Moving Towards aClimate Neutral UNThe UN system’s footprint and efforts to reduce it
Contents 5 Foreword 6 Acknowledgements 7 Preface 8 1. CLIMATE NEUTRAL UN 8 The UN system 9 Moving towards climate-neutrality 12 Challenges and limitations 13 Next steps 14 2. GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY FOR 2008 14 UN system methodology and tools 16 Inventory boundary 17 Experience and results 18 Next steps 20 3. EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS 20 A strategic approach 21 Focus areas 29 Lessons learned 29 Next steps 30 4. OFFSETS 30 Offset choice and procedure 31 Experience to date 33 5. UN SYSTEM ORGANIZATIONS 33 Greenhouse gas emissions and reduction status in 2008135 ANNEXES136 Annex I: Statement adopted by the UN System Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB) at its October 2007 session137 Annex II: Resources on climate-neutrality prepared for the UN system138 Annex III: Acronyms and abbreviations CASE STUDIES 20 UNITAR: where there’s a will there is a way 21 The Universal Postal Union: travel policies 22 UN Headquarters in NY: Capital Master Plan 23 WMO Headquarters building: A model of energy efficiency 23 UNIDO Headquarters: Environmental approaches in building management at the Vienna International Centre 24 A Green One UN House in Hanoi, Viet Nam 24 ICAO Headquarters: the first LEED certified UN Building 25 IFAD: A Green Building in Rome 27 UN Headquarters in New York: ICT Electronic Measures 28 FAO Actions towards Climate Neutrality: raising staff awareness 28 Raising staff awareness at ESCAP 32 UNEP’s offset scheme
MOVING TOWARDS A CLIMATE NEUTRAL UN 5ForewordClimate change is the defining challenge of our generation. Scientistswarn we have less than 10 years to halt the global rise in greenhouse gasemissions if we are to avoid catastrophic consequences. For this reason, Imade climate change a top priority as soon as I took office. It is a practicaland moral imperative. The decisions we make today will affect almost allthe work of the United Nations for sustainable development, social prog-ress, human rights, peace and stability.In combating climate change I resolved that the United and, in particular, Mr. Achim Steiner, Executive Direc-Nations should lead by example. On World Environ- tor of the United Nations Environment Programme, inment Day 2007 I mandated that we would use energy his capacity as Chair of the Environment Managementmore efficiently and eliminate wasteful practices in our Group, for coordinating this initiative.headquarters and offices around the globe. In NewYork I instructed that the Capital Master Plan for the While much remains to be done, I am pleased to notenew Secretariat building be a model of energy efficien- we have made progress. This report documents thecy and green best practice. steps we have taken towards climate-neutrality and environmental sustainability. I hope it serves as inspira-All heads of United Nations agencies, funds and pro- tion for further achievement.grammes have joined this effort. The UN system is col-lectively developing a climate-neutral approach for The responsibility for the future lies in our hands. Letits premises and operations. I would like to thank the change begin at home.members of the UN System Chief Executives Board New York, 4 December 2009 Ban Ki-moon United Nations Secretary-General
6 MOVING TOWARDS A CLIMATE NEUTRAL UN Acknowledgements This publication is the result of the collective effort of Acknowledgement is also made for the information and over a thousand staff members from across the UN data used in the UN Greenhouse Gas Calculator from the system who have pooled their expertise, skills and World Resources Institute (WRI), the Intergovernmental know-how in service of the organization as a whole Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the United States En- and to support efforts to combat climate change. It has vironmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Climate Lead- brought together staff from within each organization, ers Programme and the International Energy Agency from the climate neutral focal point in each agency, to (IEA), and the considerable time commitment from staff facility managers, staff from travel units, procurement, of the United Nations Department of Field Support/In- engineering, as well as the senior staff who have cham- formation and Communications Technology Division pioned the process. (DFS/ICTD) to develop the UN Greenhouse Gas Calcu- lator, the UN greenhouse gas database and reporting Countless hours of work have gone into the prepara- tool. UNEP would also like to express its appreciation to tion and use of the greenhouse gas calculators, emis- the secretariat of the International Civil Aviation Orga- sions reductions guides and other tools, the provision nization (ICAO) for the development and maintenance of training, and putting into place data collection of a custom-built interface to the ICAO Aviation Carbon systems. Emissions Calculator for use by UN system organiza- tions. UNEP is grateful to the Government of Norway for United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)’s Envi- financial support for the climate-neutral initiative. ronment Management Group secretariat is grateful to the World Bank, which has been climate neutral since Special thanks are due to the climate neutral focal 2006, for playing an instrumental role in launching the points and their colleagues across the UN system, the UN’s climate neutral initiative by hosting the kick-off UN Secretary-General’s Climate Change Support Team meeting and generously sharing its experience. and the UN Chief Executives Board secretariat.
MOVING TOWARDS A CLIMATE NEUTRAL UN 7PrefaceCombating climate change and catalyzing the transition to a low carbon,more resource efficient global Green Economy is everyone’s responsibil-ity – international, regional and national organizations and the individu-als that work for them, regional and municipal authorities and compa-nies and civil society.The UN system is responding to the Secretary-General’s 1.5% of the amount emitted by New York City in thatcall to make its in-house practices alongside its field year. UN peacekeeping operations emitted an addi-operations more climate-friendly and environmentally tional one million tones of carbon dioxide equivalents.sustainable. This publication presents the first green-house gas inventory for the UN system and an over- While the UN system’s worldwide footprint is smallview of the initial steps that have been taken to man- when compared with the global total, we hope to sendage these emissions. out a collective signal to the world that combating climate change begins at home and that we take ac-This first-ever footprint of the UN system includes data countability and credibility seriously.from UN headquarters, major centres and field officeoperations. It covers the full range of institutions that This is in many ways just the beginning and major chal-make up the UN system, from the Secretariat and its re- lenges lie ahead. Over the coming year, the UN willgional economic commissions, to the specialized agen- make its greenhouse gas inventory methodology morecies, funds and programmes. user-friendly. Collective efforts are needed to improve data quality and fill current data gaps, particularly onIt is an excellent example of coordination within the UN travel and field offices in order to bring the inventorysystem, where a collection of diverse institutions has numbers up to a standard against which we can mean-come together despite differences in mandate, con- ingfully measure the effects of our emission-reductionstituents and priorities to adopt a common approach measures. Above all we need to make the transitionand single methodology. This is in large part due to the from a collection of success stories to emission reduc-network of climate neutral focal points across the UN tion plans with targets for each UN organization.system and countless others who have contributed insharing their knowledge, expertise and experience. I am sure that these efforts towards a lower-carbon UN will contribute to lowering the organization’s en-In 2008, the organizations that make up the UN sys- vironmental impacts while reducing operating costs,tem are collectively responsible for three-quarters of a promoting credibility and hopefully inspiring others tomillion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents – around take a climate-friendly, resource efficient path. Achim Steiner Under-Secretary General Executive Director of UNEP Chair of the UN Environment Management Group
8 MOVING TOWARDS A CLIMATE NEUTRAL UN 1. CLIMATE NEUTRAL UN The UN system The UN system is made up of the organizations estab- The UN System Chief Executives Board for Coordina- lished by the Charter of the United Nations, namely, tion (CEB) brings together the executive heads of the the United Nations principal organs, the specialized organizations that make up the United Nations system, agencies provided for in Article 57 of the Charter and under the chairmanship of the Secretary General of the a number of programmes established by the General United Nations. Assembly under its authority derived from Article 22 of the Charter. The agencies are legally independent The agencies, funds and programmes of the UN sys- international organizations with their own rules, mem- tem together with the secretariats of Multilateral Envi- bership, organs and financial resources. ronmental Agreements (MEAs) are member of the UN Environment Management Group (EMG), which was The international institutions that make up the UN sys- established by the General Assembly to coordinate tem have diverse fields of action and operations, struc- environmental issues across the UN system. The secre- tures, mandate and governing body arrangements, tariat for the EMG is provided by UNEP. and varying field office presence. Progress so far The aggregated GHG emissions of the UN system organi- the greening of meetings. Areas where efforts have begun zations for their facility operations and travel in 2008, not but which hold considerable future potential include the including peacekeeping, are estimated at approximately use of information and communication technologies to 770’000 tonnes of CO2 equivalent. The average annual reduce emissions and streamlining air travel. Measures to GHG emissions across the UN system are approximately 8.3 cut emissions have also reduced the consumption of en- tonnes of CO2 equivalent per staff member. ergy, water and paper – and therefore costs, and improved planning and efficiency in work delivery. Polices and measures are being implemented across the UN system to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The fo- A number of organizations have already put into place cus so far has been on improving the energy-efficiency of offsetting initiatives. Five UN system institutions have de- buildings and office equipment, increased use of renew- clared themselves climate- or carbon-neutral, while six able energy, raising staff awareness on energy-savings and others have offset specific events.
CLIMATE NEUTRAL UN 9Moving towards climate-neutralityAt the October 2007 meeting of the CEB, the execu- development of common tools, ensures comparabilitytive heads of the UN agencies, funds and programmes of data across organizations, and pooling of results formade a commitment to move their respective organi- better-informed decisions and knowledge-sharing.zations towards climate neutrality in headquarters andUN centres for their facility operations and travel (see The UN Environment Management Group (EMG) wasAnnex II for the text of the statement). tasked with coordinating the UN system’s efforts to move towards climate neutrality, and has been work-In particular, they agreed to estimate greenhouse gas ing through a network of climate neutral focal points(GHG) emissions consistent with accepted international from each organization.standards, to undertake efforts to reduce GHG emissionsto the extent possible; and to analyze the cost implica- In addition, the Sustainable United Nations facilitytions and explore budgetary modalities – including con- (SUN) was established in UNEP’s Paris-based Divisionsulting with governing bodies as needed – of purchasing for Technology, Industry and Economics to provide ad-carbon offsets to eventually reach climate neutrality. The ditional support on becoming climate neutral, particu-initial milestone for this work was set for December 2009. larly on emissions reductions.The UN system set out its approach in the UN Climate The EMG secretariat and SUN have been working withNeutral Strategy. In this document, the UN defined its the UN system to develop common methodologies,“climate neutrality” as the entire set of polices that it tools, guidelines and briefing information, and provideuses to estimate its known GHG emissions, measures training and technical support. Annex III contains a list ofto reduce them, and to purchase carbon offsets to resources prepared and planned to support the UN sys-“neutralize” those emissions that remain, aiming at the tem’s move towards climate neutrality. Most of these arehighest standards possible. It identifies the following in the public domain and aim to encourage institutionselements that should be included: and individuals to reduce their own climate footprint. • a commitment to reducing GHG emissions as part of an integrated and comprehensive environmental The data collection procedure in each organization management approach; was managed and coordinated by the designated • the preparation of consistent, comparable and trans- climate neutral focal point within each organiza- parent inventory data, according to agreed method- tion. Focal points received training on the use of the ologies, which subsequently undergo periodic inde- calculator tools and the inventory process through pendent verification; workshops, teleconferences and several web-based • the development and implementation of a package training sessions. In addition, the EMG secretariat of measures to reduce GHG emissions; established a GHG Helpdesk consisting of a team of • a decision to offset the remaining emissions through experts which provided assistance to climate neutral a reasoned choice of offsets that satisfy a list of focal points via phone and e-mail on technical and or- agreed criteria, ensuring their high quality; ganizational issues. • regular transparent reporting combined with the public communication of each organization’s emis- The focal points typically worked on the internal data sions inventory, together with any targets or goals collection with offices and departments which had ac- for emissions reductions; cess to relevant information. Facility managers, travel • the development and implementation of a know agents, and technical and administrative staff were ledge-management system serving the entire UN, therefore heavily involved in collecting and aggregat- to document initiatives, data, lessons learned and ing information for the GHG inventory. best practice; to post guidelines and methodologies; to post model strategies and work plans; to provide The full UN system has been covered by this exercise, e-training courses; to host Q&A; to provide technical through forty-nine reporting entities. The reporting en- assistance; and to host e-discussions. tity is typically a distinct UN agency, fund, programme, regional commission or institute, but in some cases theThe UN Climate Neutral Strategy highlighted advantag- reporting office has been based on administrative re-es of harmonization. A common approach across the UN sponsibility or the specificity of its mandate and activi-system brings greater impact, lowers transactions costs, ties. In this report, the term “UN organization” is usedfacilitates practical action on the ground through the interchangeably with reporting entity.
10 MOVING TOWARDS A CLIMATE NEUTRAL UN The United Nations System Principal Organs Trusteeship Council Security Council General Assembly Subsidiary Bodies Subsidiary Bodies Military Staff Committee International Criminal Tribunal for the Main committees Standing Committee and ad hoc bodies former Yugoslavia (ICTY) Human Rights Council International Criminal Tribunal for Peacekeeping Operations and Missions Other sessional committees Rwanda (ICTR) Counter-Terrorism Committee Standing committees and ad hoc bodies Other subsidiary organs Programmes and Funds Advisory Subsidiary Body United Nations Peacebuilding UNCTAD United Nations Conference on UNDP United Nations Development Commission Trade and Development Programme ITC International Trade Centre UNIFEM United Nations (UNCTAD/WTO) Development Fund for Women UNDCP 1 United Nations Drug UNV United Nations Volunteers WFP World Food Programme Control Programme UNCDF United Nations Capital UNRWA 2 United Nations Relief and UNEP United Nations Environment Development Fund Works Agency for Palestine Refugees Programme in the Near East UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund UN-HABITAT United Nations Human UNHCR Ofﬁce of the United Nations High Settlements Programme Commissioner for Refugees Research and Training Institutes UNICRI United Nations Interregional UNRISD United Nations Research UN-INSTRAW United Nations Crime and Justice Research Institute Institute for Social Development International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women UNITAR United Nations Institute for UNIDIR 2 United Nations Institute for Training and Research Disarmament Research Other UN Entities UNOPS United Nations Ofﬁce for Project Services UNSSC United Nations System Staff College UNU United Nations University UNAIDS Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS Other UN Trust Funds 8 UNFIP United Nations Fund for International Partnerships UNDEF United Nations Democracy Fund NOTES: Solid lines from a Principal Organ indicate a direct reporting relationship; dashes indicate a non-subsidiary relationship. 1 The UN Drug Control Programme is part of the UN Ofﬁce on Drugs and Crime. 2 UNRWA and UNIDIR report only to the GA. 3 The United Nations Ethics Ofﬁce, the United Nations Ombudsman’s Ofﬁce, and the Chief Information Technology Ofﬁcer report directly to the Secretary-General. 4 In an exceptional arrangement, the Under-Secretary-General for Field Support reports directly to the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations. 5 IAEA reports to the Security Council and the General Assembly (GA). 6 The CTBTO Prep.Com and OPCW report to the GA. 7 Specialized agencies are autonomous organizations working with the UN and each other through the coordinating machinery of the ECOSOC at the intergovernmental level, and through the Chief Executives Board for coordination (CEB) at the inter-secretariat level. 8 UNFIP is an autonomous trust fund operating under the leadership of the United Nations Deputy Secretary-General. UNDEF’s advisory board recommends funding proposals for approval by the Secretary-General.
CLIMATE NEUTRAL UN 11 Economic and International Court Secretariat Social Council of JusticeFunctional Commissions Specialized Agencies 7 Departments and OfﬁcesCommissions on: ILO International Labour OSG 3 Ofﬁce of the Narcotic Drugs Organization Secretary-General Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice FAO Food and Agriculture OIOS Ofﬁce of Internal Oversight Science and Technology for Organization of the United Nations Services Development UNESCO United Nations OLA Ofﬁce of Legal Affairs Sustainable Development Educational, Scientiﬁc and Cultural Status of Women DPA Department of Political Affairs Organization Population and Development UNODA Ofﬁce for Disarmament WHO World Health Organization AffairsCommission for Social DevelopmentStatistical Commission DPKO Department of Peacekeeping World Bank Group Operations IBRD International BankRegional Commissions for Reconstruction and DFS 4 Department of Field SupportEconomic Commission for Africa (ECA) Development OCHA Ofﬁce for the Coordination IDA International Development of Humanitarian AffairsEconomic Commission for Europe (ECE) Association DESA Department of Economic andEconomic Commission for Latin Social Affairs America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) IFC International Finance Corporation DGACM Department for GeneralEconomic and Social Commission for Assembly and Conference Asia and the Paciﬁc (ESCAP) MIGA Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency ManagementEconomic and Social Commission for DPI Department of Public Information Western Asia (ESCWA) ICSID International Centre for Settlement of Investment DM Department of Management Disputes UN-OHRLLS Ofﬁce of the HighOther Bodies IMF International Monetary Fund Representative for the LeastPermanent Forum on Indigenous Issues Developed Countries, Landlocked ICAO International Civil Aviation Developing Countries and SmallUnited Nations Forum on Forests Organization Island Developing StatesSessional and standing committees IMO International Maritime Organization OHCHR Ofﬁce of the UnitedExpert, ad hoc and related bodies Nations High Commissioner for ITU International Telecommunication Human Rights Union UNODC United Nations Ofﬁce on UPU Universal Postal Union Drugs and Crime WMO World Meteorological DSS Department of Safety andRelated Organizations Organization SecurityWTO World Trade Organization WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization abIAEA 5 International Atomic Energy Agency IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development UNOG UN Ofﬁce at Geneva UNIDO United Nations Industrial UNOV UN Ofﬁce at ViennaCTBTO Prep.Com 6 PrepCom for the Development Organization UNON UN Ofﬁce at Nairobi Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization UNWTO World Tourism OrganizationOPCW 6 Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Published by the United Nations Department of Public Information DPI/2470—07-49950—December 2007—3M
12 MOVING TOWARDS A CLIMATE NEUTRAL UN Challenges and limitations This report presents the UN’s GHG inventory for the cal- such as committees, senior level champions and assign- endar year 2008 and information on emissions reduc- ing of responsibilities has also taken time. tions and offsets that has been gathered for the first time. In order to obtain this information, it was neces- The overall coordination exercise across organizations sary to set up data collection systems where they did with diverse mandates, management structures and not previously exist, to train staff in GHG foot-printing geographical locations has also presented challenges, techniques and the use of new tools specially devel- with case-by-case solutions needed, for example when oped for the purpose. defining a common boundary. Situations where sever- al organizations are sharing common office space also The data collection systems and tools are in their first require special coordination to allocate emissions to iteration, and will be refined and improved over the each organization. coming months and years. The results presented in this report should be viewed as a first effort which will In developing common tools, a further challenge has become more comprehensive and precise over time. been the fact that different enterprise resource plan- Efforts will be made to raise the level of accuracy in ning (ERP) systems are in use across UN system orga- inventory data, for example by improving transparen- nizations. This has complicated the extraction of input cy and traceability, filling data gaps, obtaining better data for the GHG calculator tools. coverage of field offices and replacing proxies and es- timates with actual data. In many cases, organizations’ It was not always possible to meet all the data-collec- GHG inventories will require improvement before they tion challenges in the current inventory and achieve a can be used as a base year. high level of accuracy, coverage and comprehensive- ness across organizations. The performance indica- In some cases, there have been constraints in the fund- tors and relative emissions are therefore expected to ing related to the allocation of staff resources that are re- change in the future, due to improved and more sys- quired for the introduction of GHG foot-printing across tematic inventory-data collection systems and emis- the UN. Making the internal institutional arrangements, sions-reduction efforts.
CLIMATE NEUTRAL UN 13Next stepsGreenhouse gas inventories ganization, which the UN system has agreed to do asThe UN system is using a common methodology to cal- its next step in 2010. These plans will address the fullculate its GHG emissions and has agreed on what emis- range of measures to reduce emissions, including fromsion sources to include in the inventory. travel, which is the largest source category for many UN system organizations. Performance indicators will beOver the coming months and years, the UN system will developed to assess progress which will be reflected inimprove the quality of data and coverage, and will fill the inventories.data gaps, improving the accuracy of data, especially forthe larger source categories such as air travel. It aims to Offsetsreplace estimates with actual data where possible, and The UN System Chief Executives Board opted to pur-gradually expand to achieve full coverage of field offices. chase only offsets generated under the Clean Develop- ment Mechanism (CDM). Only a few organizations haveThis will entail corresponding improvements to data purchased offsets. A handful of organizations are or willcollections systems, integrating links to ERP systems be fully climate-neutral, one will have offset part of itsin use, improving the methodology used by the UN on footprint, while several others have made only specifican ongoing basis, and moving the UN’s overall report- high-profile events climate-neutral. Some organiza-ing system onto an online Internet-based platform. The tions have highlighted that they have yet to hold con-agreed common boundary will also be kept under con- sultations with their governing bodies on related bud-tinuous review. getary issues.To support these efforts, training will be provided on In the future, common approaches to offsetting will bean ongoing basis to ensure that field offices have the explored across the UN system, as appropriate, to inter-necessary skills and training to prepare high quality nalize climate change costs, build additional incentivesdata and inventories. for emissions reductions and efficiency gains.Emissions reduction measures Sustainable Management of the UNA range of different measures is being implemented At the annual senior officials meeting of the UN Envi-across the UN system in all duty stations, from energy ronment Management Group in September 2009, theefficiency measures, efficient lighting and the refur- UN system decided to consolidate its work on a climatebishing of buildings, to staff awareness programmes, neutral UN and parallel work on sustainable procure-sustainable procurement and even the introduction of ment into a single work stream, on sustainable man-environmental management systems. agement in the UN. The UN climate-neutrality strategy will henceforth be addressed as part of a broader ef-The next steps will involve making the transition from fort to “green” the way the UN works, which will, in aa collection of success stories to the development of holistic and systematic manner, address the full rangecoherent emissions reduction strategies for each or- of sustainability issues.
14 MOVING TOWARDS A CLIMATE NEUTRAL UN 2. GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY FOR 2008 Establishing an inventory of GHG emissions from the various activities and operations is the first step towards reducing these emissions. The in- ventory allows the institution to identify the main emission sources and to take targeted action to reduce these emissions and also obtain effi- ciency gains. Many UN agencies collected their GHG data for the This exercise has been a difficult but successful process that first time in 2008, whereas some have been preparing resulted in real number baseline GHG inventories crucial inventories since 2004. It is the first time that a coor- for moving towards climate neutrality. Since this was the dinated approach for a UN-wide GHG inventory with first time most organizations have prepared a GHG inven- a common methodology has been implemented. The tory, data gaps, estimates and the use of proxies could not use of a common boundary and methodology ensures be avoided. However, the exercise has been a useful learn- that data can be aggregated and compared across all ing experience which will improve practices and make UN system organizations. data collection more efficient and easier in the future. UN system methodology and tools The calculation of GHG emissions is based on the self-generated power, refrigerants, purchased heat and GHG Protocol of the World Resources Institute (WRI) steam, and electricity. The calculator was developed, pro- and World Business Council on Sustainable Develop- grammed and designed by the United Nations Depart- ment (WBCSD), which is compatible with the new ISO ment of Field Support/Information and Communications 14’064 standard for GHG accounting. It is the most Technology Division (DFS/ICTD) with input from the WRI, widely used international accounting tool for govern- which provided emission factors and internationally rec- ment and business leaders to understand, quantify, ognized methodologies. Contributions were also made and manage GHG emissions and draws upon inter- by staff from over a dozen organizations across the UN nationally recognized methodologies for calculating system who have pooled their expertise, skills and know- GHG emissions from buildings and transport. The goal how in the service of the organization as a whole. is to provide a credible and transparent approach to quantifying and reporting GHG emissions reductions. The tool is specially designed for the UN agencies, funds and programmes to facilitate the preparation of their UN Greenhouse Gas Calculator baseline GHG inventories. It aims to ensure that the in- The UN Greenhouse Gas Calculator estimates GHG ventories of the UN organizations are consistent, com- emissions resulting from building-related emissions parable with one another, transparent and based on the and travel by road and rail. It provides the methodol- best available information sources. ogy and suggests emission factors for calculating GHG emissions from official vehicles, buses, trains, taxis, 1. www.unemg.org/sustainableun
GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY FOR 2008 15The UN Greenhouse Gas Calculator methodology is ex- aviation’s total contribution to radiative forcing beingplained in detail in its user manual1. The calculator and approximately 3.5 per cent.the user guide provide step-by-step instructions onhow to prepare an inventory according to the common More recent data in the 2007 IPCC “Fourth Assessmentboundary agreed by the UN system for its GHG account- Report” suggests an RFI of 1.9 for aircraft in 2005 anding. After the required activity data are entered into the aviation’s contribution being at 3 per cent. Although ref-tool, the GHG footprint is automatically estimated by erence to the RFI is made, the report states that the RFIapplying a set of default emission factors, allowing flex- should not be used as an emission metric since it doesibility to enter more specific data where available. not account for the different residence times of different forcing agents. Other metrics such as Global WarmingInternational Civil Aviation Organization Potential (GWP) and Global Temperature Potential (GTP)(ICAO) Aviation Carbon Emissions Calcu- could be considered as alternatives. However, to date, thelator IPCC has not provided further guidance on these issues,The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), but work is underway in the Fifth Assessment Report.one of the UN system organizations, has developed amethodology for calculating the carbon dioxide emis- In its decision on how to consider the effect of non- CO2sions from official air travel. A tool for calculating emis- gases, in the EMG, the UN system organizations weighedsions is available on the ICAO website together with a up various factors, including scientific uncertainty, riskdescription of the methodology underpinning the Cal- to reputation, the need to follow the precautionaryculator. The UN system organizations have chosen to approach, the need to maintain high environmentaluse this tool for estimating emissions from air travel as standards, and legal and budgetary considerations. Athere can be very significant differences in emissions collective decision was taken, on a provisional basis andfor the same trip travelled via different routings2. A spe- until further guidance is provided by the IPCC, in keep-cial interface to the ICAO tool was developed by the ing with the current WRI/WBCSD methodology, only toICAO secretariat for specific use by the UN system or- take into account the effects of CO2 from air travel.ganizations, to facilitate the aggregation of travel data.This tool complements the UN Greenhouse Gas Calcu- The ICAO and UNEP secretariats were also requestedlator. The methodology applies the best publicly avail- to convene a meeting of experts who will be identifiedable industry data to account for various factors such based on, inter alia, recommendations of the IPCC. Theas aircraft types, route specific data, passenger load meeting will aim to provide further guidance as a mat-factors and cargo carried. The methodology makes a ter of priority on the question of an appropriate metricdistinction between cabin class factors “economy” and to account for all GHG effects from aviation, while wait-“premium”, and weights these with a ratio of 1:2. ing for additional guidance from the IPCC. Preparations are underway to convene this meeting in spring 2010.Non-CO2 emissions from air travelThe full climate impact of air travel goes beyond the The decision to account provisionally only for CO2 emis-effect of CO2 emissions alone. For example, aircraft sions has resulted in some UN organizations describingemit nitrogen oxides (NOx) which tend to increase the their current approach as carbon neutral (as opposedlevel of ozone and reduce the level of methane, both to climate neutral), but the goal of reaching climateof which are greenhouse gases. Aircraft also contribute neutrality remains in place.to water condensation in the atmosphere which has awarming effect. There is still considerable scientific un- Alternative reporting formatcertainty about the scale and dynamics of these effects. An alternative reporting format was made available to UN agencies which had already concluded their GHGThe “Special Report on Aviation and the Global Atmo- inventory for 2008 before the inventory tools were avail-sphere”, prepared by the Intergovernmental Panel on able or where other means of compiling the inventoryClimate Change (IPCC) in 1999, estimated the overall had been used. If methods other than that agreed byclimate impact of aviation to be between two to four the WRI/WBCSD were used, the assumptions had totimes larger than that of the CO2 emissions alone. It be explained in the individual organization’s inventoryused a Radiative Forcing Index (RFI) in these estimates. management plan. Information on emissions for each ofThe RFI for aircraft in 1992 was estimated to be 2.7 with the Kyoto Protocol gases, kilometres travelled, number of trips and kWh electricity used etc. was to be entered2. The World Bank Group continues to use the WRI/WBCSD in this pre-formatted Excel spreadsheet. Data submittedmetho ology with the latest DEFRA emission factors to calculate d in this alternative format was treated in the same way asits emissions from business travel. data submitted in the UN GHG Calculator inventory tool.
16 MOVING TOWARDS A CLIMATE NEUTRAL UN Inventory boundary The UN system has agreed on a common minimum to develop appropriate metrics and approaches to boundary for its GHG inventory, which specifies activi- resolve this issue. Similarly, the default national emis- ties, emission sources and GHGs, as described below. sion factors that were available for public transport and electricity production did not include gases other Activities than CO2. The October 2007 decision of the UN system Chief Ex- ecutives Board (CEB) limits the boundary of the UN to The UN’s methodology allows the use of proxies to es- facility operations and travel. The UN agencies, funds timate GHG emissions from “small” offices, which it has and programmes therefore accounted for GHG emis- defined as offices with fewer than five staff members. sions from headquarters, regional and administrative If such offices have been excluded altogether from the centres and field offices. Emissions from activities that inventory, the data gap must be reported with an indi- are funded both through the regular and extra-bud- cation of plans on how to account for these small of- getary sources are included in the UN’s boundary. fices in the future. Among others, the following are not included in the UN To assess inventory completeness, organizations were minimum agreed boundary: asked to identify and report the data gaps in coverage • Emissions from staff commuting to work; of emissions under the minimum agreed boundary. • Emissions from projects implemented by external Whenever data were not readily available, organiza- entities or from grants to other institutions; tions had the option of estimating GHG emissions • Emissions from electricity losses, courier, mail, print- based on clearly defined assumptions and proxies ing and shipping; (kWh per square metre of office floor space). Such prox- • Embodied carbon in for instance food, beverages, ies can be derived from real data collected from similar paper and computers; and buildings in the region and are discussed in the indi- • Emissions from construction. vidual agencies inventory management plans. Emission sources Emissions from sources outside the UN The GHG inventory of UN system organizations in- minimum agreed boundary cludes as a minimum the following emission sources: UN system organizations have been allowed the flex- • Mobile fuel combustion, such as emissions from of- ibility to report on an optional basis on emissions ficial air, rail or road travel; from sources that lie outside the UN minimum agreed • Stationary fuel combustion, such as energy con- boundary, provided an explanation is provided in the sumption in buildings for electricity, heating, air con- inventory management plan. These could include ditioning, hot water and cooking, and so on; and for example emissions from commuting, waste and • Fugitive emissions, such as leakage of GHGs from re- paper use. If organizations chose to do so, emissions frigeration and air-conditioning equipment. from these source categories should also be reported in subsequent years for the purpose of time series If for some reason the organization was not able to in- comparison. clude the above in the inventory, the omission was to be documented and an explanation provided in the in- UN GHG inventory database and reports ventory management plan. According to the system in place in 2008, UN system organizations have provided their GHG data in several Greenhouse gas coverage standardized Calculators (the UN Greenhouse Gas The GHG Protocol requires reporting of the six GHGs Calculator, the UN Interface to the ICAO Carbon Emis- covered by the Kyoto Protocol, namely CO2, CH4, N2O, sions Calculator, and a spreadsheet for reported data HFC, PFC and SF6. There are no emissions of SF6 from using other methods of compiling the inventory). To UN activities. The methodology requires emissions to accommodate the UN system’s specific GHG reporting be reported separately for each GHG as well as aggre- needs, DFS/ICTD developed and designed a custom- gated as carbon-dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq). There ized “data-mining tool” to extract data from the work- are several areas where it has been difficult to report books and store all the information in a common GHG on all GHGs. As indicated above, in 2008, the UN’s database. DFS/ICTD has also made available a web- methodology does not take into account the non-CO2 portal where registered users can generate custom- effects of aviation, although efforts were underway ized GHG reports directly from the Internet.
GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY FOR 2008 17Experience and resultsData results and statistics Furthermore, the local climatic conditions, the extentThe climate neutral focal points received the standard- of heating and air-conditioning, and the energy effi-ized methodology, tools and templates in April 2009, ciency of the buildings play an important role. Thesetogether with training sessions on their use. Over the factors increase the share of total emissions from facili-following four months, the forty-nine UN system re- ties and vehicles.porting entities collected data and submitted GHGinventories to the EMG secretariat using the standard- Carbon dioxide is the most significant GHG, account-ized reporting formats. The result is a comprehensive ing for more than 90 per cent of total GHG emissions.overview of source categories and emissions. This result reflects the fact that fossil fuel combustion is the principal source of GHG emissions. Another reasonThe proposed methodology and tools were used by all is that other GHGs, such as HFCs and PFCs have prob-participating organizations except four organizations, ably been undervalued, because of limited data avail-which already had a GHG data collection system in ability. Furthermore, some energy providers have pro-place. Those submitted their results in the alternative vided data to organizations only in aggregated CO2 eqformat. Since the methodologies used by those organi- format. In the latter cases, these emissions have beenzations were based on the GHG Protocol, like the other counted as CO2 emissions in the inventory.UN GHG Calculator, their approaches are similar andtherefore compatible. Completeness and quality Organizations generally succeeded in reporting theirThe aggregated GHG emissions of the UN system or- GHG emissions required under the minimum agreedganizations for their facility operations and travel in boundary. However, there are variations in quality and2008 are estimated at approximately 770 000 tonnes completeness.of CO2 equivalent. An estimated additional one mil-lion tonnes of CO2 equivalent are emitted from opera- The highest quality data were those which were system-tions related to peacekeeping missions, including uni- atically collected and recorded, such as air travel and elec-formed personnel. The average annual greenhouse tricity consumption. There were often difficulties obtain-emissions across the UN system are approximately 8.3 ing data for fugitive emissions from air-conditioning andtonnes of CO2 equivalent per staff member3. refrigeration, because maintenance of air-conditioning equipment is often outsourced and various types ofTotal GHG emissions vary across organizations due to equipment and refrigerants are used in one facility.their different sizes and types of operations. The largestsource of GHG emissions for the UN system organiza- Air travel datations is air travel, accounting on average for almost 50 Although air travel data were most of the time read-per cent of total emissions, one third are from electric- ily available through the ERP system or servicing travelity and heating of facilities, twelve per cent are from of- agent, difficulties were experienced by some organi-ficial vehicles and five per cent from refrigeration and zations in obtaining the data in the required data for-air conditioning. There is significant variation between mat. The ICAO Carbon Emissions Calculator takes intoorganizations, with air travel resulting in over 90 per account the actual routing of a flight rather than justcent in some cases down to a few per cent in others. the distance between origin and destination in order to better estimate emissions resulting from the trip.The use of official vehicles is more common in country Furthermore, data need to be expressed in three-letteroffices. There is also variation in GHG emissions from IATA airport codes. It also differentiates emissions cre-facilities, with average emission factors from electricity ated by a business-class flight and one in economy.production ranging, for example from 0.0013 kg CO2 / However, this requires data on the exact routing andkWh in Mozambique to 0.9434 kg CO2 / kWh in India. travel class which was difficult for some organizations to obtain retroactively.3. The term “staff member” is used in this inventory process to For certain categories of official travel – such as entitle-include all personnel contributing to an organization’s footprint ment travel (home leave), self-ticketed travel or charterand therefore also includes short-term staff, consultants and in- flights – information on the routing and class of trav-terns. Numbers may therefore differ from those provided in otherofficial documents, depending on whether these refer to posts el was not readily available. In these cases, estimatesestablished in budgets or other definitions. were made either by estimating the routing by select-
18 MOVING TOWARDS A CLIMATE NEUTRAL UN ing commonly-travelled routes, or else using the aver- data were more readily available, and will expand the age emissions per flight calculated by the ICAO Carbon scope of their GHG inventory over time. Emissions Calculator which was then applied to the number of flights with missing data. One way of over- Comparability coming such problems in the future would be to adapt The UN system organizations have followed a com- the ERP system to collect the required travel data, with mon methodology and minimum agreed boundary, support from the ICAO secretariat if appropriate, so as a result of which their data are broadly comparable. that estimated itineraries can be replaced with actual However, there are divergences between organizations data where possible. on coverage of country or field offices, and so the ag- gregated UN system data do not reflect the full impact The emissions from air travel included in the inven- of operations. Furthermore, data collection systems for tory include all trips paid for by the organization, both air travel and refrigerants in air-conditioners will need those of staff members as well as for example confer- to be improved to harmonize to a high quality across ence participants. The indicator “Air travel per staff organizations. member” will therefore be higher than the actual aver- age per staff member and should thus be understood Data collection systems as a general indicator for the emission intensity of the Data collection systems play one of the most important organization. A high value may reflect a large amount roles in preparing the GHG inventory. A critical lesson of participant travel. learned for many organizations was to integrate data requirements and the data collection process itself into Field offices the day-to-day operations of the organization, in order The inclusion of field offices in the GHG inventory to ensure that data are readily available and are of high presents major challenges. Data on energy consump- quality. The necessary procedures, roles and respon- tion and other relevant emissions sources were often sibilities need to be established, with empowerment difficult to obtain or not available, either because data from senior management. are not being collected or because local infrastructure lacks emission control devices or consumption infor- Quality control mation. The need for additional staff training, the geo- The UN Climate Neutral Strategy recommends that the graphical distance and the large number of field offices GHG inventories should undergo periodic indepen- all increase the challenges. dent verification. Plans are underway to carry out such verification of the methodologies developed by the UN Some organizations with a large number of country of- for their GHG inventory, as well as efforts to ensure that fices succeeded in obtaining good coverage of these a harmonized and coordinated approach for the verifi- offices in their first inventory. Others have prioritized cation of individual organizations’ inventories, includ- headquarters and/or larger offices for which reliable ing the provision of related training for UN system. Next steps A review will be undertaken of the experience in com- The experience in using the tools will also be re- piling the 2008 inventory, including lessons learned viewed, and improvements made together with up- for 2009. A priority area will be to simplify the process dates on emission factors. Better use will be made of and facilitate data submission and emissions calcula- the knowledge-sharing website to collect and dis- tions, which is planned using an online data submis- seminate information on local emission factors for sion system. energy generation, and other data. Other areas of focus will be facilitating data collection Ongoing efforts will be needed to further automate from country offices, improving other areas of cover- data collection from the various ERP systems in use by age and enhancing data quality. the UN system.
20 MOVING TOWARDS A CLIMATE NEUTRAL UN 3. EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS A strategic approach The UN System Chief Executives Board for Coordina- • Development of common tools and guidelines to tion (CEB) committed to reduce GHG emissions to the support emissions-reduction efforts in organizations. extent possible. At its September 2009 meeting, the En- This is a joint effort by all UN organizations, coordi- vironment Management Group (EMG) agreed to facili- nated by SUN and EMG. Tools include guidelines for tate the development of individual emission reduction emissions-reductions through sustainable policies strategies for each organization as well as a common for facilities management, travel and procurement, approach to emission reduction across the UN system. green meetings, distance working, etc.; • Revision of common policies affecting the ability The Sustainable United Nations facility (SUN), hosted of UN organizations to behave in a more climate- by UNEP, was set up in 2008 to provide support along- friendly and sustainable way. This includes minimum side EMG, to all organizations within the UN system, standards for energy efficiency in facilities owned or and others outside, to reduce their GHG emissions. leased by UN, and for access to e-communication tools by UN staff, thus reducing the need for travel, Support is provided in three areas: with revised procurement guidelines to allow the • Identification and implementation of emission re- purchase of energy-efficient equipment when pos- ductions opportunities in individual UN organiza- sible. tions, each one having assigned a climate neutral focal point responsible for coordinating internal The following section describes progress and achieve- emission-reduction activities; ments in these work streams in greater detail. UNITAR: where there’s a will there is a way Within a few months in autumn 2008, UNITAR set up The Climate Neutral Policy was promulgated through an its 2009–10 climate-neutral policy and strategy, com- administrative circular, making it binding across the Insti- pleted a first inventory of GHG emissions, set measur- tute. It states that all 2008 emissions emanating from staff able emissions-reduction targets, and promulgated travel and headquarters office operations will be offset. In a number of measures to reduce its climate impact. 2009 the target is to offset all GHG emissions from all office What made such rapid process possible? locations, all emissions originating from staff travel and half the emissions from travel of workshop participants UNITAR’s Executive Director, Carlos Lopes, simply and trainees. In 2010 all of UNITAR’s operations, including took the decision by the UN Chief Executives’ Board emissions from all workshop participants, will be offset. on Coordination (CEB) literally and made it a strategic priority for the Institute to become climate neutral. An important aspect of the Policy is that it does not comprise A Climate Neutral Task Force was set up, headed by the ability of the Institute to meet increasing demand for its the Associate Director of Environment and compris- training services. This is achieved by setting a target of reduc- ing staff from the Climate Change Programme and the ing GHG emissions per person trained and unit of training de- Administration and Finance Section to ensure swift livered rather than absolute emissions-reduction benchmarks. implementation. The Task Force meets at least once a The target is to halve emissions by 2012 per unit of training quarter and regular briefings occur with the Executive delivered, using 2009 data as a baseline. Enhancing the use of Directors to review progress and challenges. technology-supported learning, such as e-learning and video- conferencing, is an important factor in reaching this target.
EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS 21Focus areasActivities within specific focus areas, where emissions video conferencing, and web conferencing;reductions have been achieved in the past two years, • More efficient travel, by train instead of by plane forare presented below: short distances, or flying in economy class instead of business class.Preparation and/or adoption of emis- • Improved travel planning and coordination to re-sion-reduction policies duce the number of trips by bundling several objec-Fifteen UN organizations have adopted, or are in the tives into one mission.process of developing, specific emission reduction pol-icies, guiding organization-wide efforts to reduce the Specific examples include UNV requiring staff to travelclimate footprint of the organization. These policies by train if the destination can be reached in less thantypically link climate-neutral work with the mandate of six hours; UNFPA where travel is approved only if thethe organization. purpose cannot be fulfilled through video conferenc- ing or other forms of e-communication; UPU only al-With a few exceptions the emissions-reduction policies lowing travel in business class in exceptional cases;do not yet contain any quantified targets. But they are UNITAR strengthening networks of regional training in-based on GHG inventories which are now complete, stitutions to reduce the distance travelled to workshopand assessments of associated options in each organi- • sites; ICAO giving preference to carriers with modernzation. It has now been agreed that all organizations fuel-efficient aircrafts; and UNIDO where travel autho-will strive to adopt specific emissions-reduction plans rizations state the quantity of GHG emissions that theby the end of 2010. staff member is responsible for over the previous year, and where each travel reservation shows the resultingSustainable travel GHG emissions. In a few organizations specific targetsTravel is the major source of GHG emissions in most UN have been adopted to reduce travel, including UNAIDSorganizations, typically 50 to 60 per cent but in some (25 per cent cut in Secretariat travel in 2010–11) andcases up to 90 per cent of total emissions. This includes UNIDO (30 per cent cut in directors’ travel in 2009).official travel by staff, and travel by meeting partici-pants, consultants and experts the cost of which is paid There is a clear trend within the UN for an increasingfor by the organization. Thirty-one UN system organi- number of organizations to seek ways to cutting travel,zations have implemented measures of some kind to both to reduce GHG emissions and costs. While staffreduce the climate footprint of their travel. Measures travel is essential for the UN to fulfil its mandate, pastinclude: and current experience shows that there is room for • Reduced travel, replacing travel by improved e-com- improvement both in the number of missions and the munication, such as on-line meetings, high quality way travel is undertaken. The Universal Postal Union: travel policies The UPU has been actively reducing its climate footprint tor General) rather than in business class owing to the lat- since 2005 when it established the Environment and Sus- ter’s larger climate impact. This larger impact arises because tainable Development Project Group and adopted UPU’s en- a business class passenger occupies more space and has a vironmental policy. A key area for UPU is reducing GHG emis- greater luggage allowance than one traveling in economy. sions from travel. To this end, it adopted a travel policy which This recommendation is broadly accepted by staff. has been successfully implemented over the past years. Other UPU travel recommendations include promoting the UPU’s travel policy includes several recommendations, in- use of teleconferencing to replace travel, reducing the num- cluding taking the most direct route and giving preference ber of staff traveling on the same mission when possible, to traveling by train instead of flying, particularly for short- and deploying local staff instead of staff from headquarters. distance trips. As an incentive to promote train over air trav- el, the UPU offers its staff to travel in first class and pay for a Information on travel emissions is collected on an annual half-fare card on public transport within Switzerland. When basis and communicated by the organization. UPU’s travel air travel is unavoidable, UPU only allows travel in economy policies have resulted in considerable cost savings and class (except for the Director General and the Deputy Direc- have reduced the organization’s climate footprint.
22 MOVING TOWARDS A CLIMATE NEUTRAL UN In support of this effort a guide to sustainable travel in the with subsidized tickets for local transport and electric UN is planned for release in spring 2010 and a help desk chargers for electric scooters to reserving parking space was established to assist UN organizations in develop- for car pools. Several organizations have increased the ing sustainable travel strategies. The Inter-Agency Travel parking area available for bicycles. Network (IATN) is also reviewing how sustainable travel can be supported through information exchange on best Emissions reduction in buildings practices, standard requirements on travel agents, and Buildings are another major source of GHG emissions possibly revision of existing travel regulations. in the UN. Emissions are typically caused by electricity and fuel use for heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, The GHG inventories show that organizations with and powering of office equipment, and refrigerants significant field operations tend to have larger ve- used to cool the buildings. hicle fleets and a high proportion of emissions from vehicles, compared to other organizations. Organiza- Several new buildings or renovation projects undertak- tions with large vehicle fleets are working to reduce en in the past two years have paid attention to energy emissions from ground transport: WHO and WFP, for efficiency and associated GHG emissions reductions. instance, are increasing the share of hybrid vehicles Examples include: in their fleets. UNWRA and several other organizations • The renovation of the UN Secretariat in New York (the are including fuel efficiency as a criterion in procure- Capital Master Plan), where an improved building en- ment of new vehicles. The UN Web Buy site (the pro- velope, improved chillers and smart building features, curement portal developed by UNOPS and accessible such as daylight harvesting and occupancy sensors, by all UN agencies) now includes such information for are estimated to achieve approximately 45 per cent all listed vehicles. WFP is also training all its drivers in reduction in energy use. (see text box below). fuel-efficient driving, and monitoring the fuel con- • The new UNON/UNEP office building in Nairobi, sumption of each vehicle. which is set to become the first energy-neutral office building in Africa. Sustainable commuting is supported by a number of • The Green One UN House in Hanoi, created under the organizations. Examples range from providing staff Delivering as One UN reform, where state-of-the-art UN Headquarters in NY: Capital Master Plan When the original UN Headquarters complex in New York City to total energy consumption (23’000 tonnes emissions); (UNHQ) was built in 1952, it was considered one of the most 4. Removal of ozone-depleting refrigerants (CFCs); modern facilities in the world. Today, the facility must meet 5. Use of reduced GHG HVAC coolants; new challenges and requirements. To bring the UN Head- quarters into compliance with current codes and standards, Water the UN Secretary-General proposed a comprehensive renova- 6. 40 per cent reduction in water use; tion of the complex, known as the Capital Master Plan (CMP). 7. Low-flow lavatories, toilets fixtures and urinals; 8. Rainwater harvesting; Under the CMP, the UN intends to renovate the complex and upgrade all major building systems including the elec- Resources and waste trical, plumbing, fire suppression, heating and air-condi- 9. Removal of hazardous materials; tioning systems, and to reinforce the structural integrity of 10. Construction waste management programme; the building and remove all asbestos. 11. Use of recycled materials; Renovation of the UNHQ complex will allow application of Energy savings are achieved through improved insulation latest environmental technologies and highest energy-effi- and enhanced energy conservation. A high performance ciency standards. The environmental performance of UNHQ double-glazed curtain wall, automated interior shades/ is expected to progress significantly. Compared to the exist- blinds and other energy-conserving measures systems will ing campus, the following improvements are expected: be installed on roofs and exterior walls. A daylight harvest- ing system, which automatically controls artificial light in Energy response to natural light levels, high-efficiency lamps and 1. At least 50 per cent reduction of total energy use; ballasts, and occupancy sensors, which automatically turn 2. At least 65 per cent reduction of energy for heating and off lights if a space is unoccupied further decrease the cooling; building’s energy demand. Greenhouse gases The renovation will also demonstrate new technologies, 3. At least 45 per cent reduction in CO2 emissions related including photovoltaic roof panels.
EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS 23 design and technology will minimize both the car- bon footprint and other environmental impacts such WMO Headquarters building: as water use. At the same time, thanks to this project, A model of energy efficiency the Vietnamese building sector is better equipped to design sustainable buildings. (see text box). The new WMO Headquarters building reflects the or- ganization’s commitment to environmental protection• The new IFAD headquarters in Rome, incorporating and energy efficient management. A system of Cana- sustainable design features in the choice of materi- dian wells runs vertically through the building, through als, building envelope, windows, heating-cooling which cold air is drawn up, rising as it heats up, thereby systems, lighting, interior design, building control maintaining the building at a constant temperature systems. between 20 and 26 degrees Centigrade. An innovative• The new home of UNOPS headquarters and other UN double façade – or protective skin outside the core of organizations in Copenhagen – the “UN City” – which the building – functions as a thermal flue. When closed, the outer skin provides insulation from cold weather in is to be completed by 2013 and is designed to meet winter, and shade from over-heating in the summer. The the highest national standards of energy efficiency outer skin also provides an effective ventilation system and sustainability. to complement the Canadian wells – in the summer• The ICAO Headquarters in Montréal (Place de la Cité automatic ventilators operate during the hours before Internationale), obtained Canada’s first Leadership in dawn, drawing in cold air from the basement through Energy and Environmental Design Certification for stairwells. Glass interior walls make optimal use of natu- Existing Buildings (LEED-EB), a benchmark in prop- ral light, reducing costs from artificial lighting. Further savings are achieved through motion sensors to activate erty management in terms of both energy efficiency lighting and the use of energy efficient bulbs. and environmental sustainability.To reduce GHG emissions, 24 organizations of the UN compact fluorescent lights, installing double-glazing)system have carried out assessments and improve- and modified building control (restricting operationalments on at least some of their facilities. This includes hours for indoor heating-cooling systems, connectinghardware investments (improving insulation of the ventilation and lighting to motion sensors, regulatingbuilding envelope, replacing boilers, switching to heating-cooling through sensors in each part of the UNIDO Headquarters: Environmental approaches in building management at the Vienna International Centre The impressive modern building of the Vienna International for lighting and saved a calculated €250 000 a year. The Centre (VIC) is currently shared by four international orga- condensation pipes on 15’000 air-conditioning units were nizations IAEA, UNIDO, UNOV/UNODC and CTBTO. The VIC replaced, significantly improving cooling capacity while complex covers an area of 180’000 square meters compris- lowering energy consumption. ing nearly 4’500 offices and nine conference rooms and ac- commodating nearly 4’000 staff members plus up to 1’000 To improve water management in the facility, toilets, sprin- visitors each day. Maintenance and operating costs of the of- kler systems and manual irrigation water systems were fice complex are shared by the VIC-based organizations. The connected to groundwater wells to save drinking water. facility is managed by the Buildings Management Services, Several measures were implemented to reduce water use an organization operated under UNIDO management. in sanitary areas. Buildings Management Services has been putting energy To reduce paper use, paper towel dispensers in sanitary ar- saving and environmental protection measures at the top eas of VIC have been replaced with washable cloth towel roll of its agenda. These measures have not only contributed dispensers. Furthermore all contractors have been asked to tremendously to save energy and protect the environment, use only environmentally-friendly products and detergents. but have also enhanced the safety, security and reliability of the VIC and brought about a modern and state-of-the- Special waste bins and containers were installed on VIC prem- art office working environment. ises to improve the recycling rate. All paper waste is now col- lected separately and dispatched for 100 per cent recycling. The replacement of façade window panes resulted in energy savings for heating (27 per cent), cooling (17 per An initial energy audit revealed that further ecological and cent), and total annual cost savings of €300 000 to €450 economic savings could be achieved. The implementa- 000. In addition, lighting systems were modernized by re- tion of the recommendations, which were made based on placing the old lighting systems with modern ones. Nearly the initial audit, were discussed by the VIC-wide buildings 43 000 light fixtures were replaced in 4’500 offices, ga- committee and the UNIDO Climate Team and will be evalu- rages and staircases. This halved electricity consumption ated further.