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A FESTIVAL OF
NARRATIVE AUTOMATA
MARK BERNSTEIN EASTGATE
A FESTIVAL OF NARRATIVE AUTOMATA
▸ Stories 1.................................................................................................................
▸ Art 5.......................................................................................................................
▸ Automating Narrative 21......................................................................................
▸ The Death Of The Author 29................................................................................
▸ Are You My Mother?: the social construction of character 39................................
▸ Serious Hypertext 47............................................................................................
▸ One Damn Thing After Another: the master narrative 63.....................................
▸ My Friend, Hamlet 87............................................................................................
▸ Gears and Pulleys: building the automaton 101......................................................
▸ That Kind Of Movie: theory made manifest 109.....................................................
▸ The Exuberance Of The Automaton 121...............................................................
▸ Errors 133...............................................................................................................
▸ Lessons For Hypertext Narrative 137...................................................................
▸ The Path Ahead 141...............................................................................................
▸ Appendix: The Game In Fiction 149.....................................................................
▸ Glossary 153...........................................................................................................
USB STICK
BOOK ❧ SLIDES ❧ GAMES
THANKS TO
ACM SIGWEB
THANKS TO…
▸ Mark W. R. Anderson
▸ Paul Czege
▸ Charlie Hargood
▸ E. P. James
▸ Diane Greco Josefowicz
▸ George P. Landow
▸ Morgan Macri
▸ Stacey Mason
▸ David Millard
▸ Jason Morningstar
▸ Stuart Moulthrop
▸ Souvik Mukherjee
▸ Emily Short
▸ Rosemary M. Simpson
THE PLAN
THE PLAN
▸ Interrupt with questions!
▸ Yes, do!
▸ Lunch break
▸ After lunch, I’ll try to wrap up in time for the last 2 papers in
the Engelbart session
1987
Michael Joyce, afternoon, a story, Eastgate, 1990
GETTING
STARTED
WITH
HYPERTEXT
NARRATIVE
MARK BERNSTEIN
THOSE
TROJAN
GIRLS
MARK BERNSTEIN
THOSE
TROJAN
GIRLS
MARK BERNSTEIN
Tiree Tales: A Co-operative Inquiry into the Poetics of
Location-Based Narratives
David E. Millard
Web and Internet Science
University of Southampton
dem@ecs.soton.ac.uk
Charlie Hargood
Creative Technology
Bournemouth University
chargood@bournemouth.ac.uk
ABSTRACT
In a location-based story a reader’s movement through phys-
ical space is translated into movement through narrative
space, typically by presenting them with text fragments
on a smart device triggered by location changes. Despite
the increasing popularity of such systems their poetics are
poorly understood, meaning limited guidance for authors,
and few authoring tools. To explore these poetics we present
a co-operative inquiry into the authoring of an interactive
location-based narrative, ‘The Isle of Brine’, set on the island
of Tiree. Our inquiry reveals both pragmatic and aesthetic
considerations driven by the locations themselves, that aect
the design of both the Story (narrative structure) and Fabula
(events within the story). These include the importance of
paths, bottlenecks, and junctions as a physical manifesta-
tion of calligraphic patterns, the need for coherent narrative
areas, and the requirement to use evocative places and to
manage thematic and tonal discord between the landscape
and the narrative.
CCS CONCEPTS
• Human-centered computing → Hypertext / hyper-
media;
KEYWORDS
Location-Based Narrative, Sculptural Hypertext
ACM Reference format:
David E. Millard and Charlie Hargood. 2017. Tiree Tales: A Co-
operative Inquiry into the Poetics of Location-Based Narratives. In
Proceedings of The 28th ACM Conference on Hypertext and Social
Media, Prague, Czech Republic, July 2017 (HYPERTEXT’17), 11 pages.
DOI: 10.475/123_4
Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for
personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are
not made or distributed for prot or commercial advantage and that copies
bear this notice and the full citation on the rst page. Copyrights for third-
party components of this work must be honored. For all other uses, contact
the owner/author(s).
HYPERTEXT’17, Prague, Czech Republic
© 2017 Copyright held by the owner/author(s). 123-4567-24-
567/08/06...$xx.xx
DOI: 10.475/123_4
1 INTRODUCTION
Location-based narratives are digital stories, read on a smart
device, that are aware of the user’s location. Typically the
stories require readers to move through a space, making new
story nodes available as a result. They dier from traditional
hypertext narratives in that navigation is a result of physical
movement rather than link traversal, and are thus similar
in their interactivity to game narratives, where narrative
choices are associated with player actions. However, the
location-based narratives created to date have mostly been
exploratory, and little work has been undertaken to under-
stand the poetics of location-based writing (in contrast to the
body of theory on hypertext writing and poetics). Without
this understanding it is dicult to produce eective tools
for creating location-based narratives, or to educate writers
about the possibilities.
Our StoryPlaces project is a collaboration between Com-
puter Scientists and English Scholars to explore the poetics
of location-based narratives. There have been a number of
attempts to develop critical theory or design frameworks for
digital narratives, but as location-based systems are relatively
new, the theory behind them is in its early stages; examples
include attempts to explore the boundaries between story-
telling and games [10], considering the user’s interaction as
a trajectory through complex spaces [4].
In StoryPlaces we have taken a co-design approach, where
domain experts (in this case English academics and authors)
are brought into the design team and actively take part in
decisions. In our project we are the technology experts, and
through our interaction with domain experts have begun
to understand some of the issues around authoring interac-
tive location-based stories, an approach that we have used
successfully in the past [31]. However, it became clear that
this understanding would always be decient unless we at-
tempted to create a story ourselves and experienced the
issues rst hand. We also felt that we were more likely to
push the technological boundaries of what was possible (for
example, by using more complex interactive structures) as
we were more comfortable with those aspects of the tech-
nology, and less conscious of the negative impacts that this
focus might have on the resulting text.
STORIES ART AUTOMATING
NARRATIVE
THEDEATHOFTHE
AUTHOR
AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT
ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER
ANOTHER
MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS
THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF
THEAUTOMATON
ERRORS
LESSONSFOR
HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE
THEPATHAHEAD
NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
EXCITEMENT?
People have always told stories. Until
very recently, if you wanted to hear a
new story, you invented it yourself or
you asked someone else to tell you a
story, either in person or in print.
The Book, p. 1
STORIES
STORIES
NARRATIVE AUTOMATA
▸ Machines that tell stories
▸ Sometimes alone, often in conjunction with one or more
people
▸ Sometimes computer programs
▸ Often, rules and procedures
STORIES
WHY?
▸ Individual storytellers cheat
▸ The short 20th century was built on propaganda
▸ Automata let us see complexity of the story
▸ To learn something, try to teach it
▸ Automata provide context for thinking about narratology
▸ To teach a machine to do something that has always been a
perquisite of humanity
STORIES ART AUTOMATING
NARRATIVE
THEDEATHOFTHE
AUTHOR
AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT
ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER
ANOTHER
MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS
THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF
THEAUTOMATON
ERRORS
LESSONSFOR
HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE
THEPATHAHEAD
NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
MOMENT
ELENA BORCH
DEATH AND THE MAIDEN
NY CARLSBERG GLYPOTEK
ART
“REAL ANALYSIS IS MORE REAL THAN WE THOUGHT!”
https://xkcd.com/1856/
ART
▸ Once upon a
time…
▸ And then…
▸ But there was
one thing they
had forgotten.
I believe that today is Jan Hus Day, Den upálení
mistra Jana Husa
Fra Angelico, The Annunciation, 1437-46
Henry Ozawa Tanner, The Annunciation, 1898, Philadelphia Museum of Art
Henry Ozawa Tanner, The Annunciation, 1898, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Richard Hamilton
The Annunciation
2005
Tate Gallery
Edward Hopper, 11 AM, 1926, Smithsonian Institution
Michel Foucault
ART
▸ Literary Hypertext / Hypertext Narrative
▸ Interactive Fiction
▸ Digital Storytelling
▸ Electronic Literature
▸ Games Studies
▸ Interactive Digital Narrative
▸ AI
▸ Tabletop games and narrative automata
OUR FRAGMENTED COMMUNITIES
Moreaboutthisinthebook
STORIES ART AUTOMATING
NARRATIVE
THEDEATHOFTHE
AUTHOR
AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT
ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER
ANOTHER
MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS
THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF
THEAUTOMATON
ERRORS
LESSONSFOR
HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE
THEPATHAHEAD
NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
AUTOMATING NARRATIVE
TWO CORE INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITIES
▸AUTOMATING THINGS THAT HAVE
ALWAYS BEEN EXCLUSIVELY HUMAN
▸IDENTIFYING THE LIMITS OF
COMPUTATION
NOT ABOUT
MAKING WRITERS
MORE PRODUCTIVE
AUTOMATING
NARRATIVE
Photo©2005KeikoIda,Tokyo.
THE FUTURE OF SERIOUS
READING AND WRITING
LIES ON THE COMPUTER
SCREEN.
me
AUTOMATING NARRATIVE
DUNGEONS
 DRAGONS
GARY GYGAX AND
DAVE ARNESON
1
01-10 slovenly trull
11-25 brazen strumpet
26-35 cheap trollop
36-50 typical streetwalker
51-65 saucy tart
66-75 wanton wench
76-85 expensive doxy
86-90 haughty courtesan
91-92 aged madam
93-94 wealthy procuress
95-98 sly pimp
99-00 rich panderer
HARLOT ENCOUNTER TABLE
Dungeons and Dragons
WHAT’S AUTOMATED
Dungeons and Dragons
WHAT’S FIXED
‣ Random encounters
‣ Combat results
‣ The Dungeon-Master’s
World
‣ Trajectory of Victory and
Experience
PLOTTO
WILLIAM WALLACE
COOK
2
CONFLICT #696
PLOTTO
696: (715c, 695b) The protagonist, a patriot,
but a wanderer and an outcast, is deprived of
all news of his native land. (823)(826)(859)
WHAT’S AUTOMATED
PLOTTO
WHAT’S FIXED
‣ Succession of conflicts ‣ Realist mode
‣ Conflict-driven story
‣ Male protagonist
LITTLE
FEARS
JASON L. BLAIR
3
BELIEF
Little Fears
IT'S ALL JUST A GAME
If the roll failed with Failing Grades:
Oh my. Your child believed in something and it not only didn’t work, it completely
failed. Maybe it’s not just broken. Maybe magic’s not as powerful as he thought.
If you failed with Failing Grades and you were not using Stuff, you lose the original
token and another token as well. No matter how many Failing Grades there are, you only
lose one extra token.
Only the person who rolled the dice loses the extra Belief token. So if you believe in
another, and that person fails with Failing Grades, you lose your original Belief token but
he or she loses the extra one.
If the person losing the extra token has no tokens, there is no penalty.
EXAMPLE: Let’s say Hugo didn’t make the leap. In this scenario, his friend was Believing in
him. In fact, Hugo not only fails, he completely botches the attempt. He need to meet or beat a
WHAT’S AUTOMATED
LITTLE FEARS
WHAT’S FIXED
‣ Combat
‣ Lots of improv/
explaining what the dice
are saying
‣ Game Master’s World
‣ The Enemy
‣ Each character’s
gradual loss of
innocence or belief
INYOUR
COURSE
MATERIALS!
MY LIFE WITH
MASTER
PAUL CZEGE
4
LOVE, WEARINESS, LOATHING
MY LIFE WITH MASTER
VILLAINY AND SELF-LOATHING
Carlotta
Sebastian and Volya
Prue
The life of a minion is a hard one.
The horrific things
you do make it
difficult to feel
good about
yourself.
If only someone
loved you...
WHAT’S AUTOMATED
MY LIFE WITH MASTER
WHAT’S FIXED
‣ Finding Love
‣ Doing Horrible Things
‣ What Happens Afterward
‣ A minion will kill the
Master (eventually)
EpilogueConstraints
1. WEARINESS greater than REASON plus SELF-LOATHING: The minion flees/runs/wanders off, giving up on his
struggle.
2. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS greater than LOVE plus REASON: The minion is killed.
3. SELF-LOATHING greater than WEARINESS plus REASON: The minion destroys itself.
4. LOVE plus REASON greater than SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS: The minion integrates itself into the society
of Townspeople.
5. LOVE equals zero: The minion emerges from the ashes of the Endgame as a force of Fear in his/her own right.
6. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS equals LOVE plus REASON: The minion finds a new Master to serve.
© 2003, 2006 by Paul Czege. All rights reserved. Permission granted to photocopy this page for personal use.
Captured
IfWEARINESS
isgreaterthan
REASON
The Horror Revealed
SELF-LOATHING doesn’t
increasewhenit’s
equaltoorgreaterthan
LOVE plusREASON
Endgame is possible
If LOVE
isgreaterthan
FEAR plusWEARINESS
WEARINESS
MorethanHuman
_____________________________
_____________________________
LessthanHuman
_____________________________
_____________________________
Connection
____________________
____________________
____________________
____________________
____________________
Love
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
NO COUNTRY FOR
OLD KOBOLDS
STEVE WALLACE
5
Steve Wallace ART
THE VILLAGE
COLLECTIVE
NO COUNTRY FOR OLD KOBOLDS
No Country for Old Kobolds
23
FUCK YOU, WE HAVE A...
Your village gains a mighty protector! Of course, they want some-
thing in return…
This move can be taken multiple times, but only in the order listed
below.These sorts of creatures aren’t known for sharing; each time
a new creature moves into your territory they run off the previous
protector (and you no longer have to fulfill the previous protector’s
wants).Thus, you can only have one protector at a time.
You may spend additional xp to skip protector levels, e.g. 14xp to
go straight to Troll, 21xp to go straight to Necromancer.
…WIZARD!
A wizard of some variety has taken up residence in your village!
What sort of wizard is it? Gain four 1d6 damage, 10 hit point
homunculi units for future raids. Add a new want to the village.
Describe what it is and where it can be acquired.
…TROLL!
A mighty troll has taken up residence in the village! What’s its
name? Gain one 1d12 damage, 20 hit point troll unit that regen-
erates three hit points per round. Add a new want to the village.
Describe what it is and where it can be acquired.
…NECROMANCER!
A terrible necromancer has taken up residence in your village!
Gain five 1d6 damage, 8 hit point skeleton units. Gain 2 additional
units each time your village breeds. Add a new want to the village.
Describe what it is and where it can be acquired.
…DRAGON!
A mighty dragon has taken up residence in your village! What sort
of dragon is it? Gain one 2d8 damage, 40 hit point dragon unit.
Add a new want to the village. Describe what it is and where it can
be acquired. If any unit gained by this move dies, the unit is gone
forever. You may, however, still buy the next level protector. If a
protector leaves the village for any reason, their want goes with
them. You don’t have to find rotten fish to feed to your troll protec-
tor if he’s been killed by a murderhobo.
WHAT’S AUTOMATED
NO COUNTRY FOR OLD KOBOLDS
WHAT’S FIXED
‣ Encounters
‣ Combats
‣ Village Needs
‣ Game-Master’s World
‣ Arc of prosperity
EpilogueConstraints
1. WEARINESS greater than REASON plus SELF-LOATHING: The minion flees/runs/wanders off, giving up on his
struggle.
2. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS greater than LOVE plus REASON: The minion is killed.
3. SELF-LOATHING greater than WEARINESS plus REASON: The minion destroys itself.
4. LOVE plus REASON greater than SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS: The minion integrates itself into the society
of Townspeople.
5. LOVE equals zero: The minion emerges from the ashes of the Endgame as a force of Fear in his/her own right.
6. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS equals LOVE plus REASON: The minion finds a new Master to serve.
© 2003, 2006 by Paul Czege. All rights reserved. Permission granted to photocopy this page for personal use.
Captured
IfWEARINESS
isgreaterthan
REASON
The Horror Revealed
SELF-LOATHING doesn’t
increasewhenit’s
equaltoorgreaterthan
LOVE plusREASON
Endgame is possible
If LOVE
isgreaterthan
FEAR plusWEARINESS
WEARINESS
MorethanHuman
_____________________________
_____________________________
LessthanHuman
_____________________________
_____________________________
Connection
____________________
____________________
____________________
____________________
____________________
Love
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
INYOUR
COURSE
MATERIALS!
NIGHT
WITCHES
JASON
MORNINGSTAR
6
QUEER FATE
NIGHT WITCHES
65the game master: threats
OUR BELOVED 588TH REGIMENT
„ Confess love or pregnancy or both.
„ Brew up petty rivalries, spread rumors, and gossip.
„ Bury the dead—or the living.
„ Celebrate a victory, award, wedding, or name day.
„ Deliver very bad news from home.
„ Introduce green recruits or know-it-all veterans.
„ Our Gallant Flying Comrades
„ Send Major Popov of the all-male 218th Night
Bomber Regiment over.
„ Take credit.
„ Laugh at the women of the 588th.
„ Make the Night Witches act like men—or women.
„ Spotlight an ace from the mostly female 586th
Fighter Regiment.
„ “Borrow” resources and equipment.
„ Break the rules and get away with it.
REAR-ECHELON HEROES
„ Delay vital supplies or paperwork.
„ Deliver the wrong things; deliver late or not at all.
„ Rat them out.
„ Loiter around the airbase looking for a party.
„ Demand a “consideration”—or steal from them.
„ Have the Central Directorate of Rear Services of the Soviet
Army Air Forces, 4th Air Army Logistics and Supply
Commissariat call them to account.
THEGAMEMASTER
WHAT’S AUTOMATED
NO COUNTRY FOR OLD KOBOLDS
WHAT’S FIXED
‣ Combat
‣ Arc: moving from base to
base
‣ Much of the world
‣ Catch-22
EpilogueConstraints
1. WEARINESS greater than REASON plus SELF-LOATHING: The minion flees/runs/wanders off, giving up on his
struggle.
2. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS greater than LOVE plus REASON: The minion is killed.
3. SELF-LOATHING greater than WEARINESS plus REASON: The minion destroys itself.
4. LOVE plus REASON greater than SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS: The minion integrates itself into the society
of Townspeople.
5. LOVE equals zero: The minion emerges from the ashes of the Endgame as a force of Fear in his/her own right.
6. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS equals LOVE plus REASON: The minion finds a new Master to serve.
© 2003, 2006 by Paul Czege. All rights reserved. Permission granted to photocopy this page for personal use.
Captured
IfWEARINESS
isgreaterthan
REASON
The Horror Revealed
SELF-LOATHING doesn’t
increasewhenit’s
equaltoorgreaterthan
LOVE plusREASON
Endgame is possible
If LOVE
isgreaterthan
FEAR plusWEARINESS
WEARINESS
MorethanHuman
_____________________________
_____________________________
LessthanHuman
_____________________________
_____________________________
Connection
____________________
____________________
____________________
____________________
____________________
Love
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
Which officer of the 588th was in no
condition to fly when the Regiment
arrived in Trud Gornyaka? What is
being done to keep livestock off the
runway, and why isn’t it working?
THE BEAST
ALEKSANDRA SONTOWSKA
KAMIL WĘGRZYNOWICZ
7
WHAT BEAST?
The Beast
WHAT’S AUTOMATED
THE BEAST
WHAT’S FIXED
‣ The sequence of
questions
‣ The Premise
‣ The Questions
EpilogueConstraints
1. WEARINESS greater than REASON plus SELF-LOATHING: The minion flees/runs/wanders off, giving up on his
struggle.
2. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS greater than LOVE plus REASON: The minion is killed.
3. SELF-LOATHING greater than WEARINESS plus REASON: The minion destroys itself.
4. LOVE plus REASON greater than SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS: The minion integrates itself into the society
of Townspeople.
5. LOVE equals zero: The minion emerges from the ashes of the Endgame as a force of Fear in his/her own right.
6. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS equals LOVE plus REASON: The minion finds a new Master to serve.
© 2003, 2006 by Paul Czege. All rights reserved. Permission granted to photocopy this page for personal use.
Captured
IfWEARINESS
isgreaterthan
REASON
The Horror Revealed
SELF-LOATHING doesn’t
increasewhenit’s
equaltoorgreaterthan
LOVE plusREASON
Endgame is possible
If LOVE
isgreaterthan
FEAR plusWEARINESS
WEARINESS
MorethanHuman
_____________________________
_____________________________
LessthanHuman
_____________________________
_____________________________
Connection
____________________
____________________
____________________
____________________
____________________
Love
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
In what way, and how often,
does the beast show affection?
DOGS IN THE
VINEYARD
D. VINCENT BAKER
8Dogs
Vineyard
in
the
A Roleplaying Game
Written by D. Vincent Baker
ad mmiv
THE FAITH
DOGS IN THE VINEYARD
There’s something wrong, of course.
Pride (manifests as injustice).
...leads to...
Sin (manifests as demons attacking
from outside, in the form of famine,
plague, raiding outlaw bands, or
whatever).
...leads to...
False Doctrine (manifests as corrupt
religious practices and heresy).
...leads to...
False Priesthood (manifests as
demons within the congregation:
sorcery, possession and active evil).
...leads to...
Hate and murder.
WHAT’S AUTOMATED
DOGS IN THE VINEYARD
WHAT’S FIXED
‣ Combat
‣ Interaction with
townspeople
‣ The world
‣ The faith
‣ The arc
EpilogueConstraints
1. WEARINESS greater than REASON plus SELF-LOATHING: The minion flees/runs/wanders off, giving up on his
struggle.
2. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS greater than LOVE plus REASON: The minion is killed.
3. SELF-LOATHING greater than WEARINESS plus REASON: The minion destroys itself.
4. LOVE plus REASON greater than SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS: The minion integrates itself into the society
of Townspeople.
5. LOVE equals zero: The minion emerges from the ashes of the Endgame as a force of Fear in his/her own right.
6. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS equals LOVE plus REASON: The minion finds a new Master to serve.
© 2003, 2006 by Paul Czege. All rights reserved. Permission granted to photocopy this page for personal use.
Captured
IfWEARINESS
isgreaterthan
REASON
The Horror Revealed
SELF-LOATHING doesn’t
increasewhenit’s
equaltoorgreaterthan
LOVE plusREASON
Endgame is possible
If LOVE
isgreaterthan
FEAR plusWEARINESS
WEARINESS
MorethanHuman
_____________________________
_____________________________
LessthanHuman
_____________________________
_____________________________
Connection
____________________
____________________
____________________
____________________
____________________
Love
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
INYOUR
COURSE
MATERIALS!
THE CLAY
THAT WOKE
PAUL CZEGE
9
A new, immersive
roleplaying game
like nothing you’ve
seen before.
Paul
CZEGE
Minotaurs in
a human civilization
sundered by a surreal,
trackless jungle.
𐑓𐑰𐑤 𐑞 𐑕𐑳𐑯𐑪𐑯𐑘𐑹 𐑣𐑲𐑛 $27.00
SILENCE
THE CLAY THAT WOKE
Be courageous. Act with wisdom.
Work for justice and the social
good. Do not use the names of
women. Do not want. Do not
express your emotions.
WHAT’S AUTOMATED
THE CLAY THAT WOKE
WHAT’S FIXED
‣ Combat
‣ Interactions
‣ Townspeople
‣ The forest
‣ The krater of lots
‣ The world
‣ The silence
‣ The arc
INYOUR
COURSE
MATERIALS!
THE
SKELETONS
JASON
MORNINGSTAR
10THE
SKELETONSA game by JASON MORNINGSTAR
Years fly by like dead leaves. Everything is darkness. Everything is
silence.You stand vigilant before the sarcophagus without thought
or breath—such is your compulsion.You do not remember your
name and still you watch. The flesh has fallen off your bones
and still you watch.
And then one day there is light and motion and you weigh your
bearded axe and raise your shield, lusting for the fray, eager to
measure your skill against these tomb-robbing children so full
of blood.You’ll never be alive again, but in this moment—in the
chaos between violation and destruction—you truly live, and you
remember what you once were, and you taste the sun.
©2015 Bully Pulpit Games LLC.
Editing by Autumn Winters and Steve Segedy. Additional setting material by Sara Williamson.
Layout and art by Brennen Reece
Skeleton Art CC-A The Wellcome Collection, James Ward, Eduard Weber, Marcin Białek, sjwells53
Thanks to Stras Acimovic, Caitlynn Belle, Ray Benefield, Nathan Black, Jesse Coombs, Jim Crocker, Klint
Finley, Kristin Firth, Ephraim Gregor, Greg Jansen, Alexis Lainoff, Ian McEwan, Marshall Miller, Scott
Morningstar, Jessica Morrell, Ian Oakes, Jillian Ordes-Finley, George Royer, Charley Sharp, Michel Sherer,
Krista White, Sara Williamson, and many others!
TOMB TABLES
GLORY FADES
Choose and mark. For anything affecting a single skeleton,
choose which however you like.
† The magic compelling one of the skeletons to service—
but not its undead energy—is beginning to fade.
† Something the skeletons are protecting is lost—stolen or
simply missing. What was it?
† A memory that a skeleton had previously regained is
false, and the truth asserts itself. Which memory, and
what truth?
† The place where a skeleton stands watch is covered in
debris and impassable.
† A skeleton loses some bones permanently. What body
part is missing? Note it on the character sheet.
† Something the skeletons are protecting is damaged.
What, and how?
GODS LAUGH
Choose and mark. For anything affecting a single skeleton,
choose which however you like.
† A skeleton’s weapon is broken, bent or rendered useless.
What will they do? Note it on the character sheet.
† A skeleton’s appearance is altered in some way. Perhaps
they are marked by fire or magic.
† A memory that a skeleton had previously regained slips
away and is lost forever. Which one?
† Something the skeletons are protecting is destroyed.
What is it?
† Something from a skeleton’s past has been accidentally
revealed What was it, and why was it hidden? Note this
on the map.
† The magic animating one of the skeletons—but not its
compulsion to service—is beginning to fade.
WORLDS CRUMBLE
Choose and mark. For anything affecting the tomb itself,
note it on the map and adjust accordingly.
† A wall comes down, blocking part of the tomb. Which
part? Adjust the map.
† A tomb-robber is successful. What object did they steal?
Choose from among those already introduced if you are
able. Adjust the map.
† The great sarcophagus splits open, spilling out
its contents. What was within? Adjust the map.
† The tomb is flooded. What is ruined, mold covered,
or decayed after the waters recede? Adjust the map.
† Gold and silver dull. Iron rusts. Colors fade to a
sepulchral grey. Note this on the map.
† A thick layer of dust covers every surface. Note this
on the map.
TIME DEVOURS
Choose and mark. For anything affecting the tomb itself,
note it on the map and adjust accordingly.
† The webs of tomb spiders form an intricate filigree over
the walls and ceiling. Note this on the map.
† The tomb is infested. What signs of vermin remain long
after the infestation ends? Adjust the map.
† A crack develops, creating an opening for robbers and
other vermin. Where? Adjust the map.
† Something collapses, leaving a large pile of debris. What
has failed? Adjust the map.
† Wood, cloth, hide, horn and un-enchanted bone all turn
to powder. Note this on the map.
† An earthquake rocks the tomb, drastically altering
its shape and utility. Many things are destroyed.
Adjust the map.
DESECRATION
THE SKELETONS
WHAT’S IMPROVISED
THE CLAY THAT WOKE
WHAT’S FIXED
‣ The World
‣ How we explain what
happened
‣ Combat
‣ The arc
EpilogueConstraints
1. WEARINESS greater than REASON plus SELF-LOATHING: The minion flees/runs/wanders off, giving up on his
struggle.
2. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS greater than LOVE plus REASON: The minion is killed.
3. SELF-LOATHING greater than WEARINESS plus REASON: The minion destroys itself.
4. LOVE plus REASON greater than SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS: The minion integrates itself into the society
of Townspeople.
5. LOVE equals zero: The minion emerges from the ashes of the Endgame as a force of Fear in his/her own right.
6. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS equals LOVE plus REASON: The minion finds a new Master to serve.
© 2003, 2006 by Paul Czege. All rights reserved. Permission granted to photocopy this page for personal use.
Captured
IfWEARINESS
isgreaterthan
REASON
The Horror Revealed
SELF-LOATHING doesn’t
increasewhenit’s
equaltoorgreaterthan
LOVE plusREASON
Endgame is possible
If LOVE
isgreaterthan
FEAR plusWEARINESS
WEARINESS
MorethanHuman
_____________________________
_____________________________
LessthanHuman
_____________________________
_____________________________
Connection
____________________
____________________
____________________
____________________
____________________
Love
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
RYUUTAMA
ATSUHIRO OKADA
11THE
SKELETONSA game by JASON MORNINGSTAR
Years fly by like dead leaves. Everything is darkness. Everything is
silence.You stand vigilant before the sarcophagus without thought
or breath—such is your compulsion.You do not remember your
name and still you watch. The flesh has fallen off your bones
and still you watch.
And then one day there is light and motion and you weigh your
bearded axe and raise your shield, lusting for the fray, eager to
measure your skill against these tomb-robbing children so full
of blood.You’ll never be alive again, but in this moment—in the
chaos between violation and destruction—you truly live, and you
remember what you once were, and you taste the sun.
©2015 Bully Pulpit Games LLC.
Editing by Autumn Winters and Steve Segedy. Additional setting material by Sara Williamson.
Layout and art by Brennen Reece
Skeleton Art CC-A The Wellcome Collection, James Ward, Eduard Weber, Marcin Białek, sjwells53
Thanks to Stras Acimovic, Caitlynn Belle, Ray Benefield, Nathan Black, Jesse Coombs, Jim Crocker, Klint
Finley, Kristin Firth, Ephraim Gregor, Greg Jansen, Alexis Lainoff, Ian McEwan, Marshall Miller, Scott
Morningstar, Jessica Morrell, Ian Oakes, Jillian Ordes-Finley, George Royer, Charley Sharp, Michel Sherer,
Krista White, Sara Williamson, and many others!
21
Ryuujin Actions and Ability Scores
When a Ryuujin comes across a party of travelers that they want to watch over,
they do so quietly from the shadows or from within their dwelling.
At times the Ryuujin will guide travelers to a place where something is about
to happen and at other times the Ryuujin will lend a hand when the travelers
seem to be in danger. Rumors have even been heard of mischievous Ryuujin
that annoy travelers with their tricks.
To these ends, Ryuujin have three special powers at their disposal: “Artefacts”
which have the power to influence the natural laws of the world;“Benedictions”
that have miraculous powers over travelers creating a Travelogue, and “Reveil”
which allow a Ryuujin to exert some of their life energy to change into a substantial
form. Using these three powers, Ryuujin are able to help shape Travelogues into
amazing stories fit to serve a dragon.
Dragon Statues (or “Ryuuzoh”) are small stone
carvings that can be found along just about
any road. They are generally representations
of the Ryuujin, guardians of travelers, and are
placed along roads as guides. It is said that
dragon statues point travelers to the right
direction, and they hold a walking stick that
any new traveler can feel free to take along
on their journey. It is customary for travelers
who find a Dragon Statue without its walking
stick to leave their own walking stick with
the statue for the next unfortunate Traveler
in need of aid.
TOMB TABLES
GLORY FADES
Choose and mark. For anything affecting a single skeleton,
choose which however you like.
† The magic compelling one of the skeletons to service—
but not its undead energy—is beginning to fade.
† Something the skeletons are protecting is lost—stolen or
simply missing. What was it?
† A memory that a skeleton had previously regained is
false, and the truth asserts itself. Which memory, and
what truth?
† The place where a skeleton stands watch is covered in
debris and impassable.
† A skeleton loses some bones permanently. What body
part is missing? Note it on the character sheet.
† Something the skeletons are protecting is damaged.
What, and how?
GODS LAUGH
Choose and mark. For anything affecting a single skeleton,
choose which however you like.
† A skeleton’s weapon is broken, bent or rendered useless.
What will they do? Note it on the character sheet.
† A skeleton’s appearance is altered in some way. Perhaps
they are marked by fire or magic.
† A memory that a skeleton had previously regained slips
away and is lost forever. Which one?
† Something the skeletons are protecting is destroyed.
What is it?
† Something from a skeleton’s past has been accidentally
revealed What was it, and why was it hidden? Note this
on the map.
† The magic animating one of the skeletons—but not its
compulsion to service—is beginning to fade.
WORLDS CRUMBLE
Choose and mark. For anything affecting the tomb itself,
note it on the map and adjust accordingly.
† A wall comes down, blocking part of the tomb. Which
part? Adjust the map.
† A tomb-robber is successful. What object did they steal?
Choose from among those already introduced if you are
able. Adjust the map.
† The great sarcophagus splits open, spilling out
its contents. What was within? Adjust the map.
† The tomb is flooded. What is ruined, mold covered,
or decayed after the waters recede? Adjust the map.
† Gold and silver dull. Iron rusts. Colors fade to a
sepulchral grey. Note this on the map.
† A thick layer of dust covers every surface. Note this
on the map.
TIME DEVOURS
Choose and mark. For anything affecting the tomb itself,
note it on the map and adjust accordingly.
† The webs of tomb spiders form an intricate filigree over
the walls and ceiling. Note this on the map.
† The tomb is infested. What signs of vermin remain long
after the infestation ends? Adjust the map.
† A crack develops, creating an opening for robbers and
other vermin. Where? Adjust the map.
† Something collapses, leaving a large pile of debris. What
has failed? Adjust the map.
† Wood, cloth, hide, horn and un-enchanted bone all turn
to powder. Note this on the map.
† An earthquake rocks the tomb, drastically altering
its shape and utility. Many things are destroyed.
Adjust the map.
HONOBONO
RYUUTAMA
Travelers,
Step by Step:
Step 1: Before we embark, let’s get ready!
❁ Get to know what sort of game Ryuutama is.➙Read through the rulebook.
❁ Prepare the game. ➙ Review character creation
❁ Gather the necessary materials. ➙ Writing utensils, dice (one each of 4,
6, 8, 10, and 12-sided dice), copies of each character sheet.
❁ Create the traveling companions together. ➙ Gather your party, discuss
everyone’s party roles and give self-introductions.
❁ Create the town that will become the destination.➙“Town Creation” rules
Step 2: The Voyage! What’s a single day of travel like?
TRAVELING RULES
❁ Determine how good or bad you
feel that day.➙Condition Check
❁ Are you able to travel without
getting hurt? ➙Travel Check
❁ Are you able to find your way
without getting lost? ➙Direction
Check
❁ Are you able to spend the night
safely and without incident? ➙
Camping Check
ENCOUNTERS ON THE TRAIL
❁ What happens if I don’t feel well?
➙ Status effects rules
❁ Monster encounter! ➙Combat
rules
WALK AROUND TOWN
❁ Enjoy shopping. ➙ Shopping
rules
❁ Services and facilities in town.
➙ Facilities
❁ Bring animals. ➙ Animals
Step 3: Things you can do to make your trip comfortable
❁ Make use of your skills ➙ Skills, Type
❁ Use tools and items. ➙ Items
❁ Use medicinal herbs. ➙ Healing Herbs
❁ Use magic. ➙ Magic
Step 4: Growth upon completion of your journey
❁ Add up your EXP and level up. ➙ Level up
The Player’s Role
• Control a single character.
• Cooperate with the other players and
make the session fun for everyone.
• Proceed through a scenario with the GM.
• Follow the rules of the game.
WHAT’S AUTOMATED
RYUUTAMA
WHAT’S FIXED
‣ Do we get lost today?
‣ Camping
‣ Cooking
‣ Shopping
‣ Combat
‣ The World
STORIES ART AUTOMATING
NARRATIVE
THEDEATHOFTHE
AUTHOR
AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT
ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER
ANOTHER
MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS
THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF
THEAUTOMATON
ERRORS
LESSONSFOR
HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE
THEPATHAHEAD
NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
Encode using
protocol “writing”
Decode using
protocol “reading”
Roland Barthes
Photo: BBC
Fleury-François RICHARD, Le petit chaperon rouge
STORIES ART AUTOMATING
NARRATIVE
THEDEATHOFTHE
AUTHOR
AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT
ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER
ANOTHER
MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS
THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF
THEAUTOMATON
ERRORS
LESSONSFOR
HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE
THEPATHAHEAD
NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
THIS IS MY
EMAIL NOW.
THANKS, GAMERGATE!
“Why, you know, Sir Thomas’s
means will be rather straitened if
the Antigua estate is to make
such poor returns.”
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park
The goal of literary work is to make the reader no longer a consumer, but a producer of the text.
Roland Barthes
Photo: BBC
“The goal of literary
work is to make the
reader no longer a
consumer, but a
producer of the text.”
George P. Landow
Hypertext: the
convergence of
contemporary
critical theory 

and technology
D. Vincent Baker, Apocalypse World
THE HARDHOLDER
HARDHOLDER MOVES
OTHER MOVES
BARTER
GEARBARTER
IMPROVEMENT
HX
P
D
S MOVES
HARDHOLDERTHE
HARDHOLDER SPECIAL
M
3
6
9
12
D. Vincent Baker, Apocalypse World
The Drifter's Escape
Spades
Ace of Spades This character just ruined another character’s life.
King of Spades This character is involved with another in a tentative
deal with a lot of money.
Queen of Spades This character is related by blood to another.
Jack of Spades This character owes a great debt to someone.
Ten of Spades This character is white
Nine of Spades This character is vastly wealthy.
Eight of Spades This character has never been in love.
Seven of Spades This character has a gun.
Six of Spades This character is a soldier or veteran.
Five of Spades This character holds political office.
Four of Spades This character has appeared in a previous story. (If this
is your first time playing, ignore this.)
Three of Spades Nothing.
Two of Spades Nothing.
Clubs
BenLehman,TheDrifter’sEscape
A
The community becomes obsessed with a single project. Which one? Why? Choose one:
Add 3 weeks to the project die.
All other projects fail.
If there are no projects underway, the community becomes obsessed with a grandiose vision.
Hold a discussion about this vision, in addition to your regular action for the week.
2
Someone returns to the community.
Who? Where were they?
or...
You find a body. Do people recognize who it is?
What happened?
3
Someone leaves the community after issuing a
dire warning. Who? What is the warning?
or...
Someone issues a dire warning, and the community
leaps into action to avoid disaster. What is the warning?
Start a contentious project that relates to it.
4 The strongest among you dies. What caused the death? or...
The weakest among you dies.
Who’s to blame for their death?
5
The Parish arrives. Who are they? Why have they
chosen your community, and for what?
or...
A small gang of marauders is making its way
through local terrain. How many are there?
What weapons do they carry?
6
Introduce a dark mystery among
the members of the community.
or...
Conflict flares up among community members,
and as a result, a project fails.
7
A project just isn’t working out as expected.
Radically change the nature of this project
(don’t modify the project die). When it resolves, you’ll
be responsible for telling the community how it went.
or...
Something goes foul and supplies are ruined.
Add a new Scarcity.
8
Someone sabotages a project, and the project fails
as a result. Who did this? Why?
or...
Someone is caught trying to sabotage the efforts of
the community. How does the community respond?
9
The community works constantly and
as a result a project finishes early.
or...
A group goes out to explore the map more thoroughly,
and finds something that had been previously overlooked.
Autumn
AveryAlder,TheQuietYear
Tadeusz Rajszczak Maszynka (left) and two other young soldiers from Miotła Battalion, 2 September 1944
Photo: Jerzy Tomaszewski
STORIES ART AUTOMATING
NARRATIVE
THEDEATHOFTHE
AUTHOR
AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT
ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER
ANOTHER
MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS
THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF
THEAUTOMATON
ERRORS
LESSONSFOR
HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE
THEPATHAHEAD
NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
R
RUPERT BROOKE, HEAVEN, 1915
PEOPLE ARE TEXTS, TOO…
IDENTITY IS (IN PART) SOCIALLY
CONSTRUCTED. WE WRITE
OURSELVES, BUT WE ALSO ARE
WRITTEN UPON.
Narrative Automata, p.39
ARE YOU MY MOTHER?
Michel Foucault
ARE YOU MY MOTHER?
CONSTRUCTING A CHARACTER
Strength 17
Intelligence 11
Wisdom 6
Dexterity 8
Charisma 7
Constitution 14
IN PRINCIPLE, IT COULD BE
INTERESTING TO EXPLORE
THE ROLE OF A DIMWITTED
WIZARD.
Narrative Automata, p. 40
ARE YOU MY MOTHER?
Alice is Bobby’s aunt, and was Clarice’s teacher in
sophomore English.
Clarice hated that class, and used to have a crush
on Bobby years ago, before he went to prep school
and got so full of himself.
Alice and Bobby expect to inherit a lot of money
someday, but right now they’re flat broke and the
rent is due next week on the fast food joint Alice
owns, Bobby manages, and where Clarice works.
It’s time for crime.
JasonMorningstar,Fiasco
IT’S ABOUT SUBMITTING
TO THE MECHANICS OF
AN ALIEN WORLD.
Paul Czege, The Clay That Woke
ARE YOU MY MOTHER?
ARE YOU MY MOTHER?
These are my courage tokens.
As icons they look like c.
I refresh to two c when we see me having
a conversation with a leader minotaur
about a civic issue.
These are my mind tokens.
As icons they look like m.
I refresh to four m when we see me
reacting emotionally to a cultural problem.
These are my name tokens.
As icons they look like n.
I can spend two n to ensure a gamemaster
character will be successful in a planned future
action for which no player minotaur will be
present.
I refresh to ___ n when we see me tell
an advocate or leader minotaur a truth or
possible truth. I also get n from
several Krater outcomes.
These are my silence tokens.
As icons they look like s.
I get more swhile I’m in the jungle.
These are my gift tokens.
As icons they look like g.
I get more g when I leave the jungle
and I’ve had a gift lost, destroyed, or expire
recently.
This is my life token.
As an icon it looks like l.
I get my l back when the jungle comes for
me in the Dégringolade, or the Dégringolade
comes for me in the jungle.
I have abiding gifts
I have essential gifts
Silence
Be courageous. Act with
wisdom. Work for justice and
the social good. Do not use the
names of women. Do not want.
Do not express your emotions.
I have broken silence
THE CLAY THAT WOKE—MINOTAUR SHEET
A PHILOSOPHER MINOTAURSILENCE
▸ Be courageous.
▸ Act with wisdom.
▸ Work for justice and the social
good.
▸ Do not use the names of women.
▸ Do not want.
▸ Do not express your emotions.
Peter reels from the blow, clutching his broken left
forearm. He hesitates, then plants his feet and pulls
himself up to his full height of 49 inches. “You’ll
never get past me!” he shouts, knowing that he is all
that stands between the monster and Lisa.
Jason L. Blair, Little Fears
ARE YOU MY MOTHER?
ARE YOU MY MOTHER
GAINING DISTANCE
▸ Framing stories
▸ Third person
▸ Ironic detachment
▸ Formalism
▸ Ritual
▸ Joint responsibility
▸ Sentimental (false, conventional) outcomes
STORIES ART AUTOMATING
NARRATIVE
THEDEATHOFTHE
AUTHOR
AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT
ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER
ANOTHER
MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS
THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF
THEAUTOMATON
ERRORS
LESSONSFOR
HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE
THEPATHAHEAD
NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
THE PURITAN
MISTAKES PLEASURE
FOR FRIVOLITY
BECAUSE HE MISTAKES
SERIOUSNESS FOR
SOLEMNITY.
Terry Eagleton
INYOUR
COURSE
MATERIALS!
SERIOUS HYPERTEXT
THE GREY RANKS
A1
N d12
A2
d12
A3
d10
A4
d8
A5
N d8
B1
d12
B2
d10
B3
d10
B4
d8
B5
d8
C1
d10
C2
d10
C3
d8
C4
d6
C5
d6
D1
d8
D2
d8
D3
d6
D4
d6
D5
d4
E1
N d8
E2
d8
E3
d6
E4
d4
E5
N d4
Love
Winmission,winpersonal
i
Hate
Lose mission,lose personal
i
Enthusiasm
Winmission,losepersonal
i
Exhaustion
Losemission,winpersonal
i
M
artyrdom
D
erangem
ent
NervousBreakdow
nSuicidalD
epression
In this game, you will
assume the role of a young
Polish partisan before,
during, and after the
disastrous 1944 Uprising
against the Germans.
Together with your friends,
you’ll create the story of a
group of teens who fight to
free their city.
SERIOUS HYPERTEXT
WHAT’S WRONG WITH GAMES?
▸ Untrue: fictions lie
▸ Frivolous: fictions waste time
▸ Irresponsible: who can blame an automaton?
▸ Sentimental: many automata compel your answer
▸ Prevaricating: closure is a suspect quality
▸ Arbitrary: 

If God is God, he is not good; if God is good, he is not God.
Narrative Automata 47
Hypertext 2017
SERIOUS HYPERTEXT
“The puritan dogma that seriousness is one thing and pleasure another. The
puritan mistakes pleasure for frivolity because he mistakes seriousness for
solemnity.”
Many of the earliest notable narrative automata—Gygax and Arneson’s
Dungeons  Dragons and Edward Packard’s Choose Your Own Adventure
books—were relentlessly cheery melodramas in which romantic heroes faced,
and ultimately overcame, a host of obstacles. Computer games followed their
lead, first in arcades and then in personal computing. Some thought this a result
of the primitive graphics of the time, others attributed the preponderance of
melodrama to the pre-adolescent audience of the early arcades and Toys ‘R’ Us
aisle. Exceptions can be found, but the overall picture is clear. As a result, film
critic Roger Ebert, who throughout his career favored popular entertainment
over the more cerebral fare preferred by his competitor and collaborator Gene
Siskel, famously speculated that games could never be art—that they were inca-
pable of serious thought or emotion. The world of the computer game has long
been dominated by cartoonish figures, slashing their way through derivative
pseudo-Arthurian landscapes to rescue The Princess.
But let us turn to Jason Morningstar’s The Grey Ranks, where the picture is very
different.
The puritan dogma: Eagleton, Terry. Af-
ter Theory. New York: Basic Books, 2003.
The earliest notable narrative
automata: I omit here any number
of conventional games, computer
games, programmed learning texts, and
computational experiments that might
conceivably be viewed as precursors. I
also omit William Wallace Cook’s Plotto
(Ellis Publishing Company, Battle Creek,
Mich., 1928), which was a very different
artifact with a completely different
purpose and which, by the 1974 publica-
tion of Dungeons  Dragons, had been
thoroughly forgotten. Whatever one
thought of DD when it first appeared,
it was new.
Roger Ebert: “Video Games Can Never
Be Art”, (16 April 2010) http://www.
rogerebert.com/rogers-journal/video-
games-can-never-be-art
The Grey Ranks: Jason Morningstar, The
grey ranks (Bully Pulpit Press, 2007)
BRYAN, BRYAN, BRYAN, BRYAN (VACHEL LINDSAY)
She wore in her hair a brave prairie rose.
Her gold chums cut her, for that was not the pose.
No Gibson Girl would wear it in that fresh way.
But we were fairy Democrats, and this was our day.
IT IS UNLIKELY THAT, FOR
EXAMPLE, THE 1944 WARSAW
GHETTO UPRISING COULD BE
INTERPRETED EQUALLY WELL AS
ROMANCE, FARCE, OR TRAGEDY
ALUN MUNSLOW
SERIOUS HYPERTEXT
SERIOUS HYPERTEXT
THE GREY RANKS
STORIES ART AUTOMATING
NARRATIVE
THEDEATHOFTHE
AUTHOR
AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT
ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER
ANOTHER
MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS
THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF
THEAUTOMATON
ERRORS
LESSONSFOR
HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE
THEPATHAHEAD
NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
Wikimedia
THE WAR STORY IS NOT
CHIEFLY INTERESTED IN
SWORDPLAY AND GUNFIRE,
STRATEGY AND TACTICS:
COMPUTER GAMES ARE.
That Fatal Strawberry Ice Cream
One Damn Thing After Another
MY LIFE WITH
MASTER
PAUL CZEGE
4
THOSE
TROJAN GIRLS
MARK BERNSTEIN
AARNE-THOMPSON333
ONE DAMN THING AFTER ANOTHER
On Hypertext Narrative
Mark Bernstein
Eastgate Systems, Inc.
134 Main Street
Watertown MA 02472 USA
+1 617 924 9044
Bernstein@eastgate.com
ABSTRACT
Annals and chronicles may be the foundation of accounting, but
writers of stories and histories have long known that they seldom
render a satisfactory account of complex events. In place of a
simple chronological list, narrative instead organizes our account
in new sequences in order to illuminate the interplay of actors and
events. We want hypertext narrative to do things we cannot
achieve in print; though we may occasionally use links to
introduce variation in presentation or in story; it is now clear that
hypertext will most frequently prove useful in changing (or
adapting) plot. After discussing the ways in which plot may be
varied, I describe the use of stretchtext as a reaction against the
perceived incoherence of classic hypertext narrative, demonstrate
the limitations that conventional stretchtext necessarily imposes
on hypertext narrative, and describe an implemented
generalization of stretchtext that matches the expressive and
formal capabilities of classical hypertext systems while appearing
to be a mere stretchtext and while running within the confines of a
Web browser.
Categories and Subject Descriptors
H5.4 [Hypertext/Hypermedia]: Theory. I7.2 [Document
Preparation]: hypertext/hypermedia. J5 [Computer
Applications]: Arts and Humanities. Literature.
General Terms
Documentation, Design, Human Factors,
Keywords
Hypertext narrative, fiction, stretchtext, patterns
1. ANNALS AND CHRONICLES
Narrative describes events that unfold in time: stories, memories,
histories, and procedural descriptions. Some narratives may be
imaginary, others historical, and still others might describe future
events.
Hypertext narrative matters not only to artists and entertainers, but
also to a wide range of hypertext writers. From historians to
technical writers, from documenting the incidents that gave rise to
a court case to specifying a treatment protocol for medical clinics,
narrative is vitally important. Because hypertext is, by definition,
non-sequential while narrative is fundamentally about sequence,
hypertext has always challenged our understanding of narrative. If
the reader may experience a hypertext in different sequences,
what happens to the reader’s understanding of the sequence of
events?
When we first consider crafting a record of complex events, we
might in the first instance contemplate a chronological record of
occurrences – a diary or chronicle that lists events sequentially.
This representation is ancient; we find it in Babylonian clay
tablets, in the Roman Fasti, in biblical chronicles, in weblogs. In
the form of the journal and ledger, it remains at the center of
accounting.
Even the earliest historians recognized that chronicles or annals
provide an inadequate account of history. For while a simple
chronological list might clarify questions of temporal priority, it
often obscures questions of causation. Unrelated events occur at
the same time, while daily experience reminds us that causes
precede consequences. Extraordinary events, such as a natural
disaster or invasion, may easily overlap other events that, while
ordinary in themselves, give rise to significant consequences.
Events of immediate significance, a royal marriage or a solar
eclipse, may coincide with events whose significance will not
emerge for many years, such as the introduction of a new crop
plant or the birth of a child who will, many years later, lead a
successful revolution.
Even our oldest histories and stories depart from strictly
chronological organization.
2. NOTES ON HYPERTEXT NARRATIVE
We want hypertext narrative to do things we could not achieve in
print.
The study of narrative is, unfortunately, a terminological
quagmire, and is further complicated by inconsistent usages and
linguistic borrowings [27]. Broadly following Lowe, the story is
the sequence of events that the narrative describes. These events
are recounted to us in a (hyper) text. The text may be written, but
it need not be: it might be cinematic, or a audible, or might
combine writing and image in a variety of ways. The narrative
text may not — indeed usually does not — describe events in the
same sequence in which they occurred, but may depart from that
sequence for clarity, emotional effect, or simply because two
events took place at the some time.
Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for
personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies
are
not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that
copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy
otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists,
requires prior specific permission and/or a fee.
HT’09, June 29–July 1, 2009, Torino, Italy.
Copyright 2009 ACM 978-1-60558-486-7/09/06...$5.00
ONE DAMN THING AFTER ANOTHER
CONSTRAINTS
8 Game Rules
Step 4: Maid Special Quality Table
Roll Special Quality Description
11 Glasses You wear glasses and can’t use contact lenses. The frame design can be whatever you want.
12 Freckles You have freckles.
13 Sickly You’ve got an incurable disease. However, this doesn’t adversely affect your attributes. Choose your
own symptoms.
14 Quiet You have a cool, subtle demeanor. No, there are no rules regarding how often you speak.
15 Easygoing You take things slow and calm, at your own pace. This doesn’t affect your attributes.
16 Neat Freak You’re obsessed with cleanliness, and can’t let the tiniest bit of dirt go unnoticed.
21 Brown Skin Your skin is a dark brown color. It could be natural, or a tan.
22 Albino You have no pigment. You’re not necessarily completely colorless, this could simply be a very pale complexion.
23 Shy You’re very shy. Don’t forget to remain silent when encountering NPCs you haven’t met before.
24 Actually A Guy You’re actually a guy (cross-dresser?). Or possibly a hermaphrodite.
25 Overactive
Imagination
You frequently get caught up in your own imaginary world, or else tend to daydream a lot.
26 Greedy You will do absolutely anything for the sake of money.
31 Elf Ears You have long, pointed ears.
32 Nekomimi This varies a bit depending on the setting, but you’re a catgirl, with the ears and possibly tail of a cat.
33 Android/Gynoid You’re not human, but rather a human-looking robot. Parts of your body are very obviously artificial.
34 Vampire You are a vampire, with long fangs. Be sure to act . . . vampiric.
35 Princess You’re actually the daughter of a family of even greater standing than the master. Depending on the setting,
you could even be from another country’s royal family. Whether you are in disguise or not is up to you.
36 Angel/Devil You are a being from another world charged with judging good and evil. The design and the details
of your origins are up to you.
41 Uniform ★ You’ve managed to make a special modification to your uniform. → To the Uniform Table
42 Symbol ★ You have some kind of special mark on your uniform or headdress. → To the Symbol Table
43 Delinquent ★ Something about you is very much like a delinquent. → To the Delinquent Table
44 Accent ★ You have an unusual way of speaking. → To the Accent Table
45 Hairstyle ★ You have a special hairstyle. → To the Hairstyle Table
46 Accessory ★ You have a special accessory attached to your uniform. →To the Accessory Table
51 Relationship or
Perversion ★
LighterGame? You have a relationship to another player character (Maid). → To the RelationshipTable
Darker Game? You have a bizarre perversion of some kind. → To the Perversion Table
52 Criminal
Tendencies ★
You have an inclination towards criminal acts. → To the Criminal Tendencies Table
53 Injury ★ Because of mistreatment or an accident, you have some kind of permanent physical injury.
→ To the Injury Table
54 Tragic Love ★ You have had sad or tragic experiences with love. → To the Tragic Love Table
55 Dark Past ★ There is something dark in your personal history. → To the Dark Past Table
56 Trauma ★ After some terrible incident, you were traumatized. → To the Trauma Table
61 Secret Job ★ You’re not just a maid; you’re secretly holding another job. → To the Secret Job Table
62 Membership ★ In addition to being a maid, you’re also a member of a certain organization. → To the MembershipTable
SLEEPNOMORE
ONE DAMN THING AFTER ANOTHER
As I am leaving, Mrs. DeWinter reaches out a hand to stop me.
She closes the door. She locks it. She sits on the couch. She
points to a small stool at her feet. I sit. Leaning close, she
begins to tell me a whispered story about a dead girl who
finds the moon made of rotten wood. She leans very close, her
hand brushing the back of my neck.
And then, very slowly, she removes my mask.
ONE DAMN THING AFTER ANOTHER
TRAVEL
▸ I hate it here
▸ There and back again
▸ The world as a character
Dogs
Vineyard
in
the
A Roleplaying Game
Written by D. Vincent Baker
ad mmiv
ONE DAMN THING AFTER ANOTHER
BREAKING THE LINE
▸ Heart Suit
▸ Robert Coover
▸ Composition #1
▸ Marc Saporta
2 Stalin wants a story
It is 1928, and Stalin has retreated to his personal chambers. In the world
outside, his agricultural reforms have been unsuccessful, leading to a food
crisis. He doesn’t want to hear a word about that. The peasants are hiding
the scarce food from the state collectors, and it is only at gunpoint that they
are ‘willing’ to give it up. But Stalin doesn’t want to hear a word about
that either.
What he does want to hear is an old Russian folk tale of the kind his
mother used to tell him. A tale of a poor boy going out into the world to
slay a dragon and win the hand of a princess, as simple as that, nothing
fancy. Especially nothing fancy.
To that end, Stalin has invited some of his closest companions to join
him in his sitting room. Also present is a troupe of actors, ordered at a
moment’s notice to come and improvise a fairy tale for the pleasure of their
great leader.
Everybody is on their toes. In these times of crisis, it is only too easy
to displease Stalin. And if you displease Stalin, bad things happen to you.
And so the actors play their tale, and the courtiers scheme for power
and favour, and Stalin – capricious and inscrutable – decides over life and
death.
STORIES ART AUTOMATING
NARRATIVE
THEDEATHOFTHE
AUTHOR
AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT
ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER
ANOTHER
MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS
THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF
THEAUTOMATON
ERRORS
LESSONSFOR
HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE
THEPATHAHEAD
NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
Carvaggio, The Incredulity of Saint Thomas, 1603, Sanssouci Gallery Potsdam
Cesar Santos, First Tattoo
MY FRIEND HAMLET
GALATEA (EMILY SHORT)
▸ Galatea is a sculpture who talks
▸ A sculptural hypertext! (2003)
▸ Conversational
▸ Based on Inform
▸ In the tradition of IF
MY FRIEND HAMLET
BLACK BOX(JENNIFER EGAN)
Being alone with a violent and ruthless man, surrounded by
water, can make the shore seem very far away.
You may feel solidarity, at such a time, with the beauties
just visible there in their bright bikinis.
You may appreciate, at such a time, why you aren’t being
paid for this work.
Your voluntary service is the highest form of patriotism.
Remind yourself that you aren’t being paid when he climbs
out of the water and lumbers toward you.
MY FRIEND HAMLET
MY FRIEND HAMLET
Robyn Miller and Rand Miller, Myst, Cyan, 1993
MY FRIEND HAMLET
Michael Mateas and Andrew Stern, Façade, Procedural Arts, 2005
MY FRIEND HAMLET
SLEEPNOMORE
THE ACTOR DOES NOT NEED TO
BECOME THE CHARACTER…
THERE IS NO CHARACTER.
THERE ARE ONLY LINES UPON A
PAGE.
David Mamet
MY FRIEND HAMLET
True and False: Heresy and Common Sense For The Actor, p. 9
STORIES ART AUTOMATING
NARRATIVE
THEDEATHOFTHE
AUTHOR
AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT
ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER
ANOTHER
MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS
THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF
THEAUTOMATON
ERRORS
LESSONSFOR
HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE
THEPATHAHEAD
NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
ARCADIA
IAIN PEARS
TWELVE
BLUE
MICHAEL JOYCE
SEED
JOANNA WALSH
Much of the Twine world equates
hypertext research generally (and this
writer specifically) with The Man; I think
this, too, is an unfortunate misperception
on their part. But, then, I would.
Narrative Automata, p. 103n
GEARS AND PULLEYS
Doll Player
The doll knows everything but isn’t always
honest. Begin the game by deciding whether the
child’s parents are evil or wonderful. Don’t tell
the other player until the story is over.
Whenever the child asks you a question about a
different character or Event, both players should
snap fingers, nod heads, or in some other way count
to three. On three, turn the doll’s head left, turn it
right, or face it straight ahead. If the doll and the
Child Player match directions, the doll must not lie.
Otherwise, the doll may choose whether to answer
questions truthfully.
After twenty minutes, the story is over. Tell the
Child Player to guess whether the parents are
evil or wonderful.
Play in public. Bring a doll, puppet, or other toy.
You play the doll and speak for the doll. The other
person, the Child Player, narrates the story, but you
can add supernatural details to the story.
Doll by Josh Jordan, Ginger Goat 2013
ALEKSANDRA SONTOWSKA AND KAMIL WĘGRZYNOWICZ.
STORIES ART AUTOMATING
NARRATIVE
THEDEATHOFTHE
AUTHOR
AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT
ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER
ANOTHER
MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS
THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF
THEAUTOMATON
ERRORS
LESSONSFOR
HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE
THEPATHAHEAD
NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
Although people sometimes have a hard
time deciding whether or not something
is art, they are rarely fooled into thinking
they are having a good time when they
are not.
Louis Menand
THAT KIND OF MOVIE
THAT KIND OF MOVIE
If you are to have the thought of a rough and
untaught man, you must have it in a rough and
untaught way; but from an educated man, who can
without effort express his thoughts in an educated
way, take the graceful expression, and be thankful.
Only get the thought, and do not silence the peasant
because he cannot speak good grammar.
▸ John Ruskin, Stones of Venice II p. 167
THAT KIND OF MOVIE
It was Kael’s therapeutic advice to the overcultivated
that if they just concentrated on responding to the
stimulus, the aesthetics would take care of themselves.
What good is form if the content leaves you cold?
The academic term for the kind of antiformalism Kael
promoted is “postmodernism.” Postmodernism in the
arts simply is anti-essentialism.
Louis Menand, “She Found It At The Movies”
You Me Rock Water Fire Stick
Hairy Bang! Sleep Smelly Small Big
Cave Food Thing Shiny Go
OG
THAT KIND OF MOVIE
A new, immersive
roleplaying game
like nothing you’ve
seen before.
Paul
CZEGE
Minotaurs in
a human civilization
sundered by a surreal,
trackless jungle.
𐑓𐑰𐑤 𐑞 𐑕𐑳𐑯𐑪𐑯𐑘𐑹 𐑣𐑲𐑛 $27.00
THE “EXTERNALS”
“They lie because they don’t trust
language or the motives of those who
use it…they’re the ultimate
revolutionaries, impassioned and
pathological, gorgeous and vigorous.
OSCILLATION
SILVIO GAGGI
FROM TEXT TO HYPERTEXT
THE
SKELETONS
JASON
MORNINGSTAR
THE
SKELETONSA game by JASON MORNINGSTAR
Years fly by like dead leaves. Everything is darkness. Everything is
silence.You stand vigilant before the sarcophagus without thought
or breath—such is your compulsion.You do not remember your
name and still you watch. The flesh has fallen off your bones
and still you watch.
And then one day there is light and motion and you weigh your
bearded axe and raise your shield, lusting for the fray, eager to
measure your skill against these tomb-robbing children so full
of blood.You’ll never be alive again, but in this moment—in the
chaos between violation and destruction—you truly live, and you
remember what you once were, and you taste the sun.
©2015 Bully Pulpit Games LLC.
Editing by Autumn Winters and Steve Segedy. Additional setting material by Sara Williamson.
Layout and art by Brennen Reece
Skeleton Art CC-A The Wellcome Collection, James Ward, Eduard Weber, Marcin Białek, sjwells53
Thanks to Stras Acimovic, Caitlynn Belle, Ray Benefield, Nathan Black, Jesse Coombs, Jim Crocker, Klint
Finley, Kristin Firth, Ephraim Gregor, Greg Jansen, Alexis Lainoff, Ian McEwan, Marshall Miller, Scott
Morningstar, Jessica Morrell, Ian Oakes, Jillian Ordes-Finley, George Royer, Charley Sharp, Michel Sherer,
Krista White, Sara Williamson, and many others!
THAT KIND OF MOVIE
MAID
METAFICTION
“What is this place, Mr. Chang? Do
you know? I’m afraid I have only the
faintest idea, and that doesn’t make
much sense.”
Chang laughed harshly. “Well now,”
he said. “That’s a long story.”
“I know. It’s my story. But it seems
very real at the moment. Is it?”
“As real as you and me. Which is to
say, not very, but all we have.”
ARCADIA
THE ROMANTIC
NATURE OF
AUTOMATA
STORIES ART AUTOMATING
NARRATIVE
THEDEATHOFTHE
AUTHOR
AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT
ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER
ANOTHER
MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS
THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF
THEAUTOMATON
ERRORS
LESSONSFOR
HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE
THEPATHAHEAD
NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
01-10 slovenly trull
11-25 brazen strumpet
26-35 cheap trollop
36-50 typical streetwalker
51-65 saucy tart
66-75 wanton wench
76-85 expensive doxy
86-90 haughty courtesan
91-92 aged madam
93-94 wealthy procuress
95-98 sly pimp
99-00 rich panderer
HARLOT ENCOUNTER TABLE
Dungeons and Dragons
THE EXUBERANCE OF THE AUTOMATON
“For instance, a bronze helmet that was the symbol of the
dwarven duchess was lost on site after the duchess passed
on from natural causes, and it took several years for
another dwarf to find it and give it to the next duke --
the handover process is now more routine. Kobolds are also
no longer allowed to make claims on artifacts (they still
steal them, of course). They always store them in the
trophy room now -- finding a single artifact held by a
kobold somewhere in the living area was too difficult.
Artifacts were disappearing out of my backpack, and that's
sorted out.”
DWARF FORTRESS
CONFLICT #696
696: (715c, 695b) The
protagonist, a patriot, but
a wanderer and an
outcast, is deprived of all
news of his native land.
(823)(826)(859)
31 Servant
32 Cocotte
33 Zoologist
34 Acrobat
35 Palmist
36 Florist
37 Fencer
38 Canvasser
39 Taxi dancer
40 Editor
41 Aviatrix
THE EXUBERANCE OF THE AUTOMATON
BREAKING THE LINE
▸ Heart Suit
▸ Robert Coover
EXUBERANT AUTOMATA
2 I have a disability you don’t know about.
3 I’ve changed religions.
4 I’ve been sober for three months.
5 I used to steal from your parents.
Josh T. Jordan, The Sky Is Gray and You Are Distressed
STORIES ART AUTOMATING
NARRATIVE
THEDEATHOFTHE
AUTHOR
AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT
ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER
ANOTHER
MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS
THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF
THEAUTOMATON
ERRORS
LESSONSFOR
HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE
THEPATHAHEAD
NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
LESSONS FOR HYPERTEXT NARRATIVE
IDENTIFICATION AND DISTANCE
▸ Framing stories provide emotional distance
▸ First person narration promotes identification, while third
person encourages reflection on and analysis of the
character’s faults and actions.
▸ Second person is fraught.
▸ You will never the the Prince of Denmark
LESSONS FOR HYPERTEXT NARRATIVE
THEORY
▸ The hypertext author is neither more or less dead than any
other.
▸ Socially constituted characters are new. They should not be
restricted to mere labels intended to flatter the immature.
▸ Story and plot both matter.
▸ Everyone is a subject, and every element that can be a
signifier will become a signifier.
LESSONS FOR HYPERTEXT NARRATIVE
COMPUTATION
▸ Sparse character models can be manipulated, but that
readers understand them to be false
▸ Rich character models are unpredictable; this can be an
advantage or a liability.
▸ Automata must argue explicitly for their own seriousness.
▸ A story in which the narrator is the only interesting
character is problematic; when we ourselves are the only
interesting character, the problem is worse.
▸ A character is a character because it says so.
LESSONS FOR HYPERTEXT NARRATIVE
LANGUAGE AND MEANING
▸ A story in which the narrator is the only interesting character
is problematic; when we ourselves are the only interesting
character, the problem is worse.
▸ The breakdown of meaning in the age of modernity is not
new. Ask Kafka.
▸ The tyranny of the line can be broken; recovering the line
when we want narrative coherence is sometimes a challenge.
▸ The landscape can be a character and, indeed, is often a
romantic hero.
“…a world in which there is indeed no
salvation, but on the other hand nothing
to be saved. This is the post-tragic realm
of postmodernism. Postmodernism is too
young to remember a time where there
was (so it was rumoured) truth, identity,
and reality, and so feels no dizzying abyss
beneath its feet.” (Eagleton, p. 58)
STORIES ART AUTOMATING
NARRATIVE
THEDEATHOFTHE
AUTHOR
AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT
ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER
ANOTHER
MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS
THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF
THEAUTOMATON
ERRORS
LESSONSFOR
HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE
THEPATHAHEAD
NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
EXPOSITION
NARRATIVE
INTERTEXTUALITY
PRIVATE
AUTOMATA
LONG TIME
SOCIAL
LOCATIVE
GAMES
WIT VS.
FRIGIDITY
SERIOUSNESS
VS.
SOLEMNITY
VISUALIZATION
DEBUGGING
REAL
MORALITY
BEYOND FUN
VOICE AND
FRAME
NONFICTION
TELL ME A
STORY

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I apologize, upon reflection those terms promote harm. Perhaps we could find more constructive ways to discuss this

  • 1. A FESTIVAL OF NARRATIVE AUTOMATA MARK BERNSTEIN EASTGATE
  • 2. A FESTIVAL OF NARRATIVE AUTOMATA ▸ Stories 1................................................................................................................. ▸ Art 5....................................................................................................................... ▸ Automating Narrative 21...................................................................................... ▸ The Death Of The Author 29................................................................................ ▸ Are You My Mother?: the social construction of character 39................................ ▸ Serious Hypertext 47............................................................................................ ▸ One Damn Thing After Another: the master narrative 63..................................... ▸ My Friend, Hamlet 87............................................................................................ ▸ Gears and Pulleys: building the automaton 101...................................................... ▸ That Kind Of Movie: theory made manifest 109..................................................... ▸ The Exuberance Of The Automaton 121............................................................... ▸ Errors 133............................................................................................................... ▸ Lessons For Hypertext Narrative 137................................................................... ▸ The Path Ahead 141............................................................................................... ▸ Appendix: The Game In Fiction 149..................................................................... ▸ Glossary 153...........................................................................................................
  • 3. USB STICK BOOK ❧ SLIDES ❧ GAMES
  • 5. THANKS TO… ▸ Mark W. R. Anderson ▸ Paul Czege ▸ Charlie Hargood ▸ E. P. James ▸ Diane Greco Josefowicz ▸ George P. Landow ▸ Morgan Macri ▸ Stacey Mason ▸ David Millard ▸ Jason Morningstar ▸ Stuart Moulthrop ▸ Souvik Mukherjee ▸ Emily Short ▸ Rosemary M. Simpson
  • 6. THE PLAN THE PLAN ▸ Interrupt with questions! ▸ Yes, do! ▸ Lunch break ▸ After lunch, I’ll try to wrap up in time for the last 2 papers in the Engelbart session
  • 7.
  • 8. 1987 Michael Joyce, afternoon, a story, Eastgate, 1990
  • 12. Tiree Tales: A Co-operative Inquiry into the Poetics of Location-Based Narratives David E. Millard Web and Internet Science University of Southampton dem@ecs.soton.ac.uk Charlie Hargood Creative Technology Bournemouth University chargood@bournemouth.ac.uk ABSTRACT In a location-based story a reader’s movement through phys- ical space is translated into movement through narrative space, typically by presenting them with text fragments on a smart device triggered by location changes. Despite the increasing popularity of such systems their poetics are poorly understood, meaning limited guidance for authors, and few authoring tools. To explore these poetics we present a co-operative inquiry into the authoring of an interactive location-based narrative, ‘The Isle of Brine’, set on the island of Tiree. Our inquiry reveals both pragmatic and aesthetic considerations driven by the locations themselves, that aect the design of both the Story (narrative structure) and Fabula (events within the story). These include the importance of paths, bottlenecks, and junctions as a physical manifesta- tion of calligraphic patterns, the need for coherent narrative areas, and the requirement to use evocative places and to manage thematic and tonal discord between the landscape and the narrative. CCS CONCEPTS • Human-centered computing → Hypertext / hyper- media; KEYWORDS Location-Based Narrative, Sculptural Hypertext ACM Reference format: David E. Millard and Charlie Hargood. 2017. Tiree Tales: A Co- operative Inquiry into the Poetics of Location-Based Narratives. In Proceedings of The 28th ACM Conference on Hypertext and Social Media, Prague, Czech Republic, July 2017 (HYPERTEXT’17), 11 pages. DOI: 10.475/123_4 Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for prot or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the rst page. Copyrights for third- party components of this work must be honored. For all other uses, contact the owner/author(s). HYPERTEXT’17, Prague, Czech Republic © 2017 Copyright held by the owner/author(s). 123-4567-24- 567/08/06...$xx.xx DOI: 10.475/123_4 1 INTRODUCTION Location-based narratives are digital stories, read on a smart device, that are aware of the user’s location. Typically the stories require readers to move through a space, making new story nodes available as a result. They dier from traditional hypertext narratives in that navigation is a result of physical movement rather than link traversal, and are thus similar in their interactivity to game narratives, where narrative choices are associated with player actions. However, the location-based narratives created to date have mostly been exploratory, and little work has been undertaken to under- stand the poetics of location-based writing (in contrast to the body of theory on hypertext writing and poetics). Without this understanding it is dicult to produce eective tools for creating location-based narratives, or to educate writers about the possibilities. Our StoryPlaces project is a collaboration between Com- puter Scientists and English Scholars to explore the poetics of location-based narratives. There have been a number of attempts to develop critical theory or design frameworks for digital narratives, but as location-based systems are relatively new, the theory behind them is in its early stages; examples include attempts to explore the boundaries between story- telling and games [10], considering the user’s interaction as a trajectory through complex spaces [4]. In StoryPlaces we have taken a co-design approach, where domain experts (in this case English academics and authors) are brought into the design team and actively take part in decisions. In our project we are the technology experts, and through our interaction with domain experts have begun to understand some of the issues around authoring interac- tive location-based stories, an approach that we have used successfully in the past [31]. However, it became clear that this understanding would always be decient unless we at- tempted to create a story ourselves and experienced the issues rst hand. We also felt that we were more likely to push the technological boundaries of what was possible (for example, by using more complex interactive structures) as we were more comfortable with those aspects of the tech- nology, and less conscious of the negative impacts that this focus might have on the resulting text.
  • 13. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  • 15. People have always told stories. Until very recently, if you wanted to hear a new story, you invented it yourself or you asked someone else to tell you a story, either in person or in print. The Book, p. 1 STORIES
  • 16. STORIES NARRATIVE AUTOMATA ▸ Machines that tell stories ▸ Sometimes alone, often in conjunction with one or more people ▸ Sometimes computer programs ▸ Often, rules and procedures
  • 17. STORIES WHY? ▸ Individual storytellers cheat ▸ The short 20th century was built on propaganda ▸ Automata let us see complexity of the story ▸ To learn something, try to teach it ▸ Automata provide context for thinking about narratology ▸ To teach a machine to do something that has always been a perquisite of humanity
  • 18. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  • 19. MOMENT ELENA BORCH DEATH AND THE MAIDEN NY CARLSBERG GLYPOTEK
  • 20. ART “REAL ANALYSIS IS MORE REAL THAN WE THOUGHT!” https://xkcd.com/1856/
  • 21. ART ▸ Once upon a time… ▸ And then… ▸ But there was one thing they had forgotten. I believe that today is Jan Hus Day, Den upálení mistra Jana Husa
  • 22. Fra Angelico, The Annunciation, 1437-46
  • 23. Henry Ozawa Tanner, The Annunciation, 1898, Philadelphia Museum of Art
  • 24. Henry Ozawa Tanner, The Annunciation, 1898, Smithsonian American Art Museum
  • 26. Edward Hopper, 11 AM, 1926, Smithsonian Institution
  • 27.
  • 29. ART ▸ Literary Hypertext / Hypertext Narrative ▸ Interactive Fiction ▸ Digital Storytelling ▸ Electronic Literature ▸ Games Studies ▸ Interactive Digital Narrative ▸ AI ▸ Tabletop games and narrative automata OUR FRAGMENTED COMMUNITIES Moreaboutthisinthebook
  • 30.
  • 31. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  • 32. AUTOMATING NARRATIVE TWO CORE INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITIES ▸AUTOMATING THINGS THAT HAVE ALWAYS BEEN EXCLUSIVELY HUMAN ▸IDENTIFYING THE LIMITS OF COMPUTATION
  • 33. NOT ABOUT MAKING WRITERS MORE PRODUCTIVE AUTOMATING NARRATIVE
  • 35. THE FUTURE OF SERIOUS READING AND WRITING LIES ON THE COMPUTER SCREEN. me AUTOMATING NARRATIVE
  • 36. DUNGEONS DRAGONS GARY GYGAX AND DAVE ARNESON 1
  • 37. 01-10 slovenly trull 11-25 brazen strumpet 26-35 cheap trollop 36-50 typical streetwalker 51-65 saucy tart 66-75 wanton wench 76-85 expensive doxy 86-90 haughty courtesan 91-92 aged madam 93-94 wealthy procuress 95-98 sly pimp 99-00 rich panderer HARLOT ENCOUNTER TABLE Dungeons and Dragons
  • 38. WHAT’S AUTOMATED Dungeons and Dragons WHAT’S FIXED ‣ Random encounters ‣ Combat results ‣ The Dungeon-Master’s World ‣ Trajectory of Victory and Experience
  • 40. CONFLICT #696 PLOTTO 696: (715c, 695b) The protagonist, a patriot, but a wanderer and an outcast, is deprived of all news of his native land. (823)(826)(859)
  • 41. WHAT’S AUTOMATED PLOTTO WHAT’S FIXED ‣ Succession of conflicts ‣ Realist mode ‣ Conflict-driven story ‣ Male protagonist
  • 43. BELIEF Little Fears IT'S ALL JUST A GAME If the roll failed with Failing Grades: Oh my. Your child believed in something and it not only didn’t work, it completely failed. Maybe it’s not just broken. Maybe magic’s not as powerful as he thought. If you failed with Failing Grades and you were not using Stuff, you lose the original token and another token as well. No matter how many Failing Grades there are, you only lose one extra token. Only the person who rolled the dice loses the extra Belief token. So if you believe in another, and that person fails with Failing Grades, you lose your original Belief token but he or she loses the extra one. If the person losing the extra token has no tokens, there is no penalty. EXAMPLE: Let’s say Hugo didn’t make the leap. In this scenario, his friend was Believing in him. In fact, Hugo not only fails, he completely botches the attempt. He need to meet or beat a
  • 44. WHAT’S AUTOMATED LITTLE FEARS WHAT’S FIXED ‣ Combat ‣ Lots of improv/ explaining what the dice are saying ‣ Game Master’s World ‣ The Enemy ‣ Each character’s gradual loss of innocence or belief
  • 46. LOVE, WEARINESS, LOATHING MY LIFE WITH MASTER VILLAINY AND SELF-LOATHING Carlotta Sebastian and Volya Prue The life of a minion is a hard one. The horrific things you do make it difficult to feel good about yourself. If only someone loved you...
  • 47. WHAT’S AUTOMATED MY LIFE WITH MASTER WHAT’S FIXED ‣ Finding Love ‣ Doing Horrible Things ‣ What Happens Afterward ‣ A minion will kill the Master (eventually) EpilogueConstraints 1. WEARINESS greater than REASON plus SELF-LOATHING: The minion flees/runs/wanders off, giving up on his struggle. 2. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS greater than LOVE plus REASON: The minion is killed. 3. SELF-LOATHING greater than WEARINESS plus REASON: The minion destroys itself. 4. LOVE plus REASON greater than SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS: The minion integrates itself into the society of Townspeople. 5. LOVE equals zero: The minion emerges from the ashes of the Endgame as a force of Fear in his/her own right. 6. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS equals LOVE plus REASON: The minion finds a new Master to serve. © 2003, 2006 by Paul Czege. All rights reserved. Permission granted to photocopy this page for personal use. Captured IfWEARINESS isgreaterthan REASON The Horror Revealed SELF-LOATHING doesn’t increasewhenit’s equaltoorgreaterthan LOVE plusREASON Endgame is possible If LOVE isgreaterthan FEAR plusWEARINESS WEARINESS MorethanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ LessthanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ Connection ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Love _______ _______ _______ _______ _______
  • 48. NO COUNTRY FOR OLD KOBOLDS STEVE WALLACE 5 Steve Wallace ART
  • 49. THE VILLAGE COLLECTIVE NO COUNTRY FOR OLD KOBOLDS No Country for Old Kobolds 23 FUCK YOU, WE HAVE A... Your village gains a mighty protector! Of course, they want some- thing in return… This move can be taken multiple times, but only in the order listed below.These sorts of creatures aren’t known for sharing; each time a new creature moves into your territory they run off the previous protector (and you no longer have to fulfill the previous protector’s wants).Thus, you can only have one protector at a time. You may spend additional xp to skip protector levels, e.g. 14xp to go straight to Troll, 21xp to go straight to Necromancer. …WIZARD! A wizard of some variety has taken up residence in your village! What sort of wizard is it? Gain four 1d6 damage, 10 hit point homunculi units for future raids. Add a new want to the village. Describe what it is and where it can be acquired. …TROLL! A mighty troll has taken up residence in the village! What’s its name? Gain one 1d12 damage, 20 hit point troll unit that regen- erates three hit points per round. Add a new want to the village. Describe what it is and where it can be acquired. …NECROMANCER! A terrible necromancer has taken up residence in your village! Gain five 1d6 damage, 8 hit point skeleton units. Gain 2 additional units each time your village breeds. Add a new want to the village. Describe what it is and where it can be acquired. …DRAGON! A mighty dragon has taken up residence in your village! What sort of dragon is it? Gain one 2d8 damage, 40 hit point dragon unit. Add a new want to the village. Describe what it is and where it can be acquired. If any unit gained by this move dies, the unit is gone forever. You may, however, still buy the next level protector. If a protector leaves the village for any reason, their want goes with them. You don’t have to find rotten fish to feed to your troll protec- tor if he’s been killed by a murderhobo.
  • 50. WHAT’S AUTOMATED NO COUNTRY FOR OLD KOBOLDS WHAT’S FIXED ‣ Encounters ‣ Combats ‣ Village Needs ‣ Game-Master’s World ‣ Arc of prosperity EpilogueConstraints 1. WEARINESS greater than REASON plus SELF-LOATHING: The minion flees/runs/wanders off, giving up on his struggle. 2. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS greater than LOVE plus REASON: The minion is killed. 3. SELF-LOATHING greater than WEARINESS plus REASON: The minion destroys itself. 4. LOVE plus REASON greater than SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS: The minion integrates itself into the society of Townspeople. 5. LOVE equals zero: The minion emerges from the ashes of the Endgame as a force of Fear in his/her own right. 6. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS equals LOVE plus REASON: The minion finds a new Master to serve. © 2003, 2006 by Paul Czege. All rights reserved. Permission granted to photocopy this page for personal use. Captured IfWEARINESS isgreaterthan REASON The Horror Revealed SELF-LOATHING doesn’t increasewhenit’s equaltoorgreaterthan LOVE plusREASON Endgame is possible If LOVE isgreaterthan FEAR plusWEARINESS WEARINESS MorethanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ LessthanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ Connection ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Love _______ _______ _______ _______ _______
  • 52. QUEER FATE NIGHT WITCHES 65the game master: threats OUR BELOVED 588TH REGIMENT „ Confess love or pregnancy or both. „ Brew up petty rivalries, spread rumors, and gossip. „ Bury the dead—or the living. „ Celebrate a victory, award, wedding, or name day. „ Deliver very bad news from home. „ Introduce green recruits or know-it-all veterans. „ Our Gallant Flying Comrades „ Send Major Popov of the all-male 218th Night Bomber Regiment over. „ Take credit. „ Laugh at the women of the 588th. „ Make the Night Witches act like men—or women. „ Spotlight an ace from the mostly female 586th Fighter Regiment. „ “Borrow” resources and equipment. „ Break the rules and get away with it. REAR-ECHELON HEROES „ Delay vital supplies or paperwork. „ Deliver the wrong things; deliver late or not at all. „ Rat them out. „ Loiter around the airbase looking for a party. „ Demand a “consideration”—or steal from them. „ Have the Central Directorate of Rear Services of the Soviet Army Air Forces, 4th Air Army Logistics and Supply Commissariat call them to account. THEGAMEMASTER
  • 53. WHAT’S AUTOMATED NO COUNTRY FOR OLD KOBOLDS WHAT’S FIXED ‣ Combat ‣ Arc: moving from base to base ‣ Much of the world ‣ Catch-22 EpilogueConstraints 1. WEARINESS greater than REASON plus SELF-LOATHING: The minion flees/runs/wanders off, giving up on his struggle. 2. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS greater than LOVE plus REASON: The minion is killed. 3. SELF-LOATHING greater than WEARINESS plus REASON: The minion destroys itself. 4. LOVE plus REASON greater than SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS: The minion integrates itself into the society of Townspeople. 5. LOVE equals zero: The minion emerges from the ashes of the Endgame as a force of Fear in his/her own right. 6. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS equals LOVE plus REASON: The minion finds a new Master to serve. © 2003, 2006 by Paul Czege. All rights reserved. Permission granted to photocopy this page for personal use. Captured IfWEARINESS isgreaterthan REASON The Horror Revealed SELF-LOATHING doesn’t increasewhenit’s equaltoorgreaterthan LOVE plusREASON Endgame is possible If LOVE isgreaterthan FEAR plusWEARINESS WEARINESS MorethanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ LessthanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ Connection ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Love _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ Which officer of the 588th was in no condition to fly when the Regiment arrived in Trud Gornyaka? What is being done to keep livestock off the runway, and why isn’t it working?
  • 56. WHAT’S AUTOMATED THE BEAST WHAT’S FIXED ‣ The sequence of questions ‣ The Premise ‣ The Questions EpilogueConstraints 1. WEARINESS greater than REASON plus SELF-LOATHING: The minion flees/runs/wanders off, giving up on his struggle. 2. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS greater than LOVE plus REASON: The minion is killed. 3. SELF-LOATHING greater than WEARINESS plus REASON: The minion destroys itself. 4. LOVE plus REASON greater than SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS: The minion integrates itself into the society of Townspeople. 5. LOVE equals zero: The minion emerges from the ashes of the Endgame as a force of Fear in his/her own right. 6. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS equals LOVE plus REASON: The minion finds a new Master to serve. © 2003, 2006 by Paul Czege. All rights reserved. Permission granted to photocopy this page for personal use. Captured IfWEARINESS isgreaterthan REASON The Horror Revealed SELF-LOATHING doesn’t increasewhenit’s equaltoorgreaterthan LOVE plusREASON Endgame is possible If LOVE isgreaterthan FEAR plusWEARINESS WEARINESS MorethanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ LessthanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ Connection ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Love _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ In what way, and how often, does the beast show affection?
  • 57. DOGS IN THE VINEYARD D. VINCENT BAKER 8Dogs Vineyard in the A Roleplaying Game Written by D. Vincent Baker ad mmiv
  • 58. THE FAITH DOGS IN THE VINEYARD There’s something wrong, of course. Pride (manifests as injustice). ...leads to... Sin (manifests as demons attacking from outside, in the form of famine, plague, raiding outlaw bands, or whatever). ...leads to... False Doctrine (manifests as corrupt religious practices and heresy). ...leads to... False Priesthood (manifests as demons within the congregation: sorcery, possession and active evil). ...leads to... Hate and murder.
  • 59. WHAT’S AUTOMATED DOGS IN THE VINEYARD WHAT’S FIXED ‣ Combat ‣ Interaction with townspeople ‣ The world ‣ The faith ‣ The arc EpilogueConstraints 1. WEARINESS greater than REASON plus SELF-LOATHING: The minion flees/runs/wanders off, giving up on his struggle. 2. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS greater than LOVE plus REASON: The minion is killed. 3. SELF-LOATHING greater than WEARINESS plus REASON: The minion destroys itself. 4. LOVE plus REASON greater than SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS: The minion integrates itself into the society of Townspeople. 5. LOVE equals zero: The minion emerges from the ashes of the Endgame as a force of Fear in his/her own right. 6. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS equals LOVE plus REASON: The minion finds a new Master to serve. © 2003, 2006 by Paul Czege. All rights reserved. Permission granted to photocopy this page for personal use. Captured IfWEARINESS isgreaterthan REASON The Horror Revealed SELF-LOATHING doesn’t increasewhenit’s equaltoorgreaterthan LOVE plusREASON Endgame is possible If LOVE isgreaterthan FEAR plusWEARINESS WEARINESS MorethanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ LessthanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ Connection ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Love _______ _______ _______ _______ _______
  • 60. INYOUR COURSE MATERIALS! THE CLAY THAT WOKE PAUL CZEGE 9 A new, immersive roleplaying game like nothing you’ve seen before. Paul CZEGE Minotaurs in a human civilization sundered by a surreal, trackless jungle. 𐑓𐑰𐑤 𐑞 𐑕𐑳𐑯𐑪𐑯𐑘𐑹 𐑣𐑲𐑛 $27.00
  • 61. SILENCE THE CLAY THAT WOKE Be courageous. Act with wisdom. Work for justice and the social good. Do not use the names of women. Do not want. Do not express your emotions.
  • 62. WHAT’S AUTOMATED THE CLAY THAT WOKE WHAT’S FIXED ‣ Combat ‣ Interactions ‣ Townspeople ‣ The forest ‣ The krater of lots ‣ The world ‣ The silence ‣ The arc
  • 63. INYOUR COURSE MATERIALS! THE SKELETONS JASON MORNINGSTAR 10THE SKELETONSA game by JASON MORNINGSTAR Years fly by like dead leaves. Everything is darkness. Everything is silence.You stand vigilant before the sarcophagus without thought or breath—such is your compulsion.You do not remember your name and still you watch. The flesh has fallen off your bones and still you watch. And then one day there is light and motion and you weigh your bearded axe and raise your shield, lusting for the fray, eager to measure your skill against these tomb-robbing children so full of blood.You’ll never be alive again, but in this moment—in the chaos between violation and destruction—you truly live, and you remember what you once were, and you taste the sun. ©2015 Bully Pulpit Games LLC. Editing by Autumn Winters and Steve Segedy. Additional setting material by Sara Williamson. Layout and art by Brennen Reece Skeleton Art CC-A The Wellcome Collection, James Ward, Eduard Weber, Marcin Białek, sjwells53 Thanks to Stras Acimovic, Caitlynn Belle, Ray Benefield, Nathan Black, Jesse Coombs, Jim Crocker, Klint Finley, Kristin Firth, Ephraim Gregor, Greg Jansen, Alexis Lainoff, Ian McEwan, Marshall Miller, Scott Morningstar, Jessica Morrell, Ian Oakes, Jillian Ordes-Finley, George Royer, Charley Sharp, Michel Sherer, Krista White, Sara Williamson, and many others!
  • 64. TOMB TABLES GLORY FADES Choose and mark. For anything affecting a single skeleton, choose which however you like. † The magic compelling one of the skeletons to service— but not its undead energy—is beginning to fade. † Something the skeletons are protecting is lost—stolen or simply missing. What was it? † A memory that a skeleton had previously regained is false, and the truth asserts itself. Which memory, and what truth? † The place where a skeleton stands watch is covered in debris and impassable. † A skeleton loses some bones permanently. What body part is missing? Note it on the character sheet. † Something the skeletons are protecting is damaged. What, and how? GODS LAUGH Choose and mark. For anything affecting a single skeleton, choose which however you like. † A skeleton’s weapon is broken, bent or rendered useless. What will they do? Note it on the character sheet. † A skeleton’s appearance is altered in some way. Perhaps they are marked by fire or magic. † A memory that a skeleton had previously regained slips away and is lost forever. Which one? † Something the skeletons are protecting is destroyed. What is it? † Something from a skeleton’s past has been accidentally revealed What was it, and why was it hidden? Note this on the map. † The magic animating one of the skeletons—but not its compulsion to service—is beginning to fade. WORLDS CRUMBLE Choose and mark. For anything affecting the tomb itself, note it on the map and adjust accordingly. † A wall comes down, blocking part of the tomb. Which part? Adjust the map. † A tomb-robber is successful. What object did they steal? Choose from among those already introduced if you are able. Adjust the map. † The great sarcophagus splits open, spilling out its contents. What was within? Adjust the map. † The tomb is flooded. What is ruined, mold covered, or decayed after the waters recede? Adjust the map. † Gold and silver dull. Iron rusts. Colors fade to a sepulchral grey. Note this on the map. † A thick layer of dust covers every surface. Note this on the map. TIME DEVOURS Choose and mark. For anything affecting the tomb itself, note it on the map and adjust accordingly. † The webs of tomb spiders form an intricate filigree over the walls and ceiling. Note this on the map. † The tomb is infested. What signs of vermin remain long after the infestation ends? Adjust the map. † A crack develops, creating an opening for robbers and other vermin. Where? Adjust the map. † Something collapses, leaving a large pile of debris. What has failed? Adjust the map. † Wood, cloth, hide, horn and un-enchanted bone all turn to powder. Note this on the map. † An earthquake rocks the tomb, drastically altering its shape and utility. Many things are destroyed. Adjust the map. DESECRATION THE SKELETONS
  • 65. WHAT’S IMPROVISED THE CLAY THAT WOKE WHAT’S FIXED ‣ The World ‣ How we explain what happened ‣ Combat ‣ The arc EpilogueConstraints 1. WEARINESS greater than REASON plus SELF-LOATHING: The minion flees/runs/wanders off, giving up on his struggle. 2. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS greater than LOVE plus REASON: The minion is killed. 3. SELF-LOATHING greater than WEARINESS plus REASON: The minion destroys itself. 4. LOVE plus REASON greater than SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS: The minion integrates itself into the society of Townspeople. 5. LOVE equals zero: The minion emerges from the ashes of the Endgame as a force of Fear in his/her own right. 6. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS equals LOVE plus REASON: The minion finds a new Master to serve. © 2003, 2006 by Paul Czege. All rights reserved. Permission granted to photocopy this page for personal use. Captured IfWEARINESS isgreaterthan REASON The Horror Revealed SELF-LOATHING doesn’t increasewhenit’s equaltoorgreaterthan LOVE plusREASON Endgame is possible If LOVE isgreaterthan FEAR plusWEARINESS WEARINESS MorethanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ LessthanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ Connection ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Love _______ _______ _______ _______ _______
  • 66. RYUUTAMA ATSUHIRO OKADA 11THE SKELETONSA game by JASON MORNINGSTAR Years fly by like dead leaves. Everything is darkness. Everything is silence.You stand vigilant before the sarcophagus without thought or breath—such is your compulsion.You do not remember your name and still you watch. The flesh has fallen off your bones and still you watch. And then one day there is light and motion and you weigh your bearded axe and raise your shield, lusting for the fray, eager to measure your skill against these tomb-robbing children so full of blood.You’ll never be alive again, but in this moment—in the chaos between violation and destruction—you truly live, and you remember what you once were, and you taste the sun. ©2015 Bully Pulpit Games LLC. Editing by Autumn Winters and Steve Segedy. Additional setting material by Sara Williamson. Layout and art by Brennen Reece Skeleton Art CC-A The Wellcome Collection, James Ward, Eduard Weber, Marcin Białek, sjwells53 Thanks to Stras Acimovic, Caitlynn Belle, Ray Benefield, Nathan Black, Jesse Coombs, Jim Crocker, Klint Finley, Kristin Firth, Ephraim Gregor, Greg Jansen, Alexis Lainoff, Ian McEwan, Marshall Miller, Scott Morningstar, Jessica Morrell, Ian Oakes, Jillian Ordes-Finley, George Royer, Charley Sharp, Michel Sherer, Krista White, Sara Williamson, and many others! 21 Ryuujin Actions and Ability Scores When a Ryuujin comes across a party of travelers that they want to watch over, they do so quietly from the shadows or from within their dwelling. At times the Ryuujin will guide travelers to a place where something is about to happen and at other times the Ryuujin will lend a hand when the travelers seem to be in danger. Rumors have even been heard of mischievous Ryuujin that annoy travelers with their tricks. To these ends, Ryuujin have three special powers at their disposal: “Artefacts” which have the power to influence the natural laws of the world;“Benedictions” that have miraculous powers over travelers creating a Travelogue, and “Reveil” which allow a Ryuujin to exert some of their life energy to change into a substantial form. Using these three powers, Ryuujin are able to help shape Travelogues into amazing stories fit to serve a dragon. Dragon Statues (or “Ryuuzoh”) are small stone carvings that can be found along just about any road. They are generally representations of the Ryuujin, guardians of travelers, and are placed along roads as guides. It is said that dragon statues point travelers to the right direction, and they hold a walking stick that any new traveler can feel free to take along on their journey. It is customary for travelers who find a Dragon Statue without its walking stick to leave their own walking stick with the statue for the next unfortunate Traveler in need of aid.
  • 67. TOMB TABLES GLORY FADES Choose and mark. For anything affecting a single skeleton, choose which however you like. † The magic compelling one of the skeletons to service— but not its undead energy—is beginning to fade. † Something the skeletons are protecting is lost—stolen or simply missing. What was it? † A memory that a skeleton had previously regained is false, and the truth asserts itself. Which memory, and what truth? † The place where a skeleton stands watch is covered in debris and impassable. † A skeleton loses some bones permanently. What body part is missing? Note it on the character sheet. † Something the skeletons are protecting is damaged. What, and how? GODS LAUGH Choose and mark. For anything affecting a single skeleton, choose which however you like. † A skeleton’s weapon is broken, bent or rendered useless. What will they do? Note it on the character sheet. † A skeleton’s appearance is altered in some way. Perhaps they are marked by fire or magic. † A memory that a skeleton had previously regained slips away and is lost forever. Which one? † Something the skeletons are protecting is destroyed. What is it? † Something from a skeleton’s past has been accidentally revealed What was it, and why was it hidden? Note this on the map. † The magic animating one of the skeletons—but not its compulsion to service—is beginning to fade. WORLDS CRUMBLE Choose and mark. For anything affecting the tomb itself, note it on the map and adjust accordingly. † A wall comes down, blocking part of the tomb. Which part? Adjust the map. † A tomb-robber is successful. What object did they steal? Choose from among those already introduced if you are able. Adjust the map. † The great sarcophagus splits open, spilling out its contents. What was within? Adjust the map. † The tomb is flooded. What is ruined, mold covered, or decayed after the waters recede? Adjust the map. † Gold and silver dull. Iron rusts. Colors fade to a sepulchral grey. Note this on the map. † A thick layer of dust covers every surface. Note this on the map. TIME DEVOURS Choose and mark. For anything affecting the tomb itself, note it on the map and adjust accordingly. † The webs of tomb spiders form an intricate filigree over the walls and ceiling. Note this on the map. † The tomb is infested. What signs of vermin remain long after the infestation ends? Adjust the map. † A crack develops, creating an opening for robbers and other vermin. Where? Adjust the map. † Something collapses, leaving a large pile of debris. What has failed? Adjust the map. † Wood, cloth, hide, horn and un-enchanted bone all turn to powder. Note this on the map. † An earthquake rocks the tomb, drastically altering its shape and utility. Many things are destroyed. Adjust the map. HONOBONO RYUUTAMA Travelers, Step by Step: Step 1: Before we embark, let’s get ready! ❁ Get to know what sort of game Ryuutama is.➙Read through the rulebook. ❁ Prepare the game. ➙ Review character creation ❁ Gather the necessary materials. ➙ Writing utensils, dice (one each of 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12-sided dice), copies of each character sheet. ❁ Create the traveling companions together. ➙ Gather your party, discuss everyone’s party roles and give self-introductions. ❁ Create the town that will become the destination.➙“Town Creation” rules Step 2: The Voyage! What’s a single day of travel like? TRAVELING RULES ❁ Determine how good or bad you feel that day.➙Condition Check ❁ Are you able to travel without getting hurt? ➙Travel Check ❁ Are you able to find your way without getting lost? ➙Direction Check ❁ Are you able to spend the night safely and without incident? ➙ Camping Check ENCOUNTERS ON THE TRAIL ❁ What happens if I don’t feel well? ➙ Status effects rules ❁ Monster encounter! ➙Combat rules WALK AROUND TOWN ❁ Enjoy shopping. ➙ Shopping rules ❁ Services and facilities in town. ➙ Facilities ❁ Bring animals. ➙ Animals Step 3: Things you can do to make your trip comfortable ❁ Make use of your skills ➙ Skills, Type ❁ Use tools and items. ➙ Items ❁ Use medicinal herbs. ➙ Healing Herbs ❁ Use magic. ➙ Magic Step 4: Growth upon completion of your journey ❁ Add up your EXP and level up. ➙ Level up The Player’s Role • Control a single character. • Cooperate with the other players and make the session fun for everyone. • Proceed through a scenario with the GM. • Follow the rules of the game.
  • 68. WHAT’S AUTOMATED RYUUTAMA WHAT’S FIXED ‣ Do we get lost today? ‣ Camping ‣ Cooking ‣ Shopping ‣ Combat ‣ The World
  • 69. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  • 70. Encode using protocol “writing” Decode using protocol “reading”
  • 72. Fleury-François RICHARD, Le petit chaperon rouge
  • 73. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  • 74.
  • 75. THIS IS MY EMAIL NOW. THANKS, GAMERGATE!
  • 76. “Why, you know, Sir Thomas’s means will be rather straitened if the Antigua estate is to make such poor returns.” Jane Austen, Mansfield Park
  • 77. The goal of literary work is to make the reader no longer a consumer, but a producer of the text. Roland Barthes Photo: BBC “The goal of literary work is to make the reader no longer a consumer, but a producer of the text.”
  • 78. George P. Landow Hypertext: the convergence of contemporary critical theory 
 and technology
  • 79. D. Vincent Baker, Apocalypse World THE HARDHOLDER
  • 80. HARDHOLDER MOVES OTHER MOVES BARTER GEARBARTER IMPROVEMENT HX P D S MOVES HARDHOLDERTHE HARDHOLDER SPECIAL M 3 6 9 12 D. Vincent Baker, Apocalypse World
  • 81. The Drifter's Escape Spades Ace of Spades This character just ruined another character’s life. King of Spades This character is involved with another in a tentative deal with a lot of money. Queen of Spades This character is related by blood to another. Jack of Spades This character owes a great debt to someone. Ten of Spades This character is white Nine of Spades This character is vastly wealthy. Eight of Spades This character has never been in love. Seven of Spades This character has a gun. Six of Spades This character is a soldier or veteran. Five of Spades This character holds political office. Four of Spades This character has appeared in a previous story. (If this is your first time playing, ignore this.) Three of Spades Nothing. Two of Spades Nothing. Clubs BenLehman,TheDrifter’sEscape
  • 82. A The community becomes obsessed with a single project. Which one? Why? Choose one: Add 3 weeks to the project die. All other projects fail. If there are no projects underway, the community becomes obsessed with a grandiose vision. Hold a discussion about this vision, in addition to your regular action for the week. 2 Someone returns to the community. Who? Where were they? or... You find a body. Do people recognize who it is? What happened? 3 Someone leaves the community after issuing a dire warning. Who? What is the warning? or... Someone issues a dire warning, and the community leaps into action to avoid disaster. What is the warning? Start a contentious project that relates to it. 4 The strongest among you dies. What caused the death? or... The weakest among you dies. Who’s to blame for their death? 5 The Parish arrives. Who are they? Why have they chosen your community, and for what? or... A small gang of marauders is making its way through local terrain. How many are there? What weapons do they carry? 6 Introduce a dark mystery among the members of the community. or... Conflict flares up among community members, and as a result, a project fails. 7 A project just isn’t working out as expected. Radically change the nature of this project (don’t modify the project die). When it resolves, you’ll be responsible for telling the community how it went. or... Something goes foul and supplies are ruined. Add a new Scarcity. 8 Someone sabotages a project, and the project fails as a result. Who did this? Why? or... Someone is caught trying to sabotage the efforts of the community. How does the community respond? 9 The community works constantly and as a result a project finishes early. or... A group goes out to explore the map more thoroughly, and finds something that had been previously overlooked. Autumn AveryAlder,TheQuietYear
  • 83. Tadeusz Rajszczak Maszynka (left) and two other young soldiers from Miotła Battalion, 2 September 1944 Photo: Jerzy Tomaszewski
  • 84. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  • 86.
  • 87.
  • 88.
  • 89. PEOPLE ARE TEXTS, TOO… IDENTITY IS (IN PART) SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED. WE WRITE OURSELVES, BUT WE ALSO ARE WRITTEN UPON. Narrative Automata, p.39 ARE YOU MY MOTHER?
  • 90.
  • 92. ARE YOU MY MOTHER? CONSTRUCTING A CHARACTER Strength 17 Intelligence 11 Wisdom 6 Dexterity 8 Charisma 7 Constitution 14
  • 93. IN PRINCIPLE, IT COULD BE INTERESTING TO EXPLORE THE ROLE OF A DIMWITTED WIZARD. Narrative Automata, p. 40 ARE YOU MY MOTHER?
  • 94. Alice is Bobby’s aunt, and was Clarice’s teacher in sophomore English. Clarice hated that class, and used to have a crush on Bobby years ago, before he went to prep school and got so full of himself. Alice and Bobby expect to inherit a lot of money someday, but right now they’re flat broke and the rent is due next week on the fast food joint Alice owns, Bobby manages, and where Clarice works. It’s time for crime. JasonMorningstar,Fiasco
  • 95.
  • 96. IT’S ABOUT SUBMITTING TO THE MECHANICS OF AN ALIEN WORLD. Paul Czege, The Clay That Woke ARE YOU MY MOTHER?
  • 97. ARE YOU MY MOTHER? These are my courage tokens. As icons they look like c. I refresh to two c when we see me having a conversation with a leader minotaur about a civic issue. These are my mind tokens. As icons they look like m. I refresh to four m when we see me reacting emotionally to a cultural problem. These are my name tokens. As icons they look like n. I can spend two n to ensure a gamemaster character will be successful in a planned future action for which no player minotaur will be present. I refresh to ___ n when we see me tell an advocate or leader minotaur a truth or possible truth. I also get n from several Krater outcomes. These are my silence tokens. As icons they look like s. I get more swhile I’m in the jungle. These are my gift tokens. As icons they look like g. I get more g when I leave the jungle and I’ve had a gift lost, destroyed, or expire recently. This is my life token. As an icon it looks like l. I get my l back when the jungle comes for me in the Dégringolade, or the Dégringolade comes for me in the jungle. I have abiding gifts I have essential gifts Silence Be courageous. Act with wisdom. Work for justice and the social good. Do not use the names of women. Do not want. Do not express your emotions. I have broken silence THE CLAY THAT WOKE—MINOTAUR SHEET A PHILOSOPHER MINOTAURSILENCE ▸ Be courageous. ▸ Act with wisdom. ▸ Work for justice and the social good. ▸ Do not use the names of women. ▸ Do not want. ▸ Do not express your emotions.
  • 98. Peter reels from the blow, clutching his broken left forearm. He hesitates, then plants his feet and pulls himself up to his full height of 49 inches. “You’ll never get past me!” he shouts, knowing that he is all that stands between the monster and Lisa. Jason L. Blair, Little Fears ARE YOU MY MOTHER?
  • 99. ARE YOU MY MOTHER GAINING DISTANCE ▸ Framing stories ▸ Third person ▸ Ironic detachment ▸ Formalism ▸ Ritual ▸ Joint responsibility ▸ Sentimental (false, conventional) outcomes
  • 100. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  • 101. THE PURITAN MISTAKES PLEASURE FOR FRIVOLITY BECAUSE HE MISTAKES SERIOUSNESS FOR SOLEMNITY. Terry Eagleton
  • 102. INYOUR COURSE MATERIALS! SERIOUS HYPERTEXT THE GREY RANKS A1 N d12 A2 d12 A3 d10 A4 d8 A5 N d8 B1 d12 B2 d10 B3 d10 B4 d8 B5 d8 C1 d10 C2 d10 C3 d8 C4 d6 C5 d6 D1 d8 D2 d8 D3 d6 D4 d6 D5 d4 E1 N d8 E2 d8 E3 d6 E4 d4 E5 N d4 Love Winmission,winpersonal i Hate Lose mission,lose personal i Enthusiasm Winmission,losepersonal i Exhaustion Losemission,winpersonal i M artyrdom D erangem ent NervousBreakdow nSuicidalD epression In this game, you will assume the role of a young Polish partisan before, during, and after the disastrous 1944 Uprising against the Germans. Together with your friends, you’ll create the story of a group of teens who fight to free their city.
  • 103. SERIOUS HYPERTEXT WHAT’S WRONG WITH GAMES? ▸ Untrue: fictions lie ▸ Frivolous: fictions waste time ▸ Irresponsible: who can blame an automaton? ▸ Sentimental: many automata compel your answer ▸ Prevaricating: closure is a suspect quality ▸ Arbitrary: 
 If God is God, he is not good; if God is good, he is not God.
  • 104. Narrative Automata 47 Hypertext 2017 SERIOUS HYPERTEXT “The puritan dogma that seriousness is one thing and pleasure another. The puritan mistakes pleasure for frivolity because he mistakes seriousness for solemnity.” Many of the earliest notable narrative automata—Gygax and Arneson’s Dungeons Dragons and Edward Packard’s Choose Your Own Adventure books—were relentlessly cheery melodramas in which romantic heroes faced, and ultimately overcame, a host of obstacles. Computer games followed their lead, first in arcades and then in personal computing. Some thought this a result of the primitive graphics of the time, others attributed the preponderance of melodrama to the pre-adolescent audience of the early arcades and Toys ‘R’ Us aisle. Exceptions can be found, but the overall picture is clear. As a result, film critic Roger Ebert, who throughout his career favored popular entertainment over the more cerebral fare preferred by his competitor and collaborator Gene Siskel, famously speculated that games could never be art—that they were inca- pable of serious thought or emotion. The world of the computer game has long been dominated by cartoonish figures, slashing their way through derivative pseudo-Arthurian landscapes to rescue The Princess. But let us turn to Jason Morningstar’s The Grey Ranks, where the picture is very different. The puritan dogma: Eagleton, Terry. Af- ter Theory. New York: Basic Books, 2003. The earliest notable narrative automata: I omit here any number of conventional games, computer games, programmed learning texts, and computational experiments that might conceivably be viewed as precursors. I also omit William Wallace Cook’s Plotto (Ellis Publishing Company, Battle Creek, Mich., 1928), which was a very different artifact with a completely different purpose and which, by the 1974 publica- tion of Dungeons Dragons, had been thoroughly forgotten. Whatever one thought of DD when it first appeared, it was new. Roger Ebert: “Video Games Can Never Be Art”, (16 April 2010) http://www. rogerebert.com/rogers-journal/video- games-can-never-be-art The Grey Ranks: Jason Morningstar, The grey ranks (Bully Pulpit Press, 2007)
  • 105.
  • 106. BRYAN, BRYAN, BRYAN, BRYAN (VACHEL LINDSAY) She wore in her hair a brave prairie rose. Her gold chums cut her, for that was not the pose. No Gibson Girl would wear it in that fresh way. But we were fairy Democrats, and this was our day.
  • 107.
  • 108. IT IS UNLIKELY THAT, FOR EXAMPLE, THE 1944 WARSAW GHETTO UPRISING COULD BE INTERPRETED EQUALLY WELL AS ROMANCE, FARCE, OR TRAGEDY ALUN MUNSLOW SERIOUS HYPERTEXT
  • 110. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  • 112. THE WAR STORY IS NOT CHIEFLY INTERESTED IN SWORDPLAY AND GUNFIRE, STRATEGY AND TACTICS: COMPUTER GAMES ARE. That Fatal Strawberry Ice Cream One Damn Thing After Another
  • 114.
  • 117. ONE DAMN THING AFTER ANOTHER On Hypertext Narrative Mark Bernstein Eastgate Systems, Inc. 134 Main Street Watertown MA 02472 USA +1 617 924 9044 Bernstein@eastgate.com ABSTRACT Annals and chronicles may be the foundation of accounting, but writers of stories and histories have long known that they seldom render a satisfactory account of complex events. In place of a simple chronological list, narrative instead organizes our account in new sequences in order to illuminate the interplay of actors and events. We want hypertext narrative to do things we cannot achieve in print; though we may occasionally use links to introduce variation in presentation or in story; it is now clear that hypertext will most frequently prove useful in changing (or adapting) plot. After discussing the ways in which plot may be varied, I describe the use of stretchtext as a reaction against the perceived incoherence of classic hypertext narrative, demonstrate the limitations that conventional stretchtext necessarily imposes on hypertext narrative, and describe an implemented generalization of stretchtext that matches the expressive and formal capabilities of classical hypertext systems while appearing to be a mere stretchtext and while running within the confines of a Web browser. Categories and Subject Descriptors H5.4 [Hypertext/Hypermedia]: Theory. I7.2 [Document Preparation]: hypertext/hypermedia. J5 [Computer Applications]: Arts and Humanities. Literature. General Terms Documentation, Design, Human Factors, Keywords Hypertext narrative, fiction, stretchtext, patterns 1. ANNALS AND CHRONICLES Narrative describes events that unfold in time: stories, memories, histories, and procedural descriptions. Some narratives may be imaginary, others historical, and still others might describe future events. Hypertext narrative matters not only to artists and entertainers, but also to a wide range of hypertext writers. From historians to technical writers, from documenting the incidents that gave rise to a court case to specifying a treatment protocol for medical clinics, narrative is vitally important. Because hypertext is, by definition, non-sequential while narrative is fundamentally about sequence, hypertext has always challenged our understanding of narrative. If the reader may experience a hypertext in different sequences, what happens to the reader’s understanding of the sequence of events? When we first consider crafting a record of complex events, we might in the first instance contemplate a chronological record of occurrences – a diary or chronicle that lists events sequentially. This representation is ancient; we find it in Babylonian clay tablets, in the Roman Fasti, in biblical chronicles, in weblogs. In the form of the journal and ledger, it remains at the center of accounting. Even the earliest historians recognized that chronicles or annals provide an inadequate account of history. For while a simple chronological list might clarify questions of temporal priority, it often obscures questions of causation. Unrelated events occur at the same time, while daily experience reminds us that causes precede consequences. Extraordinary events, such as a natural disaster or invasion, may easily overlap other events that, while ordinary in themselves, give rise to significant consequences. Events of immediate significance, a royal marriage or a solar eclipse, may coincide with events whose significance will not emerge for many years, such as the introduction of a new crop plant or the birth of a child who will, many years later, lead a successful revolution. Even our oldest histories and stories depart from strictly chronological organization. 2. NOTES ON HYPERTEXT NARRATIVE We want hypertext narrative to do things we could not achieve in print. The study of narrative is, unfortunately, a terminological quagmire, and is further complicated by inconsistent usages and linguistic borrowings [27]. Broadly following Lowe, the story is the sequence of events that the narrative describes. These events are recounted to us in a (hyper) text. The text may be written, but it need not be: it might be cinematic, or a audible, or might combine writing and image in a variety of ways. The narrative text may not — indeed usually does not — describe events in the same sequence in which they occurred, but may depart from that sequence for clarity, emotional effect, or simply because two events took place at the some time. Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. HT’09, June 29–July 1, 2009, Torino, Italy. Copyright 2009 ACM 978-1-60558-486-7/09/06...$5.00
  • 118. ONE DAMN THING AFTER ANOTHER CONSTRAINTS 8 Game Rules Step 4: Maid Special Quality Table Roll Special Quality Description 11 Glasses You wear glasses and can’t use contact lenses. The frame design can be whatever you want. 12 Freckles You have freckles. 13 Sickly You’ve got an incurable disease. However, this doesn’t adversely affect your attributes. Choose your own symptoms. 14 Quiet You have a cool, subtle demeanor. No, there are no rules regarding how often you speak. 15 Easygoing You take things slow and calm, at your own pace. This doesn’t affect your attributes. 16 Neat Freak You’re obsessed with cleanliness, and can’t let the tiniest bit of dirt go unnoticed. 21 Brown Skin Your skin is a dark brown color. It could be natural, or a tan. 22 Albino You have no pigment. You’re not necessarily completely colorless, this could simply be a very pale complexion. 23 Shy You’re very shy. Don’t forget to remain silent when encountering NPCs you haven’t met before. 24 Actually A Guy You’re actually a guy (cross-dresser?). Or possibly a hermaphrodite. 25 Overactive Imagination You frequently get caught up in your own imaginary world, or else tend to daydream a lot. 26 Greedy You will do absolutely anything for the sake of money. 31 Elf Ears You have long, pointed ears. 32 Nekomimi This varies a bit depending on the setting, but you’re a catgirl, with the ears and possibly tail of a cat. 33 Android/Gynoid You’re not human, but rather a human-looking robot. Parts of your body are very obviously artificial. 34 Vampire You are a vampire, with long fangs. Be sure to act . . . vampiric. 35 Princess You’re actually the daughter of a family of even greater standing than the master. Depending on the setting, you could even be from another country’s royal family. Whether you are in disguise or not is up to you. 36 Angel/Devil You are a being from another world charged with judging good and evil. The design and the details of your origins are up to you. 41 Uniform ★ You’ve managed to make a special modification to your uniform. → To the Uniform Table 42 Symbol ★ You have some kind of special mark on your uniform or headdress. → To the Symbol Table 43 Delinquent ★ Something about you is very much like a delinquent. → To the Delinquent Table 44 Accent ★ You have an unusual way of speaking. → To the Accent Table 45 Hairstyle ★ You have a special hairstyle. → To the Hairstyle Table 46 Accessory ★ You have a special accessory attached to your uniform. →To the Accessory Table 51 Relationship or Perversion ★ LighterGame? You have a relationship to another player character (Maid). → To the RelationshipTable Darker Game? You have a bizarre perversion of some kind. → To the Perversion Table 52 Criminal Tendencies ★ You have an inclination towards criminal acts. → To the Criminal Tendencies Table 53 Injury ★ Because of mistreatment or an accident, you have some kind of permanent physical injury. → To the Injury Table 54 Tragic Love ★ You have had sad or tragic experiences with love. → To the Tragic Love Table 55 Dark Past ★ There is something dark in your personal history. → To the Dark Past Table 56 Trauma ★ After some terrible incident, you were traumatized. → To the Trauma Table 61 Secret Job ★ You’re not just a maid; you’re secretly holding another job. → To the Secret Job Table 62 Membership ★ In addition to being a maid, you’re also a member of a certain organization. → To the MembershipTable
  • 120. ONE DAMN THING AFTER ANOTHER As I am leaving, Mrs. DeWinter reaches out a hand to stop me. She closes the door. She locks it. She sits on the couch. She points to a small stool at her feet. I sit. Leaning close, she begins to tell me a whispered story about a dead girl who finds the moon made of rotten wood. She leans very close, her hand brushing the back of my neck. And then, very slowly, she removes my mask.
  • 121. ONE DAMN THING AFTER ANOTHER TRAVEL ▸ I hate it here ▸ There and back again ▸ The world as a character
  • 122. Dogs Vineyard in the A Roleplaying Game Written by D. Vincent Baker ad mmiv
  • 123. ONE DAMN THING AFTER ANOTHER BREAKING THE LINE ▸ Heart Suit ▸ Robert Coover ▸ Composition #1 ▸ Marc Saporta
  • 124. 2 Stalin wants a story It is 1928, and Stalin has retreated to his personal chambers. In the world outside, his agricultural reforms have been unsuccessful, leading to a food crisis. He doesn’t want to hear a word about that. The peasants are hiding the scarce food from the state collectors, and it is only at gunpoint that they are ‘willing’ to give it up. But Stalin doesn’t want to hear a word about that either. What he does want to hear is an old Russian folk tale of the kind his mother used to tell him. A tale of a poor boy going out into the world to slay a dragon and win the hand of a princess, as simple as that, nothing fancy. Especially nothing fancy. To that end, Stalin has invited some of his closest companions to join him in his sitting room. Also present is a troupe of actors, ordered at a moment’s notice to come and improvise a fairy tale for the pleasure of their great leader. Everybody is on their toes. In these times of crisis, it is only too easy to displease Stalin. And if you displease Stalin, bad things happen to you. And so the actors play their tale, and the courtiers scheme for power and favour, and Stalin – capricious and inscrutable – decides over life and death.
  • 125. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  • 126. Carvaggio, The Incredulity of Saint Thomas, 1603, Sanssouci Gallery Potsdam
  • 128. MY FRIEND HAMLET GALATEA (EMILY SHORT) ▸ Galatea is a sculpture who talks ▸ A sculptural hypertext! (2003) ▸ Conversational ▸ Based on Inform ▸ In the tradition of IF
  • 129. MY FRIEND HAMLET BLACK BOX(JENNIFER EGAN) Being alone with a violent and ruthless man, surrounded by water, can make the shore seem very far away. You may feel solidarity, at such a time, with the beauties just visible there in their bright bikinis. You may appreciate, at such a time, why you aren’t being paid for this work. Your voluntary service is the highest form of patriotism. Remind yourself that you aren’t being paid when he climbs out of the water and lumbers toward you.
  • 131. MY FRIEND HAMLET Robyn Miller and Rand Miller, Myst, Cyan, 1993
  • 132. MY FRIEND HAMLET Michael Mateas and Andrew Stern, Façade, Procedural Arts, 2005
  • 135. THE ACTOR DOES NOT NEED TO BECOME THE CHARACTER… THERE IS NO CHARACTER. THERE ARE ONLY LINES UPON A PAGE. David Mamet MY FRIEND HAMLET True and False: Heresy and Common Sense For The Actor, p. 9
  • 136. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  • 140.
  • 141. Much of the Twine world equates hypertext research generally (and this writer specifically) with The Man; I think this, too, is an unfortunate misperception on their part. But, then, I would. Narrative Automata, p. 103n GEARS AND PULLEYS
  • 142.
  • 143.
  • 144.
  • 145. Doll Player The doll knows everything but isn’t always honest. Begin the game by deciding whether the child’s parents are evil or wonderful. Don’t tell the other player until the story is over. Whenever the child asks you a question about a different character or Event, both players should snap fingers, nod heads, or in some other way count to three. On three, turn the doll’s head left, turn it right, or face it straight ahead. If the doll and the Child Player match directions, the doll must not lie. Otherwise, the doll may choose whether to answer questions truthfully. After twenty minutes, the story is over. Tell the Child Player to guess whether the parents are evil or wonderful. Play in public. Bring a doll, puppet, or other toy. You play the doll and speak for the doll. The other person, the Child Player, narrates the story, but you can add supernatural details to the story. Doll by Josh Jordan, Ginger Goat 2013
  • 146. ALEKSANDRA SONTOWSKA AND KAMIL WĘGRZYNOWICZ.
  • 147.
  • 148. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  • 149. Although people sometimes have a hard time deciding whether or not something is art, they are rarely fooled into thinking they are having a good time when they are not. Louis Menand THAT KIND OF MOVIE
  • 150. THAT KIND OF MOVIE If you are to have the thought of a rough and untaught man, you must have it in a rough and untaught way; but from an educated man, who can without effort express his thoughts in an educated way, take the graceful expression, and be thankful. Only get the thought, and do not silence the peasant because he cannot speak good grammar. ▸ John Ruskin, Stones of Venice II p. 167
  • 151.
  • 152. THAT KIND OF MOVIE It was Kael’s therapeutic advice to the overcultivated that if they just concentrated on responding to the stimulus, the aesthetics would take care of themselves. What good is form if the content leaves you cold? The academic term for the kind of antiformalism Kael promoted is “postmodernism.” Postmodernism in the arts simply is anti-essentialism. Louis Menand, “She Found It At The Movies”
  • 153. You Me Rock Water Fire Stick Hairy Bang! Sleep Smelly Small Big Cave Food Thing Shiny Go OG
  • 154.
  • 155. THAT KIND OF MOVIE A new, immersive roleplaying game like nothing you’ve seen before. Paul CZEGE Minotaurs in a human civilization sundered by a surreal, trackless jungle. 𐑓𐑰𐑤 𐑞 𐑕𐑳𐑯𐑪𐑯𐑘𐑹 𐑣𐑲𐑛 $27.00 THE “EXTERNALS” “They lie because they don’t trust language or the motives of those who use it…they’re the ultimate revolutionaries, impassioned and pathological, gorgeous and vigorous.
  • 157.
  • 158. THE SKELETONS JASON MORNINGSTAR THE SKELETONSA game by JASON MORNINGSTAR Years fly by like dead leaves. Everything is darkness. Everything is silence.You stand vigilant before the sarcophagus without thought or breath—such is your compulsion.You do not remember your name and still you watch. The flesh has fallen off your bones and still you watch. And then one day there is light and motion and you weigh your bearded axe and raise your shield, lusting for the fray, eager to measure your skill against these tomb-robbing children so full of blood.You’ll never be alive again, but in this moment—in the chaos between violation and destruction—you truly live, and you remember what you once were, and you taste the sun. ©2015 Bully Pulpit Games LLC. Editing by Autumn Winters and Steve Segedy. Additional setting material by Sara Williamson. Layout and art by Brennen Reece Skeleton Art CC-A The Wellcome Collection, James Ward, Eduard Weber, Marcin Białek, sjwells53 Thanks to Stras Acimovic, Caitlynn Belle, Ray Benefield, Nathan Black, Jesse Coombs, Jim Crocker, Klint Finley, Kristin Firth, Ephraim Gregor, Greg Jansen, Alexis Lainoff, Ian McEwan, Marshall Miller, Scott Morningstar, Jessica Morrell, Ian Oakes, Jillian Ordes-Finley, George Royer, Charley Sharp, Michel Sherer, Krista White, Sara Williamson, and many others!
  • 159. THAT KIND OF MOVIE MAID
  • 160. METAFICTION “What is this place, Mr. Chang? Do you know? I’m afraid I have only the faintest idea, and that doesn’t make much sense.” Chang laughed harshly. “Well now,” he said. “That’s a long story.” “I know. It’s my story. But it seems very real at the moment. Is it?” “As real as you and me. Which is to say, not very, but all we have.” ARCADIA
  • 162. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  • 163. 01-10 slovenly trull 11-25 brazen strumpet 26-35 cheap trollop 36-50 typical streetwalker 51-65 saucy tart 66-75 wanton wench 76-85 expensive doxy 86-90 haughty courtesan 91-92 aged madam 93-94 wealthy procuress 95-98 sly pimp 99-00 rich panderer HARLOT ENCOUNTER TABLE Dungeons and Dragons
  • 164. THE EXUBERANCE OF THE AUTOMATON “For instance, a bronze helmet that was the symbol of the dwarven duchess was lost on site after the duchess passed on from natural causes, and it took several years for another dwarf to find it and give it to the next duke -- the handover process is now more routine. Kobolds are also no longer allowed to make claims on artifacts (they still steal them, of course). They always store them in the trophy room now -- finding a single artifact held by a kobold somewhere in the living area was too difficult. Artifacts were disappearing out of my backpack, and that's sorted out.” DWARF FORTRESS
  • 165. CONFLICT #696 696: (715c, 695b) The protagonist, a patriot, but a wanderer and an outcast, is deprived of all news of his native land. (823)(826)(859)
  • 166. 31 Servant 32 Cocotte 33 Zoologist 34 Acrobat 35 Palmist 36 Florist 37 Fencer 38 Canvasser 39 Taxi dancer 40 Editor 41 Aviatrix
  • 167. THE EXUBERANCE OF THE AUTOMATON BREAKING THE LINE ▸ Heart Suit ▸ Robert Coover
  • 168. EXUBERANT AUTOMATA 2 I have a disability you don’t know about. 3 I’ve changed religions. 4 I’ve been sober for three months. 5 I used to steal from your parents. Josh T. Jordan, The Sky Is Gray and You Are Distressed
  • 169. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  • 170. LESSONS FOR HYPERTEXT NARRATIVE IDENTIFICATION AND DISTANCE ▸ Framing stories provide emotional distance ▸ First person narration promotes identification, while third person encourages reflection on and analysis of the character’s faults and actions. ▸ Second person is fraught. ▸ You will never the the Prince of Denmark
  • 171. LESSONS FOR HYPERTEXT NARRATIVE THEORY ▸ The hypertext author is neither more or less dead than any other. ▸ Socially constituted characters are new. They should not be restricted to mere labels intended to flatter the immature. ▸ Story and plot both matter. ▸ Everyone is a subject, and every element that can be a signifier will become a signifier.
  • 172. LESSONS FOR HYPERTEXT NARRATIVE COMPUTATION ▸ Sparse character models can be manipulated, but that readers understand them to be false ▸ Rich character models are unpredictable; this can be an advantage or a liability. ▸ Automata must argue explicitly for their own seriousness. ▸ A story in which the narrator is the only interesting character is problematic; when we ourselves are the only interesting character, the problem is worse. ▸ A character is a character because it says so.
  • 173. LESSONS FOR HYPERTEXT NARRATIVE LANGUAGE AND MEANING ▸ A story in which the narrator is the only interesting character is problematic; when we ourselves are the only interesting character, the problem is worse. ▸ The breakdown of meaning in the age of modernity is not new. Ask Kafka. ▸ The tyranny of the line can be broken; recovering the line when we want narrative coherence is sometimes a challenge. ▸ The landscape can be a character and, indeed, is often a romantic hero.
  • 174. “…a world in which there is indeed no salvation, but on the other hand nothing to be saved. This is the post-tragic realm of postmodernism. Postmodernism is too young to remember a time where there was (so it was rumoured) truth, identity, and reality, and so feels no dizzying abyss beneath its feet.” (Eagleton, p. 58)
  • 175. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  • 183. REAL