words  how  can  technology  help  you  meet   your  curriculum  objec/ves!!!!!!!   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  40. 40. Rela@onship  between  Objec@ves  &  Fit   Remember  Objec/ves  First   ….  Everything  else  follows,  including:   Technology  In  other  words  how  can  technology  help  you  meet   your  curriculum  objec/ves!!!!!!!   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  41. 41. Importance  of  debriefing    when  engaging  a  Game-­‐Based  learning  ac@vity   Plus  (+)                      Delta  (        )   +Things that went Things you mightwell want to change ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  42. 42. Evalua@on    New  Curricula  and  the  Technology  suppor@ng  it  should  be  evaluated   for  its  poten@al  fit  within  an  exis@ng  curriculum    Integra@ng  technology  and  teaching  techniques  that  include  Simula@on   &  Game-­‐Based  Learning  into  your  curriculum  represents  a  change  in   your  curriculum  and  must  be  evaluated   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  43. 43. Research:  Suppor@ng  Educa@on…   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  •  Using  new  technology  for  the  sake  of  technology   results  in  frustrated  and  disenfranchised  teachers  and   learners!  •  Does  your  use  of  simula@on  and  game-­‐based  learning   support  your  curricular  objec@ves?  •  Can  you  demonstrate  a  new  curriculum  or  a   curriculum  that  now  integrates  simula@on  and  game-­‐ based  learning  into  it  is  as,  or  more  effec@ve  than   standard  prac@ce?  
  44. 44. Research:  Best  Prac@ces  &  Contribu@on…   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  •  The  concept  of  Best  Prac@ce  applies  to   educa@onal  processes  as  well  as  pa@ent   interven@ons  and  outcomes!  •  Inves@ga@on  defines  Best  Prac@ce?  •  Defining  Best  Prac@ce  is  fluid?   –  Best  Prac@ce  is  defined  by  current  knowledge.  The   knowledge  base  of  any  discipline,  par@cularly  in  the   health  and  biological  sciences  is  rapidly  evolving  and   changing.  
  45. 45. OK  I’m  Sold…  How  do  I  get  started?   Students  and  Faculty  need  to  be  prepared  for  game-­‐based  learning  •  Pick  your  objec@ves  first…  then  look  for  a  game  that  is  going  to  support  those  objec@ves   –  Introducing  the  students  to  each  other  (Icebreakers)  –  Geography  Game   –  Teamwork  –  Helium  S@ck   –  Informa@on    Processing  and  Discrimina@on  –  The  Nail  Game   –  Informa@on  Processing  and  Team  Work  –  The  Monkey  and  the  Mar@ni   –  Magic  Numbers  –  Problem  Solving    •  Just  like  Simula@on  –  Debriefing  is  essen@al  to  maximize  the  poten@al  for  experien@al  learning.   –  Kolb’s  Learning  Cycle   –  Benner:  Thinking-­‐in-­‐ac@on   –  Schön  :  Thinking-­‐on-­‐ac@on  •  While  games  are  fun…  with  learners,  par@cularly  adult  learners  incorpora@ng  games  into  your   curriculum  should  make  sense   –  They  should  be  situated   –  They  should  not  be  senseless  filler   –  They  should  be  well  rehearsed     ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  46. 46. Give  your  students  permission  to  have  fun!   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved   Let’s  Play!   h[p://­‐play-­‐some-­‐games/  
  47. 47. “Helium  S@ck”  Experience  a  game-­‐based  learning  ac@vity    
  48. 48. “Nail  Game”  •  The  object  of  the  game  is  to  balance  all  of  the   nails  on  the  head  of  a  single  nail.    •  All  of  the  nails  have  to  be  balanced  at  the  same   @me  and  cannot  touch  anything  but  the  top  of  the   nail  that  is  stuck  in  the  base.  Are  you  up  to  the   challenge?  
  49. 49. Let’s  add  a  new  word  to  the  mix…   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  Coope//on   h[p://­‐play-­‐some-­‐games/  
  50. 50. Monkey  and  the  Mar@ni  •  This  game  focuses  on  Core  Processes    •  Oh  Yeah…  We  make  up  the  rules  as  we  go  along!  
  51. 51. Blinded  Leader   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved    Simple  low-­‐tech  game  promotes  success  in  a  game  with  higher  perceived  stakes  
  52. 52. What  sorts  of  Games  &  Environments  are  out  there…   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  MMOG’s  –  Massively  Mul@-­‐player  online  Games  [Repurposing  Commercial  Games  and  exis@ng  mul@-­‐media]    Starcra|  II    –  4.5  Million  Copies,  14  Languages,  5  Con@nents    World  of  WarCra|    Quest  Atlan@s  (K12  Audience)      50K  Children,  6  Con@nents          Second  Life  (+/-­‐)  These  environments  provide  online  virtual  worlds  that  can  promote  many  of  the  objec@ves  we  find  valuable  to  clinical  disciplines    Teamwork    Cri@cal  Thinking    Problem  Solving    Pa[ern  Recogni@on  
  53. 53. Exis@ng  Media   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  h[p://  
  54. 54. h[p://   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  55. 55. The  Healing  Blade  Developed  by  two  physician/gamers,  Francis  Kong  and  Arun  Mathews,  Healing  Blade  plunges  the  player  into  a  world  of  sorcery  and  creatures,   where  real-­‐world  knowledge  of  infec@ous  diseases  and  therapeu@cs   play  a  pivotal  role  in  the  winning  strategy.   h[p://­‐fs4-­‐Gxc&feature=player_embedded  
  56. 56. Virtual  Forensics  Lab  @  Boston  College   h[p://  
  57. 57. CliniSpace  h[p://   h[p://  h[p://  
  58. 58. Hypercosm:  Handwash  Havok   h[p://  
  59. 59. Hypercosm:  Virtual  Arm  
  60. 60. Hypercosm:  Intuba@on  
  61. 61. Exercise  At  your  table  brain  storm  how  you  might  use   Game-­‐based  learning  meet  a  training  or   curriculum  objec@ve   – How  do  you  envision  your  idea  engaging   learners   – Why  would  it  be  transla@onal…  change  or   improve  prac@ce   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  
  62. 62. Recap  •  Explored  the  poten@al  for  learner  engagement  when  using   game-­‐based  learning  methods  and  strategies    •  We  discussed  the  importance  of  addressing  “Fit”  when  using   digital  and  game-­‐based  pedagogy  •  Contemporary  theory  for  game-­‐based  and  virtual  learning   environments  were  introduced  and  discussed  •  Strategies  for  introducing  game-­‐based  learning  into   professional  and  educa@onal  environments  was  explored  •  Game-­‐Based  learning  was  discussed,  demonstrated,  and   experienced   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .               ©Bauman  2011  Rights  Reserved  
  63. 63. Ques@ons?   ©Bauman  2012    Rights  Reserved  R.  Kyle  
  64. 64. Contact  Informa@on   Eric  B.  Bauman,  PhD   h[p://   h[p://  Clinical  Playground  LLC   @bauman1967  
  65. 65. Selected  References   ©Bauman  2012  Rights  Reserved  Bauman,  E.  (2007).  High  fidelity  simula@on  in  healthcare.  Ph.D.  disserta@on,  The  University  of  Wisconsin-­‐Madison,  United  States.  Disserta@ons  &  Thesis  @  CIC  Ins@tu@ons  database.  (Publica@on  no.  AAT  3294196)    Bauman,  E.  (2010).  Virtual  reality  and  game-­‐based  clinical  educa@on.  In  Gaberson,  K.B.,  &  Oermann,  M.H.  (Eds)  Clinical  teaching  strategies  in  nursing  educa5on  (3rd  ed).New  York,  Springer  Publishing  Company.  Bauman,  E.B.  and  Games,  I.A.  (2011).  Contemporary  theory  for  immersive  worlds:  Addressing  engagement,  culture,  and  diversity.  In  Cheney,  A.  and  Sanders,  R.  (Eds)  Teaching  and  Learning  in  3D  Immersive  Worlds:  Pedagogical  models  and   construc5vist  approaches.  IGI  Global.    Bauman,  E.  B.  (2012).  Game-­‐based  Teaching  and  Simula5on  in  Nursing  &  Healthcare.  New  York,  NY:  Springer  Publishing  Company.    Benner,  P.  (1984).  From  novice  to  expert:  Excellence  and  power  in  clinical  nursing  prac5ce.  Menlo  Park,  CA:  Addison-­‐Wesley.  Benner,  P.,  Tanner,  C.,  &  Chesla,  C.  (2009).  Exper5se  in  nursing:  Caring,  clinical  judgment,  and  ethics.  New  York:  Springer  Publishing  Company    Broussard.,  J  (2012).  Making  the  MMOst  of  Your  Online  Class.  Teaching  and  Curriculum  Dialog.  Culhane-­‐Pera,  K.A.,  Reif,  C.,  Egli,  E.,  Baker,  N.J.,  and  Kassekert  (1997).  A  curriculum  for  mul@cultural  educa@on  in  family  medicine.  Family  Medicine,  29(10),  719-­‐723.  Fitz-­‐Walter,  Z.  (2012).  h[p://  Games,  I.  and  Bauman,  E.  (2011)  Virtual  worlds:  An  environment  for  cultural  sensi@vity  educa@on  in  the  health  sciences.    Interna5onal  Journal  of  Web  Based  Communi5es  7(2).    Gee,  J.P.  (2003)  What  Videogames  Have  to  Teach  Us  About  Learning  and  Literacy.  New  York,  NY:  Palgrave-­‐McMillan.  Jenson,  M.  (2012).  Engaging  the  learner:  Gamifica@on  strives  to  keep  the  user’s  interest.  T  &D,    January,  2012,  41-­‐44.  Kolb,  D.  (1984).  Experien@al  learning:  Experience  as  the  source  of  learning  and  development.    Upper  Saddle  River,  NJ:  Pren@ce  Hall.  Larew,  C.,  Lessans,  S.,  Spunt,  D.,  Foster,  D.,  &  Covington,  B.  (2006).  Innova@ons  in  clinical  simula@on:  Applica@on  of  Benners  theory  in  an  interac@ve  pa@ents  care  simula@on.  Nursing  Educa5on  Perspec5ves,  27(1),  16-­‐21.    Prensky,  M.  (2001).  Digital  na@ves,  digital  immegrants,  part  1.  On  the  Horizon  9(5).  Popkewitz,  T.  (2007).  Cosmopoli@anism  and  the  age  of  school  reform:  science,  educa@on  and  making  a  society  by  making  the  child.  Routledge.  Taekman  J.M.,  Segall  N.,  Hobbs  G.,  and  Wright,  M.C.  (2007).  3DiTeams:  Healthcare  team  training  in  a  virtual  environment.  Anesthesiology.  2007:  107:  A2145.  Schön,  D.  A.  (1983).  The  reflec5ve  prac55oner:  How  professionals  think  in  ac5on.  New  York:    Basic  Books.  Skiba,  D.  J.  (2009).  Nursing  educa@on  2.0:  A  second  look  at  Second  Life.  Nursing  Educa5on  Perspec5ves,  30,  129-­‐131.  Squire,  K.  (2006).    From  content  to  context:  Videogames  as  designed  experience.    Educa@onal  Researcher.    35(8),  19-­‐29.    Squire,  K.,  Giovane[o,  L.,  DeVane,  B,.  &  Durga,  S.  (2005).  From  users  to  designers:  Building  a  self-­‐organizing  game-­‐based  learning  environment.  Technology  Trends,  49(5),  34-­‐42.  Taekman  J.M.,  Segall  N.,  Hobbs  G.,  and  Wright,  M.C.  (2007).  3DiTeams:  Healthcare  team  training  in  a  virtual  environment.  Anesthesiology.  2007:  107:  A2145.  Tervalon,  M.  and  Murray-­‐Garcia,  J.  (1998).  Cultural  humility  versus  cultural  competence:  A  cri@cal  dis@nc@on  in  defining  physician  training  outcomes  in  mul@cultural  educa@on.  Journal  of  Health  Care  for  the  Poor  and   Underserved,  9(2),  117-­‐125.    Turkle,  S.  (1995)  Life  on  the  screen.  Iden5ty  in  the  age  of  the  Internet.  New  York:  Touchstone.