2009 Inacsl Bauman


Published on

The importance of culture and diversity are addressed during traditional nursing education. However, little literature exists about how virtual communities like Second Life might influence cultural competence. The Ecology of Culturally Competent Educational Design will be introduced as starting point for development and evaluation of cultural competence in virtual worlds.

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

2009 Inacsl Bauman

  1. 1. Teaching Cultural Competence in Web-Based Communities Eric Bauman, PhD, RN Alex Games , PhD © Copyright by Eric B. Bauman 2009 All Rights Reserved
  2. 2. Author Information and COI Statement Eric Bauman, PhD, RN Faculty Associate University of Wisconsin School of Medicine & Public Health Department of Anesthesiology COI: Consultant -Vernon M emorial Healthcare and TM FD Investments: Pfizer, SHSAX Alex Games, PhD Assistant Professor Michigan State University Department of Telecommunications, Information Studies &Media COI: None
  3. 3. Identity and Consequence • Virtual communities encourage participants to “try on” different identities and reflect on the consequences of their decisions while “wearing” these identities. (Gee, 2003; Turkle, 1995)
  4. 4. Why is Identity and Consequence Important in Clinical Education? • Acculturation and Indoctrination of a professional • Cultural Competence • Learning as Behavioral Change Popkewitz, 2007
  5. 5. Acculturation - Indoctrination • Part of the educational experience focuses on learning how to become part of a cohort • Beyond the required professional knowledge base, novice clinicians must come to understand the conduct and expectations of the rank and profession they hope to join How to: Look - Act - React Gee, 2003; Popkewitz, 2007
  6. 6. From Novice to Expert: Transition from the virtual world to the real world • Avatars and virtual worlds can be designed to evoke students preconceived notions of culture and identity – In terms of cohort social norms and cues – In terms of professional expectations and cues Benner, 1984
  7. 7. Ulrike (Rica) Dieterle Librarian Ebling Health Sciences Library University of Wisconsin - Madison IDENTITY Chris Holden, PhD Asst. Professor University of New Mexico University College
  8. 8. Gerald Stapleton University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine IDENTITY Allan Barclay Librarian and Information Architect Ebling Health Sciences Library University of Wisconsin - Madison
  9. 9. Moses Wolfenstein, MS Doctoral Student Department of Curriculum & Instruction University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Education So what about Identity? Identity is fluid and malleable - How can we use this fluidity to enhance learning experiences? As instructors should we or do we need to impose restrictions on in-world identity
  10. 10. Cultural Competence • Published literature readily discusses the importance of integrating cultural competence into health sciences curricula • There is little literature to indicate that simulation and standardized patient education has readily integrated culture and diversity into health sciences curricula. • Both obvious and subtle cues related to culture, gender, and race can often have profound social-cultural implications and biological consequences related to diagnosis and treatment • Cues derived during observational and behavioral encounters may drive important decisions related to diagnosis and patient care. (Culhane-Pera, Reif, Egli, Baker, and Kassekert, 1997; Tervalon and Murray Garcia, 1998; Smedley, Stith, and Nelson, 2003; Steele and Aronson, 1995)
  11. 11. Learning as Behavioral Change • Through in-world interaction and during post experience debriefing instructors can facilitate behavioral responses from students that represent either cultural competence or cultural cliché and stereotypes • Educators bear the responsibility for providing environments that provide a safe medium to facilitate the transfer of knowledge and facilitate behavioral change • Web-based and virtual worlds can provide a translational platform for behavioral change related to culture and diversity Thiagarajan, 1992; Games and Bauman 2009
  12. 12. The Ecology of Culturally Competent Educational Design • Context(s) • Character(s) • Narrative • Activity
  13. 13. Context • Virtual simulated spaces can be designed in ways that authentically capture environmental fidelity – Replicate in virtual form aspects of the real world that students occupy in actual practice • Safer environments where students could afford to learn from mistakes with no risk to patients – virtual worlds provide opportunities for learning and professional development without the consequences associated with actual therapeutic misadventure • Virtual simulation overcomes some of the barriers associated with fixed or physically created environments – Money, Location, Space allocation Games and Bauman, 2008; Squire 2006; Bauman, 2007
  14. 14. Character • The fluidity and malleability of virtual environments applies not only to the look and feel of virtual teaching spaces, but also learners identities • The ability to try on multiple identities may be of great value for the construction of learning experiences involving culture and diversity • Players shape and design their avatars (characters), which become their in-world identities • Identity expectation related to ones future professional affinity group is an important tenet of learning (Gee, 2003; Squire, 2006)
  15. 15. Narrative • Narratives provide peoples memories with a collection of patterns that help them recognize and make sense of the world • Narratives assist players in the negotiation of their identities, particularly projective identities. Projective identities place learners in the shoes of the virtual identities they are playing • Narratives also provide spaces for reflection on the consequences of student action or inaction. Learners can be encouraged to see the consequences of their decisions from multiple perspectives and deliberate practice (Bruner, 1991; Gee, 1991, 2003)
  16. 16. Activity • Interactivity is one of the most important defining characteristics of successful learning in games and virtual worlds. • Participation in virtual worlds is only meaningful when players are actively engaged in their environment rather than passively observing it • The game and its environment define identity and developing affinity groups • In the health sciences, virtual spaces include familiar settings where learners can practice many of the activities germane to the professions they hope to join (Gee, 2003; Taekman, Segall, Hobbs and Wright 2007)
  17. 17. Conclusion • Virtual or web- based communities that authentically replicate real- world clinical experiences can provide translational educational and research experiences for both students and educators • virtual platforms facilitate access to learning experiences that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to recreate in traditional educational environments • Virtual or web-based experiences may provide consistent exposure to diverse cultural content across curricula that are NOT available in actual clinical or traditional mannikin-based simulation environments • Virtual and web-based educational platforms should take advantage the malleable nature of their environment to further develop student experiences related to culture and diversity • Evaluation of virtual worlds in the context of health sciences education is important because the potential for understanding the role of cultural sensitivity in virtual and designed environments may provide a useful lens for assessment of cultural competence
  18. 18. References Bauman, E. (2007). High fidelity simulation in healthcare. Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Wisconsin- Madison, United States. Dissertations & Thesis @ CIC Institutions database. (Publication no. AAT 3294196) Benner, P. (1984). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley. Bruner, J. (1991). The narrative construction of reality. Critical Inquiry 18 (Autumn), 1-20. Culhane-Pera, K.A., Reif, C., Egli, E., Baker, N.J., and Kassekert (1997). A curriculum for multicultural education in family medicine. Family Medicine, 29(10), 719-723. Games, I. and Bauman, E. (In Press). Virtual worlds: An environment for cultural sensitivity education in the health sciences. International Journal of Web Based Communities. Gee, J. P. (1991). Memory and myth: A perspective on narrative. In A. McCabe & C. Peterson (Eds.), Developing narrative structure (pp. 1 - 26). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Gee, J.P. (2003) What Videogames Have to Teach Us Ab out Learning and Literacy. New York, NY: Palgrave- McMillan. Popkewitz, T. (2007). Cosmopolitianism and the age of school reform: science, education and making a society by making the child. Routledge. Smedley, B. D, Stith, A. Y, and Nelson, A. R. (Eds.). (2003) Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. Steele, C.M. & Aronson, J. (1995) Stereotype Threat and the Intellectual Test Performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 69(5), 797-811. Squire, K. (2006). From content to context: Videogames as designed experience. Educational Researcher. 35(8), 19-29. Taekman J.M., Segall N., Hobbs G., and Wright, M.C. (2007). 3DiTeams: Healthcare team training in a virtual environment. Anesthesiology. 2007: 107: A2145. Tervalon, M. and Murray-Garcia, J. (1998). Cultural humility versus cultural competence: A critical distinction in defining physician training outcomes in multicultural education. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 9(2), 117-125. Turkle, S. (1995) Life on the screen. Identity in the age of the Internet. New York: Touchstone.
  19. 19. Special Thanks • Eric Graves: American Research Institute • Gerald Stapleton: University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine • Jerry Heneghan: Virtual Heroes • Jeff Taekman: Duke University - Human Simulation and Patient Safety Center • Bob Waddington: SimQuest • Allan Barklay: University of Wisconsin - Madison, Ebling Library
  20. 20. Contact Information Eric Bauman, PhD, RN B6/319 CSC Department of Anesthesiology 600 Highland Avenue Madison, WI 53792-3272 Email: ebauman@wisc.edu Office: 608-263-5911 Linkedin: http://www.linkedin.com/in/ericbbauman