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“We are of two different kinds,”
the older waiter said. He was now
dressed to go home. “It is not
only a question of youth...
Thoughts On
Narrative and the Web
Mark Bernstein ❧ Eastgate Systems, Inc.

First International Congress On Web Studies
ith even
                                          w !W          s!
                                       No       tur ke...
Seeing the Web
The floor of the software factory is hard and cold.

Date
Artisanal Software
Art exists within an economy. We can (and must) change the economy.
Date
                              ...
Independenc      The streets of London cast a
                                     shadow

              photo: MediaEater...
NeoVictorian


✤   Built for people
✤   Built by people
✤   Crafted in workshops
✤   Embracing irregularity
✤   Inspired

...
Eastgate
   serious hypertext
fiction nonfiction poetry
      since 1989
Human
Scale
Individuals write
books.

The natural scale of
publishing is small.

Books can address
specialized
audiences
The ultimate aim of all
        creative activity is the
               Web Site!
                          Das Endziel al...
✤   Patterns of Hypertext
✤   On Hypertext Narrative
✤   Nobitics
✤   On Criticism
Links Matter
Beyond
All th
                curre is is fa
Links            theo
                      nt th
                            ough
 ...
Narrative isn’t just for fun
Narrative Drives The Social Web
n t
                             v e
                       A d
                 o
                y n
                   ...
Immersive?
                                                         But when it's in your numbers
                        ...
Immersive?

                                   it lon ger et.
                                dm tle
                     ...
My Friend
                                         “Tragedy requires
                                         that the cha...
Montage and Collage
We Make
Narrative
Michal Huisman, Bear Pit Monument,
Maastricht 2001 (photo MB)
Shelley Jackson
Patchwork Girl




                  Shelley Jackson, Patchwork Girl
Shelley Jackson
Patchwork Girl




                  Shelley Jackson, Patchwork Girl
Five Silly Myths
1
                             E. A. Proulx


TWITCHY SCREENS
Essentially all professional
writers now write on screens.
W...
2
                    Sven Birkerts,
                      The
                Gutenberg
                   Elegies
BUT I ...
2 Those Kids!

                “Parental fears of what
                children might see on
                the Internet ...
2
         enemies
Google is making us stupid.
              — Nicholas Carr



“The very nature of the
blogosphere is pro...
Short attention?             2
           Babylon 5: a single,
           100-hour film, meant
           to be viewed over...
Symbol                 2

    Ψ
 Quantum Mechanics

 The Rights of Man

 Polixena’s sacrifice
3
you CAN’T READ
them IN THE
BATHTUB



  The
Bolter
 Test
“You say you want a revolution?                4
WHAT? YOU
HAVE TO PAY?
           The tools are cheap. And getting
      ...
“You say you want a revolution?                     5
It Won’t
Last
 Neither will you.
   Hypertexts won’t be lost becaus...
Patterns Of Hypertext
Annotation



Landow: arrival and
departure

Marshall, Reading &
Writing The
Electronic Book
Readers are Writers
                              Photo courtesy of Eloisa
                      Bordador, Anaheim, March ...
Cycle

                                                           “Of recursus, there is hallucination,
                  ...
Feint


        Free and knowing
        navigation

        Clarity, brevity,
        sincerity
...and many more   •   cycle
                       • contour
                       • Joyce’s cycle
                     ...
On Hypertext
Narrative
Mark Bernstein
www.eastgate.com
How did
this work                  Reading
happen?                    Hypertext
I reread lots of terrific
papers in the cou...
Reading Hypertext
                         1. Into The Weeds
                                   1




Readin
             ...
a detour
through Theory
Three
Story
 “what happened”
Plot
 the sequence in which we explain
 what happened
Presentation
 what we see on the page o...
Hypertext &
The fraudulent hypertext
 lots of links
 but whatever link you choose,
 you go to the same place

            ...
If our choice of links is
to prove more than
superficially
consequential, links
Story
 choose your own adventure
 Hamlet on...
It’s That Kind
Of Movie
the problem with
changing the story

Historians can’t change
the story.

Some stories don’t
change...
Max Klinger


My Friend Hamlet
                                     Dramas
                                A Mother 1-2


...
Changing the
Plot
Bolter and Joyce, HT87
Changing tone, pacing, point
of view
Starting and ending at
different points
Embe...
John Collier
            Dante Gabriel Rossetti (detail)
                    Henry Osawa Tanner

Changing the
Plot
Three a...
Little Red
A wolf deceives a girl into
climbing into bed with him.
(Early lessons re social
software)


When do we tell th...
Little Red
Riding Hood
  reader       … and the works
 learns…          becomes
early         tragedy

in the        horro...
a crucial
                                        paper
Nonce Upon Some                          the most
                ...
for example…
Preston Sturges, The Lady Eve


A guy and a
gal walk into
a bar.
He is
wealthy, and
is returning
from a long
...
for example…
Preston Sturges, The Lady Eve


As is his
nature, he
falls in love.
As is hers,
she swindles
him out of a
lar...
Nonce Upon Some
A wealthy and handsome boy, returning from an
isolated outpost, embarks on a ship and
encounters a beautif...
What Happens Now?
four link primitives

 A wealthy and handsome boy,       Recursus We follow the cycle
 returning from an...
so…
We want to vary plot.

Our tools are the 4 link
      primitives
recursus ❧ timeshift ❧
 renewal ❧ annotation
Parable: The 4th Century
4th century
      software
      engineering




Chopping continuous
Experts Might Have
I am a naïve   Predicted
American       •
               disorientation
               • cognitive
    ...
PJ Brown
  GUIDE

  Gould,
Zellweger,
 Mangen
  FLUID



Ted Nelson
 has seen
stretchtext
as a (the?)
  natural          T...
PJ Brown
  GUIDE

  Gould,
Zellweger,
 Mangen
  FLUID



Ted Nelson
 has seen
stretchtext
as a (the?)
  natural          T...
But there was one thing they had forgotten...

The Cure
Zellweger, Gould, Mangen

Print stays itself; electronic
text repl...
Why The Cure Didn’t
GUIDE replacement button

         ABC                   ADEFC
           If Y follows X in some readi...
our business is
varying plot, not
      story
Interlude
    everyone's
      everyday
         tasks
       complex and
          important
    knowledge work



Q   i ...
Nobitics
writing for yourself
markbernstein.org
Marcel Proust




     “Kids today are                                      Ny Carlsberg Glypotek

     oversexualized, ov...
FORMS                          FORMS                        FORMS
        FORMS
        FORMS                          FOR...
Nernst
              Planck
            Brillouin
        Sommerfeld
              Solvay
         Lindemann
             ...
letters
          to
       friends
      Einstein's letter to
      Roosevelt, August
           2, 1939




Q   i n ti m...
Anne
                                    Frank


Q   j u st b et we e n u s   Q   ma r k b e rn s te i n   Q   C AQ DAS 0 ...
“I had a farm in Africa...”




Q   j u st b et we e n u s   Q   ma r k b e rn s te i n   Q   C AQ DAS 0 7   Q   74
Tinderbox
Sentencing Guidelines, Hon. Thomas Smith (Canada)
Patterns in Game Design
Julie Tolmie, Kings College
Notes for a lecture on Dr.
Michael Bywater
My Notes
Future of Digital Studies (detail)
Tis hard to say, if greater want of skill
  Appear in writing or in judging ill.
  But, of the two, less dang’rous is th’
...
Mark
NeoVictorian                          Bernstein
New Media                             Eastgate Systems
              ...
Photo: Lee Russell




Where would we publish
The disappearance of newspaper and magazine review

The Future Of Digital St...
How do we discover
what we need to
read?

  ✤   teachers, friends,
      colleagues
  ✤   booksellers
  ✤   reviews in
   ...
NeoVictorian


✤   We can change the
    economy
✤   Work without
    thought is slave’s
    work unredeem’d
of Judgment
 An Economy




William McGregor Paxton, Leaving The
o us
 Bo




                                            er
Re ok




                                           um
  ad s...
Reading
is not at
There’s no other way to learn
Chemistry, or to talk about law.


No one is going to do without.




    ...
But there are
lots of
problems
For example, small literary magazines
receive thousands of submissions, but
have hundreds o...
Nobody buys
criticism
Consolidation has focused attention
on a small number of extremely
popular titles.




       Lewis ...
The codex
book is
inadequate
Legislators don’t understand the laws
on which they vote. Voters don’t
understand the issues....
Lewis Wickes Hine. A "Reader" in
  cigar factory, Tampa, Fla. He reads
  books and newspapers at top of his
  voice all da...
Why
newspapers
are big…

(But not because they’re dumb)


Newspaper publishing formerly
requires massive distribution
    ...
Who needs to know if a
hypertext is any good?
✤   Publishers
✤   Booksellers
✤   Readers
✤   Writers
✤   Editors
✤   Stude...
Evaluation




Trust not yourself; but your defects to know,
Make use of ev’ry friend — and ev’ry foe
Miall & Dobson 2006
      ✤   Take “The Demon
          Lover”
      ✤   Make it into a
          hypertext (how?)
      ✤...
Moulthrop 1991
  To require hypertext to
  function like a book is
  a bit like expecting a
  jetliner to behave like
  a ...
Evaluation and
its discontents
 Usability privileges the
 first encounter
 Statistics wash out the
 exceptional case (when
...
Nobody knows
how to make love
                                         2
 more real, or the
  memory of the
Occupation mor...
Who to a friend his faults can freely show,
                      And gladly praise the merit of a foe.




              ...
William McGregor Paxton, The Breakfast, Metropolitan n Museum
Most critics, fond of some subservient art,
                ...
Coover & The
Golden Age
Murray
“When we stop thinking of the
computer as a multimedia telephone
link, we can identify its four principal
propertie...
claptrap

✤   Essentialism run amok: the
    essence of computational
    media is that they are
    pernicious (and so we...
REFLECTION AUTO-
           ETHNOGRAPH
           Y
Are we reading
Although people
 sometimes have a hard time
deciding whether or not
  something is art, they are
       rarely fooled into
The NeoVictorian Critic




Evaluation • Modernism • Essentialism • Postmodernism
respect
   artist
work
integrity
Dirty hands
Consequences
for being
wrong
Indifference
to persons
and
o r
              ig
            R
    a i l
  et
D
t           r
    e rag
        a
        v      i  t
                 n te
  s
 b n        ain   e  s
o io          t s
humilit
  y
doing the work: a commitme
to criticism
Photo: © Louis Sahuc




Art in the service of the potato
thank you
✤   Stacey Mason, Samantha Panepinto
✤   Fonts: Neutraface 2, Epic, Kane, Tungsten
✤   Images: Library of Congre...
Bin
vanity

“Popular culture used to
draw people to what they
liked. Internet culture
draws people to what
everyone else likes...
Tinderbox
“The impulse to
              keep a diary is
why do we     to actual
              diaries as the
  write       impulse t...
Rancho de Chimayo, Taos
cathedral/



Photo: Linda J. Thorsen   123
Mexico 01
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Mexico 01

  1. 1. “We are of two different kinds,” the older waiter said. He was now dressed to go home. “It is not only a question of youth and confidence although those things are very beautiful. Each night I am reluctant to close up because there may be some one who needs the cafe.” “Hombre, there are bodegas open all night long.” “You do not understand. This is a Ernest Hemingway ”A Clean, Well- clean and pleasant cafe. It is well Lighted Place” lighted. The light is very good
  2. 2. Thoughts On Narrative and the Web Mark Bernstein ❧ Eastgate Systems, Inc. First International Congress On Web Studies
  3. 3. ith even w !W s! No tur key m ore Thoughts On Narrative and the Web Mark Bernstein ❧ Eastgate Systems, Inc. First International Congress On Web Studies
  4. 4. Seeing the Web The floor of the software factory is hard and cold. Date
  5. 5. Artisanal Software Art exists within an economy. We can (and must) change the economy. Date after a self-portrait by Lady Raven Eve
  6. 6. Independenc The streets of London cast a shadow photo: MediaEater, Carlos Castillo
  7. 7. NeoVictorian ✤ Built for people ✤ Built by people ✤ Crafted in workshops ✤ Embracing irregularity ✤ Inspired Carter McKendry
  8. 8. Eastgate serious hypertext fiction nonfiction poetry since 1989
  9. 9. Human Scale Individuals write books. The natural scale of publishing is small. Books can address specialized audiences
  10. 10. The ultimate aim of all creative activity is the Web Site! Das Endziel aller bildnerischen Tätigkeit ist der Bau! Doorknob from I. G. Farben building, Frankfurt. Peter Behrens, 1920-25. — Walter Gropius photo: Anja Rau 10
  11. 11. ✤ Patterns of Hypertext ✤ On Hypertext Narrative ✤ Nobitics ✤ On Criticism
  12. 12. Links Matter
  13. 13. Beyond
  14. 14. All th curre is is fa Links theo nt th ough milia r fro ry an t on m d ep litera istem ry ✤ we don’t know where olog y the reader starts ✤ we don’t know where the reading ends ✤ we don’t know what the reader will think ✤ meaning is See Landow, Hypertext 3.0
  15. 15. Narrative isn’t just for fun
  16. 16. Narrative Drives The Social Web
  17. 17. n t v e A d o y n u r e s e w o o o h
  18. 18. Immersive? But when it's in your numbers or your horoscope you just know that's the way the world was when you had your life and you accept it. Of course, I have to admit I'd have liked to live a little longer from Card Shark and Thespis, Hypertext ‘01 Proceedings I mean there's a lot I don't know yet. Like: why do guys insist on driving? And how come they call on Friday to ask you out for Friday night? Charles Mee, The Trojan Women, a love s
  19. 19. Immersive? it lon ger et. dm tle a it w y ng? e to e a l 't kno rivi av iv I h to l on on d se, ed ur ik I d ist co e l lot ins O f av there gu's a ys dh n I' ea do I m : why L ike
  20. 20. My Friend “Tragedy requires that the characters be blind (as we ourselves, at times, are blind). If you let a sane and sensible reader-protagonist into the room, everything is bound Cornered Rat Software, World War II Mark Bernstein and Diane Greco, “Card Shark and Online Thespis”, First Person, Noah Wardrip-Fruin, ed.
  21. 21. Montage and Collage
  22. 22. We Make Narrative Michal Huisman, Bear Pit Monument, Maastricht 2001 (photo MB)
  23. 23. Shelley Jackson Patchwork Girl Shelley Jackson, Patchwork Girl
  24. 24. Shelley Jackson Patchwork Girl Shelley Jackson, Patchwork Girl
  25. 25. Five Silly Myths
  26. 26. 1 E. A. Proulx TWITCHY SCREENS Essentially all professional writers now write on screens. We all spend our days in front of screens. They’re good enough. Getting better, too.
  27. 27. 2 Sven Birkerts, The Gutenberg Elegies BUT I LOVE BOOKS!
  28. 28. 2 Those Kids! “Parental fears of what children might see on the Internet are very peculiar, considering what children can see on the walls in public restrooms.” –Theodor Holm Nelson illus: Chris Where (again) are the Hypertexts? Baldwin HT99
  29. 29. 2 enemies Google is making us stupid. — Nicholas Carr “The very nature of the blogosphere is proliferation and dispersal; it is centrifugal and represents a reversal of the norms of print — Sven Birkerts culture.”
  30. 30. Short attention? 2 Babylon 5: a single, 100-hour film, meant to be viewed over the course of five years Buffy, The Vampire Slayer: from adolescence to adulthood, in real time Patrick O’Brian: a 20- volume historical
  31. 31. Symbol 2 Ψ Quantum Mechanics The Rights of Man Polixena’s sacrifice
  32. 32. 3 you CAN’T READ them IN THE BATHTUB The Bolter Test
  33. 33. “You say you want a revolution? 4 WHAT? YOU HAVE TO PAY? The tools are cheap. And getting cheaper. A good book has ALWAYS cost as much as a good dinner. We’re still subject to the ills of capitalism. For scholars to blame artists for
  34. 34. “You say you want a revolution? 5 It Won’t Last Neither will you. Hypertexts won’t be lost because formats go obsolete or media decays. Hypertexts (and texts) are lost when nobody reads them. Books, like Tinkerbell, survive as long as their audience cares.
  35. 35. Patterns Of Hypertext
  36. 36. Annotation Landow: arrival and departure Marshall, Reading & Writing The Electronic Book
  37. 37. Readers are Writers Photo courtesy of Eloisa Bordador, Anaheim, March 2007; http://
  38. 38. Cycle “Of recursus, there is hallucination, déja vu, compulsion, riff, ripple, canon, isobar, daydream, and theme and variation...Of timeshift there is the death of Mrs. Ramsay and the near disintegration of the house...Leopold Bloom on a walk, and a man who wants to say he may have seen his son die. Of the renewal there is every story not listed previously. ” Michael Joyce, “None Upon Some Times” Recurrence is not an error. Multivalence Mark Bernstein et al., Contours of Coinstructive Hypertext, is not a vice. HT93
  39. 39. Feint Free and knowing navigation Clarity, brevity, sincerity
  40. 40. ...and many more • cycle • contour • Joyce’s cycle • Douglas’ cycle • counterpoint • mirrorworld • tangle • sieve • collage • neighborhood • split/join • Rashomon • missing link • feint
  41. 41. On Hypertext Narrative Mark Bernstein www.eastgate.com
  42. 42. How did this work Reading happen? Hypertext I reread lots of terrific papers in the course of compiling a new anthology about Reading Hypertext. Mark Bernstein Diane Greco
  43. 43. Reading Hypertext 1. Into The Weeds 1 Readin Mark Bernstein 2. Why are we still talking like this? 15 Diane Greco 3. La Maison Hypertext 19 Charles A. Perfetti 4. Piecing together and tearing apart: finding the story in afternoon 21 g Jill Walker 5. A Cognitive Model 35 N. J. Lowe 6. “How Do I Stop this Thing?” Closure and Indeterminacy in Interactive Narratives 59 J. Yellowlees Douglas 7. Reconfiguring Writing 89 George P. Landow 8. The Lyrical Quality of Links 99 Susana Pajares Tosca 9. A Pragmatics of Links 103 Susana Pajares Tosca 10. Stitching Together Narrative, Sexuality, Self: Much of this work is Shelley Jackson’s Patchwork Girl George P. Landow 11. These Waves Of Bugs 119 129 insufficiently known. Anja Rau 12. Cinematic paradigms for hypertext Adrian Miles 137 13. Nonce Upon Some Times: Rereading Hypertext Fiction 149 Michael Joyce 14. Returning In Twilight: J In particular, the oyce’s Twilight, a Symphony Dave Ciccoricco 15. Hypertext Structure Under Pressure 165 193 apparent quarrel David Kolb 16. Reading Spatial Hypertext Catherine C. Marshall 213 between narrative and 17. Hypertext Teaching Adrian Miles 18. Hypertext with Consequences: 223 the link has generated Recovering a Politics of Hypertext Diane Greco 19. What the Geeks Know: 239 terrific confusion. Hypertext and the Problem of Literacy Stuart Moulthrop 251
  44. 44. a detour through Theory
  45. 45. Three Story “what happened” Plot the sequence in which we explain what happened Presentation what we see on the page or the
  46. 46. Hypertext & The fraudulent hypertext lots of links but whatever link you choose, you go to the same place proposition 1: How can we know? hypertextuality is perceived through only through rereading rereading and reflection.
  47. 47. If our choice of links is to prove more than superficially consequential, links Story choose your own adventure Hamlet on the Holodeck Plot afternoon, a story Presentation adaptive hypertext
  48. 48. It’s That Kind Of Movie the problem with changing the story Historians can’t change the story. Some stories don’t change. Elna Borch Death and the Maiden Ny Carlsberg Glypotek
  49. 49. Max Klinger My Friend Hamlet Dramas A Mother 1-2 more problems with changing the Many stories interest us because events happen as they did Hamlet could have gone back to school Juliet should have had a long talk with her mother Winston Churchill might have been killed by a taxi in 1931 The world is full of unhappy sons, precocious daughters, and wayward
  50. 50. Changing the Plot Bolter and Joyce, HT87 Changing tone, pacing, point of view Starting and ending at different points Embedding in new frames • The Longest Day • The Big Red One
  51. 51. John Collier Dante Gabriel Rossetti (detail) Henry Osawa Tanner Changing the Plot Three annunciations: all different. Plot is not a surface detail. Allusion has always worked through hypertextual,
  52. 52. Little Red A wolf deceives a girl into climbing into bed with him. (Early lessons re social software) When do we tell the reader that the wolf has run ahead and eaten grandma?
  53. 53. Little Red Riding Hood reader … and the works learns… becomes early tragedy in the horror movie, woods melodrama at the last comedy, romance moment afterward Rashomon, “The s Babysitter”, Portrait of a Lady
  54. 54. a crucial paper Nonce Upon Some the most accessible version had a Describe four things that happen, critical typo forming a sequence Next, we link back to a previously- visited node Where can we go now?
  55. 55. for example… Preston Sturges, The Lady Eve A guy and a gal walk into a bar. He is wealthy, and is returning from a long stint of postdoc field
  56. 56. for example… Preston Sturges, The Lady Eve As is his nature, he falls in love. As is hers, she swindles him out of a large sum of money.
  57. 57. Nonce Upon Some A wealthy and handsome boy, returning from an isolated outpost, embarks on a ship and encounters a beautiful girl who, it happens, is a con artist. They meet. As is his nature, he falls in love. As is hers, she swindles him out of a large sum of money. He discovers that he was been swindled; the lovers quarrel. She discovers that she has fallen in love with him. They part, and do not see each other for a long time. The estranged lovers meet again, It is like they
  58. 58. What Happens Now? four link primitives A wealthy and handsome boy, Recursus We follow the cycle returning from an isolated again (literally, or with outpost, embarks on a ship variations, or metaphorically, and encounters a beautiful girl or …) who, it happens, is a con artist. Timeshift We proceed to a They meet. As is his nature, he new node that follows falls in love. As is hers, she naturally from what has gone swindles him out of a large before (they get married; and sum of money. then…) He discovers that he was been Renewal We proceed to a swindled; the lovers quarrel. new node that takes off in a She discovers that she has new direction (a German
  59. 59. so… We want to vary plot. Our tools are the 4 link primitives recursus ❧ timeshift ❧ renewal ❧ annotation
  60. 60. Parable: The 4th Century
  61. 61. 4th century software engineering Chopping continuous
  62. 62. Experts Might Have I am a naïve Predicted American • disorientation • cognitive overhead What Happened • much longer works
  63. 63. PJ Brown GUIDE Gould, Zellweger, Mangen FLUID Ted Nelson has seen stretchtext as a (the?) natural The Cure for form of hypertext Navigation: stretchtext since the
  64. 64. PJ Brown GUIDE Gould, Zellweger, Mangen FLUID Ted Nelson has seen stretchtext as a (the?) natural The Cure for form of hypertext Navigation: stretchtext since the
  65. 65. But there was one thing they had forgotten... The Cure Zellweger, Gould, Mangen Print stays itself; electronic text replaces itself. Stretchtext no navigation (or at least no departure) context remains present no slippery cycles (The real objection might have been recursus, and the real target either modernism or
  66. 66. Why The Cure Didn’t GUIDE replacement button ABC ADEFC If Y follows X in some reading, then Y will follow X in every reading in which they both appear. Thus not only must we forego cycles, we must always adhere to the same narrative sequence.
  67. 67. our business is varying plot, not story
  68. 68. Interlude everyone's everyday tasks complex and important knowledge work Q i n ti m at e i n f o r ma ti on Q ma r k b e rn s te i n Q wikis y m 0 6 Q 66
  69. 69. Nobitics writing for yourself
  70. 70. markbernstein.org
  71. 71. Marcel Proust “Kids today are Ny Carlsberg Glypotek oversexualized, over- stimulated, and are always lying on the couch and watching television or playing games.” National Gallery, Sydney Q j u st b et we e n u s Q ma r k b e rn s te i n Q C AQ DAS 0 7 Q 69
  72. 72. FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS FORMS and other stuff that's easy for us to measure Q i n ti m at e i n f o r ma ti on Q ma r k b e rn s te i n Q wikis y m 0 6 Q 70
  73. 73. Nernst Planck Brillouin Sommerfeld Solvay Lindemann Lorentz De Broglie Curie Rutherford Poincaré Solvay Einstein Langevin Conference Brussels Q j u st b et we e n u s Q ma r k b e rn s te i n Q C AQ DAS 0 7 Q 71
  74. 74. letters to friends Einstein's letter to Roosevelt, August 2, 1939 Q i n ti m at e i n f o r ma ti on Q ma r k b e rn s te i n Q wikis y m 0 6 Q 72
  75. 75. Anne Frank Q j u st b et we e n u s Q ma r k b e rn s te i n Q C AQ DAS 0 7 Q 73
  76. 76. “I had a farm in Africa...” Q j u st b et we e n u s Q ma r k b e rn s te i n Q C AQ DAS 0 7 Q 74
  77. 77. Tinderbox Sentencing Guidelines, Hon. Thomas Smith (Canada)
  78. 78. Patterns in Game Design Julie Tolmie, Kings College
  79. 79. Notes for a lecture on Dr. Michael Bywater
  80. 80. My Notes Future of Digital Studies (detail)
  81. 81. Tis hard to say, if greater want of skill Appear in writing or in judging ill. But, of the two, less dang’rous is th’ offence, To tire our patience, than mislead our sense. NEOVICTORIAN NEW MEDIA: the critical difficulty Mark Bernstein ❧ Eastgate Systems Inc. The Future Of Digital Studies, University Of Florida, 2010.
  82. 82. Mark NeoVictorian Bernstein New Media Eastgate Systems Inc Text The critical problem
  83. 83. Photo: Lee Russell Where would we publish The disappearance of newspaper and magazine review The Future Of Digital Studies
  84. 84. How do we discover what we need to read? ✤ teachers, friends, colleagues ✤ booksellers ✤ reviews in newspapers, magazines, journals ✤ weblogs Roosevelt reading in front of his tent in hunting camp, 1910.
  85. 85. NeoVictorian ✤ We can change the economy ✤ Work without thought is slave’s work unredeem’d
  86. 86. of Judgment An Economy William McGregor Paxton, Leaving The
  87. 87. o us Bo er Re ok um ad s ( ing an dh n is no ype re t o rt sa bs ext ole s) ok te are Bo ind isp en sa ble The Book Business is Small
  88. 88. Reading is not at There’s no other way to learn Chemistry, or to talk about law. No one is going to do without. Dorothea Lange, Girls of Lincoln Bench School study their reading lesson. Near Ontario, Malheur County, Oregon.
  89. 89. But there are lots of problems For example, small literary magazines receive thousands of submissions, but have hundreds of readers. For the economy of new media, see Bernstein & Greco, Genre, in press Lewis Hicks Wine, Newsgirl, Park Row, New York.
  90. 90. Nobody buys criticism Consolidation has focused attention on a small number of extremely popular titles. Lewis Wickes Hine, Current Education, 1912.
  91. 91. The codex book is inadequate Legislators don’t understand the laws on which they vote. Voters don’t understand the issues. We rely on dueling experts. We need a better book. Photo: Lee Russell
  92. 92. Lewis Wickes Hine. A "Reader" in cigar factory, Tampa, Fla. He reads books and newspapers at top of his voice all day long. This is all the education many of these workers receive. He is paid by them and they select what he shall read. There is a lot to read. The most salient economic fact about books: books are numerous. The Future Of Digital Studies
  93. 93. Why newspapers are big… (But not because they’re dumb) Newspaper publishing formerly requires massive distribution Lewis W. Hine. Group investments. of newsboys on a stoop at 4th & Market Sts, Wilmington The mortgages on the trucks, and the Delaware. "Take our mugs, mister?" contracts with the Teamsters, still
  94. 94. Who needs to know if a hypertext is any good? ✤ Publishers ✤ Booksellers ✤ Readers ✤ Writers ✤ Editors ✤ Students ✤ Assistant Professors Lewis Ward Hine. Class in English for employees. Pocasset Mill. After day's work
  95. 95. Evaluation Trust not yourself; but your defects to know, Make use of ev’ry friend — and ev’ry foe
  96. 96. Miall & Dobson 2006 ✤ Take “The Demon Lover” ✤ Make it into a hypertext (how?) ✤ Ask a bunch of undergraduates to read it ✤ Run the statistics ✤ Write the paper
  97. 97. Moulthrop 1991 To require hypertext to function like a book is a bit like expecting a jetliner to behave like a locomotive: yes, it’s very fast but the blasted thing won’t stay on the rails.
  98. 98. Evaluation and its discontents Usability privileges the first encounter Statistics wash out the exceptional case (when not discarded as an outlier) Unrealistic definition of “work”
  99. 99. Nobody knows how to make love 2 more real, or the memory of the Occupation more transparent. Next to this, slightly improving a banking transaction loses some if its luster. Maastrich, 2003
  100. 100. Who to a friend his faults can freely show, And gladly praise the merit of a foe. Real riti cism criti Re al c of cism of r eal real xts! hype hyp erte rtex ts!
  101. 101. William McGregor Paxton, The Breakfast, Metropolitan n Museum Most critics, fond of some subservient art, Essentials Still make the whole depend upon a part
  102. 102. Coover & The Golden Age
  103. 103. Murray “When we stop thinking of the computer as a multimedia telephone link, we can identify its four principal properties, which separately and collectively make it a powerful vehicle for literary creation. Digital environments are procedural, participatory, spatial, and encyclopedic.”
  104. 104. claptrap ✤ Essentialism run amok: the essence of computational media is that they are pernicious (and so we need not — should not — read them) ✤ Believing hypertext to be pernicious or harmful, these critics read little (Miller, Kakutani) or almost none (Birkerts)
  105. 105. REFLECTION AUTO- ETHNOGRAPH Y
  106. 106. Are we reading
  107. 107. Although people sometimes have a hard time deciding whether or not something is art, they are rarely fooled into
  108. 108. The NeoVictorian Critic Evaluation • Modernism • Essentialism • Postmodernism
  109. 109. respect artist work integrity
  110. 110. Dirty hands
  111. 111. Consequences for being wrong
  112. 112. Indifference to persons and
  113. 113. o r ig R a i l et D
  114. 114. t r e rag a v i t n te s b n ain e s o io t s
  115. 115. humilit y
  116. 116. doing the work: a commitme to criticism
  117. 117. Photo: © Louis Sahuc Art in the service of the potato
  118. 118. thank you ✤ Stacey Mason, Samantha Panepinto ✤ Fonts: Neutraface 2, Epic, Kane, Tungsten ✤ Images: Library of Congress, iStockPhoto, MFA, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Lady Raven Eve, www.eastgate.com serious hypertext since 1982
  119. 119. Bin
  120. 120. vanity “Popular culture used to draw people to what they liked. Internet culture draws people to what everyone else likes.” Lee Siegel, Against The Machine
  121. 121. Tinderbox
  122. 122. “The impulse to keep a diary is why do we to actual diaries as the write impulse to go diaries? on a diet is to actual slimness.” Louis Menand, “Woke Up This Morning”, The New Yorker (10 Dec 2007)
  123. 123. Rancho de Chimayo, Taos
  124. 124. cathedral/ Photo: Linda J. Thorsen 123

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