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Festival of Narrative Automata * Hypertext 2017

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Mark Bernstein’s FESTIVAL OF NARRATIVE AUTOMATA explores more than 70 storytelling toys that provide interesting insights into the future of fiction and technical writing. Critical Theory for fun!

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Festival of Narrative Automata * Hypertext 2017

  1. 1. A FESTIVAL OF NARRATIVE AUTOMATA MARK BERNSTEIN EASTGATE
  2. 2. A FESTIVAL OF NARRATIVE AUTOMATA ▸ Stories 1................................................................................................................. ▸ Art 5....................................................................................................................... ▸ Automating Narrative 21...................................................................................... ▸ The Death Of The Author 29................................................................................ ▸ Are You My Mother?: the social construction of character 39................................ ▸ Serious Hypertext 47............................................................................................ ▸ One Damn Thing After Another: the master narrative 63..................................... ▸ My Friend, Hamlet 87............................................................................................ ▸ Gears and Pulleys: building the automaton 101...................................................... ▸ That Kind Of Movie: theory made manifest 109..................................................... ▸ The Exuberance Of The Automaton 121............................................................... ▸ Errors 133............................................................................................................... ▸ Lessons For Hypertext Narrative 137................................................................... ▸ The Path Ahead 141............................................................................................... ▸ Appendix: The Game In Fiction 149..................................................................... ▸ Glossary 153...........................................................................................................
  3. 3. USB STICK BOOK ❧ SLIDES ❧ GAMES
  4. 4. THANKS TO ACM SIGWEB
  5. 5. THANKS TO… ▸ Mark W. R. Anderson ▸ Paul Czege ▸ Charlie Hargood ▸ E. P. James ▸ Diane Greco Josefowicz ▸ George P. Landow ▸ Morgan Macri ▸ Stacey Mason ▸ David Millard ▸ Jason Morningstar ▸ Stuart Moulthrop ▸ Souvik Mukherjee ▸ Emily Short ▸ Rosemary M. Simpson
  6. 6. THE PLAN THE PLAN ▸ Interrupt with questions! ▸ Yes, do! ▸ Lunch break ▸ After lunch, I’ll try to wrap up in time for the last 2 papers in the Engelbart session
  7. 7. 1987 Michael Joyce, afternoon, a story, Eastgate, 1990
  8. 8. GETTING STARTED WITH HYPERTEXT NARRATIVE MARK BERNSTEIN
  9. 9. THOSE TROJAN GIRLS MARK BERNSTEIN
  10. 10. THOSE TROJAN GIRLS MARK BERNSTEIN
  11. 11. Tiree Tales: A Co-operative Inquiry into the Poetics of Location-Based Narratives David E. Millard Web and Internet Science University of Southampton dem@ecs.soton.ac.uk Charlie Hargood Creative Technology Bournemouth University chargood@bournemouth.ac.uk ABSTRACT In a location-based story a reader’s movement through phys- ical space is translated into movement through narrative space, typically by presenting them with text fragments on a smart device triggered by location changes. Despite the increasing popularity of such systems their poetics are poorly understood, meaning limited guidance for authors, and few authoring tools. To explore these poetics we present a co-operative inquiry into the authoring of an interactive location-based narrative, ‘The Isle of Brine’, set on the island of Tiree. Our inquiry reveals both pragmatic and aesthetic considerations driven by the locations themselves, that aect the design of both the Story (narrative structure) and Fabula (events within the story). These include the importance of paths, bottlenecks, and junctions as a physical manifesta- tion of calligraphic patterns, the need for coherent narrative areas, and the requirement to use evocative places and to manage thematic and tonal discord between the landscape and the narrative. CCS CONCEPTS • Human-centered computing → Hypertext / hyper- media; KEYWORDS Location-Based Narrative, Sculptural Hypertext ACM Reference format: David E. Millard and Charlie Hargood. 2017. Tiree Tales: A Co- operative Inquiry into the Poetics of Location-Based Narratives. In Proceedings of The 28th ACM Conference on Hypertext and Social Media, Prague, Czech Republic, July 2017 (HYPERTEXT’17), 11 pages. DOI: 10.475/123_4 Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for prot or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the rst page. Copyrights for third- party components of this work must be honored. For all other uses, contact the owner/author(s). HYPERTEXT’17, Prague, Czech Republic © 2017 Copyright held by the owner/author(s). 123-4567-24- 567/08/06...$xx.xx DOI: 10.475/123_4 1 INTRODUCTION Location-based narratives are digital stories, read on a smart device, that are aware of the user’s location. Typically the stories require readers to move through a space, making new story nodes available as a result. They dier from traditional hypertext narratives in that navigation is a result of physical movement rather than link traversal, and are thus similar in their interactivity to game narratives, where narrative choices are associated with player actions. However, the location-based narratives created to date have mostly been exploratory, and little work has been undertaken to under- stand the poetics of location-based writing (in contrast to the body of theory on hypertext writing and poetics). Without this understanding it is dicult to produce eective tools for creating location-based narratives, or to educate writers about the possibilities. Our StoryPlaces project is a collaboration between Com- puter Scientists and English Scholars to explore the poetics of location-based narratives. There have been a number of attempts to develop critical theory or design frameworks for digital narratives, but as location-based systems are relatively new, the theory behind them is in its early stages; examples include attempts to explore the boundaries between story- telling and games [10], considering the user’s interaction as a trajectory through complex spaces [4]. In StoryPlaces we have taken a co-design approach, where domain experts (in this case English academics and authors) are brought into the design team and actively take part in decisions. In our project we are the technology experts, and through our interaction with domain experts have begun to understand some of the issues around authoring interac- tive location-based stories, an approach that we have used successfully in the past [31]. However, it became clear that this understanding would always be decient unless we at- tempted to create a story ourselves and experienced the issues rst hand. We also felt that we were more likely to push the technological boundaries of what was possible (for example, by using more complex interactive structures) as we were more comfortable with those aspects of the tech- nology, and less conscious of the negative impacts that this focus might have on the resulting text.
  12. 12. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  13. 13. EXCITEMENT?
  14. 14. People have always told stories. Until very recently, if you wanted to hear a new story, you invented it yourself or you asked someone else to tell you a story, either in person or in print. The Book, p. 1 STORIES
  15. 15. STORIES NARRATIVE AUTOMATA ▸ Machines that tell stories ▸ Sometimes alone, often in conjunction with one or more people ▸ Sometimes computer programs ▸ Often, rules and procedures
  16. 16. STORIES WHY? ▸ Individual storytellers cheat ▸ The short 20th century was built on propaganda ▸ Automata let us see complexity of the story ▸ To learn something, try to teach it ▸ Automata provide context for thinking about narratology ▸ To teach a machine to do something that has always been a perquisite of humanity
  17. 17. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  18. 18. MOMENT ELENA BORCH DEATH AND THE MAIDEN NY CARLSBERG GLYPOTEK
  19. 19. ART “REAL ANALYSIS IS MORE REAL THAN WE THOUGHT!” https://xkcd.com/1856/
  20. 20. ART ▸ Once upon a time… ▸ And then… ▸ But there was one thing they had forgotten. I believe that today is Jan Hus Day, Den upálení mistra Jana Husa
  21. 21. Fra Angelico, The Annunciation, 1437-46
  22. 22. Henry Ozawa Tanner, The Annunciation, 1898, Philadelphia Museum of Art
  23. 23. Henry Ozawa Tanner, The Annunciation, 1898, Smithsonian American Art Museum
  24. 24. Richard Hamilton The Annunciation 2005 Tate Gallery
  25. 25. Edward Hopper, 11 AM, 1926, Smithsonian Institution
  26. 26. Michel Foucault
  27. 27. ART ▸ Literary Hypertext / Hypertext Narrative ▸ Interactive Fiction ▸ Digital Storytelling ▸ Electronic Literature ▸ Games Studies ▸ Interactive Digital Narrative ▸ AI ▸ Tabletop games and narrative automata OUR FRAGMENTED COMMUNITIES Moreaboutthisinthebook
  28. 28. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  29. 29. AUTOMATING NARRATIVE TWO CORE INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITIES ▸AUTOMATING THINGS THAT HAVE ALWAYS BEEN EXCLUSIVELY HUMAN ▸IDENTIFYING THE LIMITS OF COMPUTATION
  30. 30. NOT ABOUT MAKING WRITERS MORE PRODUCTIVE AUTOMATING NARRATIVE
  31. 31. Photo©2005KeikoIda,Tokyo.
  32. 32. THE FUTURE OF SERIOUS READING AND WRITING LIES ON THE COMPUTER SCREEN. me AUTOMATING NARRATIVE
  33. 33. DUNGEONS DRAGONS GARY GYGAX AND DAVE ARNESON 1
  34. 34. 01-10 slovenly trull 11-25 brazen strumpet 26-35 cheap trollop 36-50 typical streetwalker 51-65 saucy tart 66-75 wanton wench 76-85 expensive doxy 86-90 haughty courtesan 91-92 aged madam 93-94 wealthy procuress 95-98 sly pimp 99-00 rich panderer HARLOT ENCOUNTER TABLE Dungeons and Dragons
  35. 35. WHAT’S AUTOMATED Dungeons and Dragons WHAT’S FIXED ‣ Random encounters ‣ Combat results ‣ The Dungeon-Master’s World ‣ Trajectory of Victory and Experience
  36. 36. PLOTTO WILLIAM WALLACE COOK 2
  37. 37. CONFLICT #696 PLOTTO 696: (715c, 695b) The protagonist, a patriot, but a wanderer and an outcast, is deprived of all news of his native land. (823)(826)(859)
  38. 38. WHAT’S AUTOMATED PLOTTO WHAT’S FIXED ‣ Succession of conflicts ‣ Realist mode ‣ Conflict-driven story ‣ Male protagonist
  39. 39. LITTLE FEARS JASON L. BLAIR 3
  40. 40. BELIEF Little Fears IT'S ALL JUST A GAME If the roll failed with Failing Grades: Oh my. Your child believed in something and it not only didn’t work, it completely failed. Maybe it’s not just broken. Maybe magic’s not as powerful as he thought. If you failed with Failing Grades and you were not using Stuff, you lose the original token and another token as well. No matter how many Failing Grades there are, you only lose one extra token. Only the person who rolled the dice loses the extra Belief token. So if you believe in another, and that person fails with Failing Grades, you lose your original Belief token but he or she loses the extra one. If the person losing the extra token has no tokens, there is no penalty. EXAMPLE: Let’s say Hugo didn’t make the leap. In this scenario, his friend was Believing in him. In fact, Hugo not only fails, he completely botches the attempt. He need to meet or beat a
  41. 41. WHAT’S AUTOMATED LITTLE FEARS WHAT’S FIXED ‣ Combat ‣ Lots of improv/ explaining what the dice are saying ‣ Game Master’s World ‣ The Enemy ‣ Each character’s gradual loss of innocence or belief
  42. 42. INYOUR COURSE MATERIALS! MY LIFE WITH MASTER PAUL CZEGE 4
  43. 43. LOVE, WEARINESS, LOATHING MY LIFE WITH MASTER VILLAINY AND SELF-LOATHING Carlotta Sebastian and Volya Prue The life of a minion is a hard one. The horrific things you do make it difficult to feel good about yourself. If only someone loved you...
  44. 44. WHAT’S AUTOMATED MY LIFE WITH MASTER WHAT’S FIXED ‣ Finding Love ‣ Doing Horrible Things ‣ What Happens Afterward ‣ A minion will kill the Master (eventually) EpilogueConstraints 1. WEARINESS greater than REASON plus SELF-LOATHING: The minion flees/runs/wanders off, giving up on his struggle. 2. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS greater than LOVE plus REASON: The minion is killed. 3. SELF-LOATHING greater than WEARINESS plus REASON: The minion destroys itself. 4. LOVE plus REASON greater than SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS: The minion integrates itself into the society of Townspeople. 5. LOVE equals zero: The minion emerges from the ashes of the Endgame as a force of Fear in his/her own right. 6. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS equals LOVE plus REASON: The minion finds a new Master to serve. © 2003, 2006 by Paul Czege. All rights reserved. Permission granted to photocopy this page for personal use. Captured IfWEARINESS isgreaterthan REASON The Horror Revealed SELF-LOATHING doesn’t increasewhenit’s equaltoorgreaterthan LOVE plusREASON Endgame is possible If LOVE isgreaterthan FEAR plusWEARINESS WEARINESS MorethanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ LessthanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ Connection ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Love _______ _______ _______ _______ _______
  45. 45. NO COUNTRY FOR OLD KOBOLDS STEVE WALLACE 5 Steve Wallace ART
  46. 46. THE VILLAGE COLLECTIVE NO COUNTRY FOR OLD KOBOLDS No Country for Old Kobolds 23 FUCK YOU, WE HAVE A... Your village gains a mighty protector! Of course, they want some- thing in return… This move can be taken multiple times, but only in the order listed below.These sorts of creatures aren’t known for sharing; each time a new creature moves into your territory they run off the previous protector (and you no longer have to fulfill the previous protector’s wants).Thus, you can only have one protector at a time. You may spend additional xp to skip protector levels, e.g. 14xp to go straight to Troll, 21xp to go straight to Necromancer. …WIZARD! A wizard of some variety has taken up residence in your village! What sort of wizard is it? Gain four 1d6 damage, 10 hit point homunculi units for future raids. Add a new want to the village. Describe what it is and where it can be acquired. …TROLL! A mighty troll has taken up residence in the village! What’s its name? Gain one 1d12 damage, 20 hit point troll unit that regen- erates three hit points per round. Add a new want to the village. Describe what it is and where it can be acquired. …NECROMANCER! A terrible necromancer has taken up residence in your village! Gain five 1d6 damage, 8 hit point skeleton units. Gain 2 additional units each time your village breeds. Add a new want to the village. Describe what it is and where it can be acquired. …DRAGON! A mighty dragon has taken up residence in your village! What sort of dragon is it? Gain one 2d8 damage, 40 hit point dragon unit. Add a new want to the village. Describe what it is and where it can be acquired. If any unit gained by this move dies, the unit is gone forever. You may, however, still buy the next level protector. If a protector leaves the village for any reason, their want goes with them. You don’t have to find rotten fish to feed to your troll protec- tor if he’s been killed by a murderhobo.
  47. 47. WHAT’S AUTOMATED NO COUNTRY FOR OLD KOBOLDS WHAT’S FIXED ‣ Encounters ‣ Combats ‣ Village Needs ‣ Game-Master’s World ‣ Arc of prosperity EpilogueConstraints 1. WEARINESS greater than REASON plus SELF-LOATHING: The minion flees/runs/wanders off, giving up on his struggle. 2. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS greater than LOVE plus REASON: The minion is killed. 3. SELF-LOATHING greater than WEARINESS plus REASON: The minion destroys itself. 4. LOVE plus REASON greater than SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS: The minion integrates itself into the society of Townspeople. 5. LOVE equals zero: The minion emerges from the ashes of the Endgame as a force of Fear in his/her own right. 6. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS equals LOVE plus REASON: The minion finds a new Master to serve. © 2003, 2006 by Paul Czege. All rights reserved. Permission granted to photocopy this page for personal use. Captured IfWEARINESS isgreaterthan REASON The Horror Revealed SELF-LOATHING doesn’t increasewhenit’s equaltoorgreaterthan LOVE plusREASON Endgame is possible If LOVE isgreaterthan FEAR plusWEARINESS WEARINESS MorethanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ LessthanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ Connection ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Love _______ _______ _______ _______ _______
  48. 48. INYOUR COURSE MATERIALS! NIGHT WITCHES JASON MORNINGSTAR 6
  49. 49. QUEER FATE NIGHT WITCHES 65the game master: threats OUR BELOVED 588TH REGIMENT „ Confess love or pregnancy or both. „ Brew up petty rivalries, spread rumors, and gossip. „ Bury the dead—or the living. „ Celebrate a victory, award, wedding, or name day. „ Deliver very bad news from home. „ Introduce green recruits or know-it-all veterans. „ Our Gallant Flying Comrades „ Send Major Popov of the all-male 218th Night Bomber Regiment over. „ Take credit. „ Laugh at the women of the 588th. „ Make the Night Witches act like men—or women. „ Spotlight an ace from the mostly female 586th Fighter Regiment. „ “Borrow” resources and equipment. „ Break the rules and get away with it. REAR-ECHELON HEROES „ Delay vital supplies or paperwork. „ Deliver the wrong things; deliver late or not at all. „ Rat them out. „ Loiter around the airbase looking for a party. „ Demand a “consideration”—or steal from them. „ Have the Central Directorate of Rear Services of the Soviet Army Air Forces, 4th Air Army Logistics and Supply Commissariat call them to account. THEGAMEMASTER
  50. 50. WHAT’S AUTOMATED NO COUNTRY FOR OLD KOBOLDS WHAT’S FIXED ‣ Combat ‣ Arc: moving from base to base ‣ Much of the world ‣ Catch-22 EpilogueConstraints 1. WEARINESS greater than REASON plus SELF-LOATHING: The minion flees/runs/wanders off, giving up on his struggle. 2. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS greater than LOVE plus REASON: The minion is killed. 3. SELF-LOATHING greater than WEARINESS plus REASON: The minion destroys itself. 4. LOVE plus REASON greater than SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS: The minion integrates itself into the society of Townspeople. 5. LOVE equals zero: The minion emerges from the ashes of the Endgame as a force of Fear in his/her own right. 6. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS equals LOVE plus REASON: The minion finds a new Master to serve. © 2003, 2006 by Paul Czege. All rights reserved. Permission granted to photocopy this page for personal use. Captured IfWEARINESS isgreaterthan REASON The Horror Revealed SELF-LOATHING doesn’t increasewhenit’s equaltoorgreaterthan LOVE plusREASON Endgame is possible If LOVE isgreaterthan FEAR plusWEARINESS WEARINESS MorethanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ LessthanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ Connection ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Love _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ Which officer of the 588th was in no condition to fly when the Regiment arrived in Trud Gornyaka? What is being done to keep livestock off the runway, and why isn’t it working?
  51. 51. THE BEAST ALEKSANDRA SONTOWSKA KAMIL WĘGRZYNOWICZ 7
  52. 52. WHAT BEAST? The Beast
  53. 53. WHAT’S AUTOMATED THE BEAST WHAT’S FIXED ‣ The sequence of questions ‣ The Premise ‣ The Questions EpilogueConstraints 1. WEARINESS greater than REASON plus SELF-LOATHING: The minion flees/runs/wanders off, giving up on his struggle. 2. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS greater than LOVE plus REASON: The minion is killed. 3. SELF-LOATHING greater than WEARINESS plus REASON: The minion destroys itself. 4. LOVE plus REASON greater than SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS: The minion integrates itself into the society of Townspeople. 5. LOVE equals zero: The minion emerges from the ashes of the Endgame as a force of Fear in his/her own right. 6. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS equals LOVE plus REASON: The minion finds a new Master to serve. © 2003, 2006 by Paul Czege. All rights reserved. Permission granted to photocopy this page for personal use. Captured IfWEARINESS isgreaterthan REASON The Horror Revealed SELF-LOATHING doesn’t increasewhenit’s equaltoorgreaterthan LOVE plusREASON Endgame is possible If LOVE isgreaterthan FEAR plusWEARINESS WEARINESS MorethanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ LessthanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ Connection ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Love _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ In what way, and how often, does the beast show affection?
  54. 54. DOGS IN THE VINEYARD D. VINCENT BAKER 8Dogs Vineyard in the A Roleplaying Game Written by D. Vincent Baker ad mmiv
  55. 55. THE FAITH DOGS IN THE VINEYARD There’s something wrong, of course. Pride (manifests as injustice). ...leads to... Sin (manifests as demons attacking from outside, in the form of famine, plague, raiding outlaw bands, or whatever). ...leads to... False Doctrine (manifests as corrupt religious practices and heresy). ...leads to... False Priesthood (manifests as demons within the congregation: sorcery, possession and active evil). ...leads to... Hate and murder.
  56. 56. WHAT’S AUTOMATED DOGS IN THE VINEYARD WHAT’S FIXED ‣ Combat ‣ Interaction with townspeople ‣ The world ‣ The faith ‣ The arc EpilogueConstraints 1. WEARINESS greater than REASON plus SELF-LOATHING: The minion flees/runs/wanders off, giving up on his struggle. 2. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS greater than LOVE plus REASON: The minion is killed. 3. SELF-LOATHING greater than WEARINESS plus REASON: The minion destroys itself. 4. LOVE plus REASON greater than SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS: The minion integrates itself into the society of Townspeople. 5. LOVE equals zero: The minion emerges from the ashes of the Endgame as a force of Fear in his/her own right. 6. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS equals LOVE plus REASON: The minion finds a new Master to serve. © 2003, 2006 by Paul Czege. All rights reserved. Permission granted to photocopy this page for personal use. Captured IfWEARINESS isgreaterthan REASON The Horror Revealed SELF-LOATHING doesn’t increasewhenit’s equaltoorgreaterthan LOVE plusREASON Endgame is possible If LOVE isgreaterthan FEAR plusWEARINESS WEARINESS MorethanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ LessthanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ Connection ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Love _______ _______ _______ _______ _______
  57. 57. INYOUR COURSE MATERIALS! THE CLAY THAT WOKE PAUL CZEGE 9 A new, immersive roleplaying game like nothing you’ve seen before. Paul CZEGE Minotaurs in a human civilization sundered by a surreal, trackless jungle. 𐑓𐑰𐑤 𐑞 𐑕𐑳𐑯𐑪𐑯𐑘𐑹 𐑣𐑲𐑛 $27.00
  58. 58. SILENCE THE CLAY THAT WOKE Be courageous. Act with wisdom. Work for justice and the social good. Do not use the names of women. Do not want. Do not express your emotions.
  59. 59. WHAT’S AUTOMATED THE CLAY THAT WOKE WHAT’S FIXED ‣ Combat ‣ Interactions ‣ Townspeople ‣ The forest ‣ The krater of lots ‣ The world ‣ The silence ‣ The arc
  60. 60. INYOUR COURSE MATERIALS! THE SKELETONS JASON MORNINGSTAR 10THE SKELETONSA game by JASON MORNINGSTAR Years fly by like dead leaves. Everything is darkness. Everything is silence.You stand vigilant before the sarcophagus without thought or breath—such is your compulsion.You do not remember your name and still you watch. The flesh has fallen off your bones and still you watch. And then one day there is light and motion and you weigh your bearded axe and raise your shield, lusting for the fray, eager to measure your skill against these tomb-robbing children so full of blood.You’ll never be alive again, but in this moment—in the chaos between violation and destruction—you truly live, and you remember what you once were, and you taste the sun. ©2015 Bully Pulpit Games LLC. Editing by Autumn Winters and Steve Segedy. Additional setting material by Sara Williamson. Layout and art by Brennen Reece Skeleton Art CC-A The Wellcome Collection, James Ward, Eduard Weber, Marcin Białek, sjwells53 Thanks to Stras Acimovic, Caitlynn Belle, Ray Benefield, Nathan Black, Jesse Coombs, Jim Crocker, Klint Finley, Kristin Firth, Ephraim Gregor, Greg Jansen, Alexis Lainoff, Ian McEwan, Marshall Miller, Scott Morningstar, Jessica Morrell, Ian Oakes, Jillian Ordes-Finley, George Royer, Charley Sharp, Michel Sherer, Krista White, Sara Williamson, and many others!
  61. 61. TOMB TABLES GLORY FADES Choose and mark. For anything affecting a single skeleton, choose which however you like. † The magic compelling one of the skeletons to service— but not its undead energy—is beginning to fade. † Something the skeletons are protecting is lost—stolen or simply missing. What was it? † A memory that a skeleton had previously regained is false, and the truth asserts itself. Which memory, and what truth? † The place where a skeleton stands watch is covered in debris and impassable. † A skeleton loses some bones permanently. What body part is missing? Note it on the character sheet. † Something the skeletons are protecting is damaged. What, and how? GODS LAUGH Choose and mark. For anything affecting a single skeleton, choose which however you like. † A skeleton’s weapon is broken, bent or rendered useless. What will they do? Note it on the character sheet. † A skeleton’s appearance is altered in some way. Perhaps they are marked by fire or magic. † A memory that a skeleton had previously regained slips away and is lost forever. Which one? † Something the skeletons are protecting is destroyed. What is it? † Something from a skeleton’s past has been accidentally revealed What was it, and why was it hidden? Note this on the map. † The magic animating one of the skeletons—but not its compulsion to service—is beginning to fade. WORLDS CRUMBLE Choose and mark. For anything affecting the tomb itself, note it on the map and adjust accordingly. † A wall comes down, blocking part of the tomb. Which part? Adjust the map. † A tomb-robber is successful. What object did they steal? Choose from among those already introduced if you are able. Adjust the map. † The great sarcophagus splits open, spilling out its contents. What was within? Adjust the map. † The tomb is flooded. What is ruined, mold covered, or decayed after the waters recede? Adjust the map. † Gold and silver dull. Iron rusts. Colors fade to a sepulchral grey. Note this on the map. † A thick layer of dust covers every surface. Note this on the map. TIME DEVOURS Choose and mark. For anything affecting the tomb itself, note it on the map and adjust accordingly. † The webs of tomb spiders form an intricate filigree over the walls and ceiling. Note this on the map. † The tomb is infested. What signs of vermin remain long after the infestation ends? Adjust the map. † A crack develops, creating an opening for robbers and other vermin. Where? Adjust the map. † Something collapses, leaving a large pile of debris. What has failed? Adjust the map. † Wood, cloth, hide, horn and un-enchanted bone all turn to powder. Note this on the map. † An earthquake rocks the tomb, drastically altering its shape and utility. Many things are destroyed. Adjust the map. DESECRATION THE SKELETONS
  62. 62. WHAT’S IMPROVISED THE CLAY THAT WOKE WHAT’S FIXED ‣ The World ‣ How we explain what happened ‣ Combat ‣ The arc EpilogueConstraints 1. WEARINESS greater than REASON plus SELF-LOATHING: The minion flees/runs/wanders off, giving up on his struggle. 2. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS greater than LOVE plus REASON: The minion is killed. 3. SELF-LOATHING greater than WEARINESS plus REASON: The minion destroys itself. 4. LOVE plus REASON greater than SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS: The minion integrates itself into the society of Townspeople. 5. LOVE equals zero: The minion emerges from the ashes of the Endgame as a force of Fear in his/her own right. 6. SELF-LOATHING plus WEARINESS equals LOVE plus REASON: The minion finds a new Master to serve. © 2003, 2006 by Paul Czege. All rights reserved. Permission granted to photocopy this page for personal use. Captured IfWEARINESS isgreaterthan REASON The Horror Revealed SELF-LOATHING doesn’t increasewhenit’s equaltoorgreaterthan LOVE plusREASON Endgame is possible If LOVE isgreaterthan FEAR plusWEARINESS WEARINESS MorethanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ LessthanHuman _____________________________ _____________________________ Connection ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Love _______ _______ _______ _______ _______
  63. 63. RYUUTAMA ATSUHIRO OKADA 11THE SKELETONSA game by JASON MORNINGSTAR Years fly by like dead leaves. Everything is darkness. Everything is silence.You stand vigilant before the sarcophagus without thought or breath—such is your compulsion.You do not remember your name and still you watch. The flesh has fallen off your bones and still you watch. And then one day there is light and motion and you weigh your bearded axe and raise your shield, lusting for the fray, eager to measure your skill against these tomb-robbing children so full of blood.You’ll never be alive again, but in this moment—in the chaos between violation and destruction—you truly live, and you remember what you once were, and you taste the sun. ©2015 Bully Pulpit Games LLC. Editing by Autumn Winters and Steve Segedy. Additional setting material by Sara Williamson. Layout and art by Brennen Reece Skeleton Art CC-A The Wellcome Collection, James Ward, Eduard Weber, Marcin Białek, sjwells53 Thanks to Stras Acimovic, Caitlynn Belle, Ray Benefield, Nathan Black, Jesse Coombs, Jim Crocker, Klint Finley, Kristin Firth, Ephraim Gregor, Greg Jansen, Alexis Lainoff, Ian McEwan, Marshall Miller, Scott Morningstar, Jessica Morrell, Ian Oakes, Jillian Ordes-Finley, George Royer, Charley Sharp, Michel Sherer, Krista White, Sara Williamson, and many others! 21 Ryuujin Actions and Ability Scores When a Ryuujin comes across a party of travelers that they want to watch over, they do so quietly from the shadows or from within their dwelling. At times the Ryuujin will guide travelers to a place where something is about to happen and at other times the Ryuujin will lend a hand when the travelers seem to be in danger. Rumors have even been heard of mischievous Ryuujin that annoy travelers with their tricks. To these ends, Ryuujin have three special powers at their disposal: “Artefacts” which have the power to influence the natural laws of the world;“Benedictions” that have miraculous powers over travelers creating a Travelogue, and “Reveil” which allow a Ryuujin to exert some of their life energy to change into a substantial form. Using these three powers, Ryuujin are able to help shape Travelogues into amazing stories fit to serve a dragon. Dragon Statues (or “Ryuuzoh”) are small stone carvings that can be found along just about any road. They are generally representations of the Ryuujin, guardians of travelers, and are placed along roads as guides. It is said that dragon statues point travelers to the right direction, and they hold a walking stick that any new traveler can feel free to take along on their journey. It is customary for travelers who find a Dragon Statue without its walking stick to leave their own walking stick with the statue for the next unfortunate Traveler in need of aid.
  64. 64. TOMB TABLES GLORY FADES Choose and mark. For anything affecting a single skeleton, choose which however you like. † The magic compelling one of the skeletons to service— but not its undead energy—is beginning to fade. † Something the skeletons are protecting is lost—stolen or simply missing. What was it? † A memory that a skeleton had previously regained is false, and the truth asserts itself. Which memory, and what truth? † The place where a skeleton stands watch is covered in debris and impassable. † A skeleton loses some bones permanently. What body part is missing? Note it on the character sheet. † Something the skeletons are protecting is damaged. What, and how? GODS LAUGH Choose and mark. For anything affecting a single skeleton, choose which however you like. † A skeleton’s weapon is broken, bent or rendered useless. What will they do? Note it on the character sheet. † A skeleton’s appearance is altered in some way. Perhaps they are marked by fire or magic. † A memory that a skeleton had previously regained slips away and is lost forever. Which one? † Something the skeletons are protecting is destroyed. What is it? † Something from a skeleton’s past has been accidentally revealed What was it, and why was it hidden? Note this on the map. † The magic animating one of the skeletons—but not its compulsion to service—is beginning to fade. WORLDS CRUMBLE Choose and mark. For anything affecting the tomb itself, note it on the map and adjust accordingly. † A wall comes down, blocking part of the tomb. Which part? Adjust the map. † A tomb-robber is successful. What object did they steal? Choose from among those already introduced if you are able. Adjust the map. † The great sarcophagus splits open, spilling out its contents. What was within? Adjust the map. † The tomb is flooded. What is ruined, mold covered, or decayed after the waters recede? Adjust the map. † Gold and silver dull. Iron rusts. Colors fade to a sepulchral grey. Note this on the map. † A thick layer of dust covers every surface. Note this on the map. TIME DEVOURS Choose and mark. For anything affecting the tomb itself, note it on the map and adjust accordingly. † The webs of tomb spiders form an intricate filigree over the walls and ceiling. Note this on the map. † The tomb is infested. What signs of vermin remain long after the infestation ends? Adjust the map. † A crack develops, creating an opening for robbers and other vermin. Where? Adjust the map. † Something collapses, leaving a large pile of debris. What has failed? Adjust the map. † Wood, cloth, hide, horn and un-enchanted bone all turn to powder. Note this on the map. † An earthquake rocks the tomb, drastically altering its shape and utility. Many things are destroyed. Adjust the map. HONOBONO RYUUTAMA Travelers, Step by Step: Step 1: Before we embark, let’s get ready! ❁ Get to know what sort of game Ryuutama is.➙Read through the rulebook. ❁ Prepare the game. ➙ Review character creation ❁ Gather the necessary materials. ➙ Writing utensils, dice (one each of 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12-sided dice), copies of each character sheet. ❁ Create the traveling companions together. ➙ Gather your party, discuss everyone’s party roles and give self-introductions. ❁ Create the town that will become the destination.➙“Town Creation” rules Step 2: The Voyage! What’s a single day of travel like? TRAVELING RULES ❁ Determine how good or bad you feel that day.➙Condition Check ❁ Are you able to travel without getting hurt? ➙Travel Check ❁ Are you able to find your way without getting lost? ➙Direction Check ❁ Are you able to spend the night safely and without incident? ➙ Camping Check ENCOUNTERS ON THE TRAIL ❁ What happens if I don’t feel well? ➙ Status effects rules ❁ Monster encounter! ➙Combat rules WALK AROUND TOWN ❁ Enjoy shopping. ➙ Shopping rules ❁ Services and facilities in town. ➙ Facilities ❁ Bring animals. ➙ Animals Step 3: Things you can do to make your trip comfortable ❁ Make use of your skills ➙ Skills, Type ❁ Use tools and items. ➙ Items ❁ Use medicinal herbs. ➙ Healing Herbs ❁ Use magic. ➙ Magic Step 4: Growth upon completion of your journey ❁ Add up your EXP and level up. ➙ Level up The Player’s Role • Control a single character. • Cooperate with the other players and make the session fun for everyone. • Proceed through a scenario with the GM. • Follow the rules of the game.
  65. 65. WHAT’S AUTOMATED RYUUTAMA WHAT’S FIXED ‣ Do we get lost today? ‣ Camping ‣ Cooking ‣ Shopping ‣ Combat ‣ The World
  66. 66. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  67. 67. Encode using protocol “writing” Decode using protocol “reading”
  68. 68. Roland Barthes Photo: BBC
  69. 69. Fleury-François RICHARD, Le petit chaperon rouge
  70. 70. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  71. 71. THIS IS MY EMAIL NOW. THANKS, GAMERGATE!
  72. 72. “Why, you know, Sir Thomas’s means will be rather straitened if the Antigua estate is to make such poor returns.” Jane Austen, Mansfield Park
  73. 73. The goal of literary work is to make the reader no longer a consumer, but a producer of the text. Roland Barthes Photo: BBC “The goal of literary work is to make the reader no longer a consumer, but a producer of the text.”
  74. 74. George P. Landow Hypertext: the convergence of contemporary critical theory 
 and technology
  75. 75. D. Vincent Baker, Apocalypse World THE HARDHOLDER
  76. 76. HARDHOLDER MOVES OTHER MOVES BARTER GEARBARTER IMPROVEMENT HX P D S MOVES HARDHOLDERTHE HARDHOLDER SPECIAL M 3 6 9 12 D. Vincent Baker, Apocalypse World
  77. 77. The Drifter's Escape Spades Ace of Spades This character just ruined another character’s life. King of Spades This character is involved with another in a tentative deal with a lot of money. Queen of Spades This character is related by blood to another. Jack of Spades This character owes a great debt to someone. Ten of Spades This character is white Nine of Spades This character is vastly wealthy. Eight of Spades This character has never been in love. Seven of Spades This character has a gun. Six of Spades This character is a soldier or veteran. Five of Spades This character holds political office. Four of Spades This character has appeared in a previous story. (If this is your first time playing, ignore this.) Three of Spades Nothing. Two of Spades Nothing. Clubs BenLehman,TheDrifter’sEscape
  78. 78. A The community becomes obsessed with a single project. Which one? Why? Choose one: Add 3 weeks to the project die. All other projects fail. If there are no projects underway, the community becomes obsessed with a grandiose vision. Hold a discussion about this vision, in addition to your regular action for the week. 2 Someone returns to the community. Who? Where were they? or... You find a body. Do people recognize who it is? What happened? 3 Someone leaves the community after issuing a dire warning. Who? What is the warning? or... Someone issues a dire warning, and the community leaps into action to avoid disaster. What is the warning? Start a contentious project that relates to it. 4 The strongest among you dies. What caused the death? or... The weakest among you dies. Who’s to blame for their death? 5 The Parish arrives. Who are they? Why have they chosen your community, and for what? or... A small gang of marauders is making its way through local terrain. How many are there? What weapons do they carry? 6 Introduce a dark mystery among the members of the community. or... Conflict flares up among community members, and as a result, a project fails. 7 A project just isn’t working out as expected. Radically change the nature of this project (don’t modify the project die). When it resolves, you’ll be responsible for telling the community how it went. or... Something goes foul and supplies are ruined. Add a new Scarcity. 8 Someone sabotages a project, and the project fails as a result. Who did this? Why? or... Someone is caught trying to sabotage the efforts of the community. How does the community respond? 9 The community works constantly and as a result a project finishes early. or... A group goes out to explore the map more thoroughly, and finds something that had been previously overlooked. Autumn AveryAlder,TheQuietYear
  79. 79. Tadeusz Rajszczak Maszynka (left) and two other young soldiers from Miotła Battalion, 2 September 1944 Photo: Jerzy Tomaszewski
  80. 80. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  81. 81. R RUPERT BROOKE, HEAVEN, 1915
  82. 82. PEOPLE ARE TEXTS, TOO… IDENTITY IS (IN PART) SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED. WE WRITE OURSELVES, BUT WE ALSO ARE WRITTEN UPON. Narrative Automata, p.39 ARE YOU MY MOTHER?
  83. 83. Michel Foucault
  84. 84. ARE YOU MY MOTHER? CONSTRUCTING A CHARACTER Strength 17 Intelligence 11 Wisdom 6 Dexterity 8 Charisma 7 Constitution 14
  85. 85. IN PRINCIPLE, IT COULD BE INTERESTING TO EXPLORE THE ROLE OF A DIMWITTED WIZARD. Narrative Automata, p. 40 ARE YOU MY MOTHER?
  86. 86. Alice is Bobby’s aunt, and was Clarice’s teacher in sophomore English. Clarice hated that class, and used to have a crush on Bobby years ago, before he went to prep school and got so full of himself. Alice and Bobby expect to inherit a lot of money someday, but right now they’re flat broke and the rent is due next week on the fast food joint Alice owns, Bobby manages, and where Clarice works. It’s time for crime. JasonMorningstar,Fiasco
  87. 87. IT’S ABOUT SUBMITTING TO THE MECHANICS OF AN ALIEN WORLD. Paul Czege, The Clay That Woke ARE YOU MY MOTHER?
  88. 88. ARE YOU MY MOTHER? These are my courage tokens. As icons they look like c. I refresh to two c when we see me having a conversation with a leader minotaur about a civic issue. These are my mind tokens. As icons they look like m. I refresh to four m when we see me reacting emotionally to a cultural problem. These are my name tokens. As icons they look like n. I can spend two n to ensure a gamemaster character will be successful in a planned future action for which no player minotaur will be present. I refresh to ___ n when we see me tell an advocate or leader minotaur a truth or possible truth. I also get n from several Krater outcomes. These are my silence tokens. As icons they look like s. I get more swhile I’m in the jungle. These are my gift tokens. As icons they look like g. I get more g when I leave the jungle and I’ve had a gift lost, destroyed, or expire recently. This is my life token. As an icon it looks like l. I get my l back when the jungle comes for me in the Dégringolade, or the Dégringolade comes for me in the jungle. I have abiding gifts I have essential gifts Silence Be courageous. Act with wisdom. Work for justice and the social good. Do not use the names of women. Do not want. Do not express your emotions. I have broken silence THE CLAY THAT WOKE—MINOTAUR SHEET A PHILOSOPHER MINOTAURSILENCE ▸ Be courageous. ▸ Act with wisdom. ▸ Work for justice and the social good. ▸ Do not use the names of women. ▸ Do not want. ▸ Do not express your emotions.
  89. 89. Peter reels from the blow, clutching his broken left forearm. He hesitates, then plants his feet and pulls himself up to his full height of 49 inches. “You’ll never get past me!” he shouts, knowing that he is all that stands between the monster and Lisa. Jason L. Blair, Little Fears ARE YOU MY MOTHER?
  90. 90. ARE YOU MY MOTHER GAINING DISTANCE ▸ Framing stories ▸ Third person ▸ Ironic detachment ▸ Formalism ▸ Ritual ▸ Joint responsibility ▸ Sentimental (false, conventional) outcomes
  91. 91. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  92. 92. THE PURITAN MISTAKES PLEASURE FOR FRIVOLITY BECAUSE HE MISTAKES SERIOUSNESS FOR SOLEMNITY. Terry Eagleton
  93. 93. INYOUR COURSE MATERIALS! SERIOUS HYPERTEXT THE GREY RANKS A1 N d12 A2 d12 A3 d10 A4 d8 A5 N d8 B1 d12 B2 d10 B3 d10 B4 d8 B5 d8 C1 d10 C2 d10 C3 d8 C4 d6 C5 d6 D1 d8 D2 d8 D3 d6 D4 d6 D5 d4 E1 N d8 E2 d8 E3 d6 E4 d4 E5 N d4 Love Winmission,winpersonal i Hate Lose mission,lose personal i Enthusiasm Winmission,losepersonal i Exhaustion Losemission,winpersonal i M artyrdom D erangem ent NervousBreakdow nSuicidalD epression In this game, you will assume the role of a young Polish partisan before, during, and after the disastrous 1944 Uprising against the Germans. Together with your friends, you’ll create the story of a group of teens who fight to free their city.
  94. 94. SERIOUS HYPERTEXT WHAT’S WRONG WITH GAMES? ▸ Untrue: fictions lie ▸ Frivolous: fictions waste time ▸ Irresponsible: who can blame an automaton? ▸ Sentimental: many automata compel your answer ▸ Prevaricating: closure is a suspect quality ▸ Arbitrary: 
 If God is God, he is not good; if God is good, he is not God.
  95. 95. Narrative Automata 47 Hypertext 2017 SERIOUS HYPERTEXT “The puritan dogma that seriousness is one thing and pleasure another. The puritan mistakes pleasure for frivolity because he mistakes seriousness for solemnity.” Many of the earliest notable narrative automata—Gygax and Arneson’s Dungeons Dragons and Edward Packard’s Choose Your Own Adventure books—were relentlessly cheery melodramas in which romantic heroes faced, and ultimately overcame, a host of obstacles. Computer games followed their lead, first in arcades and then in personal computing. Some thought this a result of the primitive graphics of the time, others attributed the preponderance of melodrama to the pre-adolescent audience of the early arcades and Toys ‘R’ Us aisle. Exceptions can be found, but the overall picture is clear. As a result, film critic Roger Ebert, who throughout his career favored popular entertainment over the more cerebral fare preferred by his competitor and collaborator Gene Siskel, famously speculated that games could never be art—that they were inca- pable of serious thought or emotion. The world of the computer game has long been dominated by cartoonish figures, slashing their way through derivative pseudo-Arthurian landscapes to rescue The Princess. But let us turn to Jason Morningstar’s The Grey Ranks, where the picture is very different. The puritan dogma: Eagleton, Terry. Af- ter Theory. New York: Basic Books, 2003. The earliest notable narrative automata: I omit here any number of conventional games, computer games, programmed learning texts, and computational experiments that might conceivably be viewed as precursors. I also omit William Wallace Cook’s Plotto (Ellis Publishing Company, Battle Creek, Mich., 1928), which was a very different artifact with a completely different purpose and which, by the 1974 publica- tion of Dungeons Dragons, had been thoroughly forgotten. Whatever one thought of DD when it first appeared, it was new. Roger Ebert: “Video Games Can Never Be Art”, (16 April 2010) http://www. rogerebert.com/rogers-journal/video- games-can-never-be-art The Grey Ranks: Jason Morningstar, The grey ranks (Bully Pulpit Press, 2007)
  96. 96. BRYAN, BRYAN, BRYAN, BRYAN (VACHEL LINDSAY) She wore in her hair a brave prairie rose. Her gold chums cut her, for that was not the pose. No Gibson Girl would wear it in that fresh way. But we were fairy Democrats, and this was our day.
  97. 97. IT IS UNLIKELY THAT, FOR EXAMPLE, THE 1944 WARSAW GHETTO UPRISING COULD BE INTERPRETED EQUALLY WELL AS ROMANCE, FARCE, OR TRAGEDY ALUN MUNSLOW SERIOUS HYPERTEXT
  98. 98. SERIOUS HYPERTEXT THE GREY RANKS
  99. 99. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  100. 100. Wikimedia
  101. 101. THE WAR STORY IS NOT CHIEFLY INTERESTED IN SWORDPLAY AND GUNFIRE, STRATEGY AND TACTICS: COMPUTER GAMES ARE. That Fatal Strawberry Ice Cream One Damn Thing After Another
  102. 102. MY LIFE WITH MASTER PAUL CZEGE 4
  103. 103. THOSE TROJAN GIRLS MARK BERNSTEIN
  104. 104. AARNE-THOMPSON333
  105. 105. ONE DAMN THING AFTER ANOTHER On Hypertext Narrative Mark Bernstein Eastgate Systems, Inc. 134 Main Street Watertown MA 02472 USA +1 617 924 9044 Bernstein@eastgate.com ABSTRACT Annals and chronicles may be the foundation of accounting, but writers of stories and histories have long known that they seldom render a satisfactory account of complex events. In place of a simple chronological list, narrative instead organizes our account in new sequences in order to illuminate the interplay of actors and events. We want hypertext narrative to do things we cannot achieve in print; though we may occasionally use links to introduce variation in presentation or in story; it is now clear that hypertext will most frequently prove useful in changing (or adapting) plot. After discussing the ways in which plot may be varied, I describe the use of stretchtext as a reaction against the perceived incoherence of classic hypertext narrative, demonstrate the limitations that conventional stretchtext necessarily imposes on hypertext narrative, and describe an implemented generalization of stretchtext that matches the expressive and formal capabilities of classical hypertext systems while appearing to be a mere stretchtext and while running within the confines of a Web browser. Categories and Subject Descriptors H5.4 [Hypertext/Hypermedia]: Theory. I7.2 [Document Preparation]: hypertext/hypermedia. J5 [Computer Applications]: Arts and Humanities. Literature. General Terms Documentation, Design, Human Factors, Keywords Hypertext narrative, fiction, stretchtext, patterns 1. ANNALS AND CHRONICLES Narrative describes events that unfold in time: stories, memories, histories, and procedural descriptions. Some narratives may be imaginary, others historical, and still others might describe future events. Hypertext narrative matters not only to artists and entertainers, but also to a wide range of hypertext writers. From historians to technical writers, from documenting the incidents that gave rise to a court case to specifying a treatment protocol for medical clinics, narrative is vitally important. Because hypertext is, by definition, non-sequential while narrative is fundamentally about sequence, hypertext has always challenged our understanding of narrative. If the reader may experience a hypertext in different sequences, what happens to the reader’s understanding of the sequence of events? When we first consider crafting a record of complex events, we might in the first instance contemplate a chronological record of occurrences – a diary or chronicle that lists events sequentially. This representation is ancient; we find it in Babylonian clay tablets, in the Roman Fasti, in biblical chronicles, in weblogs. In the form of the journal and ledger, it remains at the center of accounting. Even the earliest historians recognized that chronicles or annals provide an inadequate account of history. For while a simple chronological list might clarify questions of temporal priority, it often obscures questions of causation. Unrelated events occur at the same time, while daily experience reminds us that causes precede consequences. Extraordinary events, such as a natural disaster or invasion, may easily overlap other events that, while ordinary in themselves, give rise to significant consequences. Events of immediate significance, a royal marriage or a solar eclipse, may coincide with events whose significance will not emerge for many years, such as the introduction of a new crop plant or the birth of a child who will, many years later, lead a successful revolution. Even our oldest histories and stories depart from strictly chronological organization. 2. NOTES ON HYPERTEXT NARRATIVE We want hypertext narrative to do things we could not achieve in print. The study of narrative is, unfortunately, a terminological quagmire, and is further complicated by inconsistent usages and linguistic borrowings [27]. Broadly following Lowe, the story is the sequence of events that the narrative describes. These events are recounted to us in a (hyper) text. The text may be written, but it need not be: it might be cinematic, or a audible, or might combine writing and image in a variety of ways. The narrative text may not — indeed usually does not — describe events in the same sequence in which they occurred, but may depart from that sequence for clarity, emotional effect, or simply because two events took place at the some time. Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. HT’09, June 29–July 1, 2009, Torino, Italy. Copyright 2009 ACM 978-1-60558-486-7/09/06...$5.00
  106. 106. ONE DAMN THING AFTER ANOTHER CONSTRAINTS 8 Game Rules Step 4: Maid Special Quality Table Roll Special Quality Description 11 Glasses You wear glasses and can’t use contact lenses. The frame design can be whatever you want. 12 Freckles You have freckles. 13 Sickly You’ve got an incurable disease. However, this doesn’t adversely affect your attributes. Choose your own symptoms. 14 Quiet You have a cool, subtle demeanor. No, there are no rules regarding how often you speak. 15 Easygoing You take things slow and calm, at your own pace. This doesn’t affect your attributes. 16 Neat Freak You’re obsessed with cleanliness, and can’t let the tiniest bit of dirt go unnoticed. 21 Brown Skin Your skin is a dark brown color. It could be natural, or a tan. 22 Albino You have no pigment. You’re not necessarily completely colorless, this could simply be a very pale complexion. 23 Shy You’re very shy. Don’t forget to remain silent when encountering NPCs you haven’t met before. 24 Actually A Guy You’re actually a guy (cross-dresser?). Or possibly a hermaphrodite. 25 Overactive Imagination You frequently get caught up in your own imaginary world, or else tend to daydream a lot. 26 Greedy You will do absolutely anything for the sake of money. 31 Elf Ears You have long, pointed ears. 32 Nekomimi This varies a bit depending on the setting, but you’re a catgirl, with the ears and possibly tail of a cat. 33 Android/Gynoid You’re not human, but rather a human-looking robot. Parts of your body are very obviously artificial. 34 Vampire You are a vampire, with long fangs. Be sure to act . . . vampiric. 35 Princess You’re actually the daughter of a family of even greater standing than the master. Depending on the setting, you could even be from another country’s royal family. Whether you are in disguise or not is up to you. 36 Angel/Devil You are a being from another world charged with judging good and evil. The design and the details of your origins are up to you. 41 Uniform ★ You’ve managed to make a special modification to your uniform. → To the Uniform Table 42 Symbol ★ You have some kind of special mark on your uniform or headdress. → To the Symbol Table 43 Delinquent ★ Something about you is very much like a delinquent. → To the Delinquent Table 44 Accent ★ You have an unusual way of speaking. → To the Accent Table 45 Hairstyle ★ You have a special hairstyle. → To the Hairstyle Table 46 Accessory ★ You have a special accessory attached to your uniform. →To the Accessory Table 51 Relationship or Perversion ★ LighterGame? You have a relationship to another player character (Maid). → To the RelationshipTable Darker Game? You have a bizarre perversion of some kind. → To the Perversion Table 52 Criminal Tendencies ★ You have an inclination towards criminal acts. → To the Criminal Tendencies Table 53 Injury ★ Because of mistreatment or an accident, you have some kind of permanent physical injury. → To the Injury Table 54 Tragic Love ★ You have had sad or tragic experiences with love. → To the Tragic Love Table 55 Dark Past ★ There is something dark in your personal history. → To the Dark Past Table 56 Trauma ★ After some terrible incident, you were traumatized. → To the Trauma Table 61 Secret Job ★ You’re not just a maid; you’re secretly holding another job. → To the Secret Job Table 62 Membership ★ In addition to being a maid, you’re also a member of a certain organization. → To the MembershipTable
  107. 107. SLEEPNOMORE
  108. 108. ONE DAMN THING AFTER ANOTHER As I am leaving, Mrs. DeWinter reaches out a hand to stop me. She closes the door. She locks it. She sits on the couch. She points to a small stool at her feet. I sit. Leaning close, she begins to tell me a whispered story about a dead girl who finds the moon made of rotten wood. She leans very close, her hand brushing the back of my neck. And then, very slowly, she removes my mask.
  109. 109. ONE DAMN THING AFTER ANOTHER TRAVEL ▸ I hate it here ▸ There and back again ▸ The world as a character
  110. 110. Dogs Vineyard in the A Roleplaying Game Written by D. Vincent Baker ad mmiv
  111. 111. ONE DAMN THING AFTER ANOTHER BREAKING THE LINE ▸ Heart Suit ▸ Robert Coover ▸ Composition #1 ▸ Marc Saporta
  112. 112. 2 Stalin wants a story It is 1928, and Stalin has retreated to his personal chambers. In the world outside, his agricultural reforms have been unsuccessful, leading to a food crisis. He doesn’t want to hear a word about that. The peasants are hiding the scarce food from the state collectors, and it is only at gunpoint that they are ‘willing’ to give it up. But Stalin doesn’t want to hear a word about that either. What he does want to hear is an old Russian folk tale of the kind his mother used to tell him. A tale of a poor boy going out into the world to slay a dragon and win the hand of a princess, as simple as that, nothing fancy. Especially nothing fancy. To that end, Stalin has invited some of his closest companions to join him in his sitting room. Also present is a troupe of actors, ordered at a moment’s notice to come and improvise a fairy tale for the pleasure of their great leader. Everybody is on their toes. In these times of crisis, it is only too easy to displease Stalin. And if you displease Stalin, bad things happen to you. And so the actors play their tale, and the courtiers scheme for power and favour, and Stalin – capricious and inscrutable – decides over life and death.
  113. 113. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  114. 114. Carvaggio, The Incredulity of Saint Thomas, 1603, Sanssouci Gallery Potsdam
  115. 115. Cesar Santos, First Tattoo
  116. 116. MY FRIEND HAMLET GALATEA (EMILY SHORT) ▸ Galatea is a sculpture who talks ▸ A sculptural hypertext! (2003) ▸ Conversational ▸ Based on Inform ▸ In the tradition of IF
  117. 117. MY FRIEND HAMLET BLACK BOX(JENNIFER EGAN) Being alone with a violent and ruthless man, surrounded by water, can make the shore seem very far away. You may feel solidarity, at such a time, with the beauties just visible there in their bright bikinis. You may appreciate, at such a time, why you aren’t being paid for this work. Your voluntary service is the highest form of patriotism. Remind yourself that you aren’t being paid when he climbs out of the water and lumbers toward you.
  118. 118. MY FRIEND HAMLET
  119. 119. MY FRIEND HAMLET Robyn Miller and Rand Miller, Myst, Cyan, 1993
  120. 120. MY FRIEND HAMLET Michael Mateas and Andrew Stern, Façade, Procedural Arts, 2005
  121. 121. MY FRIEND HAMLET
  122. 122. SLEEPNOMORE
  123. 123. THE ACTOR DOES NOT NEED TO BECOME THE CHARACTER… THERE IS NO CHARACTER. THERE ARE ONLY LINES UPON A PAGE. David Mamet MY FRIEND HAMLET True and False: Heresy and Common Sense For The Actor, p. 9
  124. 124. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  125. 125. ARCADIA IAIN PEARS
  126. 126. TWELVE BLUE MICHAEL JOYCE
  127. 127. SEED JOANNA WALSH
  128. 128. Much of the Twine world equates hypertext research generally (and this writer specifically) with The Man; I think this, too, is an unfortunate misperception on their part. But, then, I would. Narrative Automata, p. 103n GEARS AND PULLEYS
  129. 129. Doll Player The doll knows everything but isn’t always honest. Begin the game by deciding whether the child’s parents are evil or wonderful. Don’t tell the other player until the story is over. Whenever the child asks you a question about a different character or Event, both players should snap fingers, nod heads, or in some other way count to three. On three, turn the doll’s head left, turn it right, or face it straight ahead. If the doll and the Child Player match directions, the doll must not lie. Otherwise, the doll may choose whether to answer questions truthfully. After twenty minutes, the story is over. Tell the Child Player to guess whether the parents are evil or wonderful. Play in public. Bring a doll, puppet, or other toy. You play the doll and speak for the doll. The other person, the Child Player, narrates the story, but you can add supernatural details to the story. Doll by Josh Jordan, Ginger Goat 2013
  130. 130. ALEKSANDRA SONTOWSKA AND KAMIL WĘGRZYNOWICZ.
  131. 131. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  132. 132. Although people sometimes have a hard time deciding whether or not something is art, they are rarely fooled into thinking they are having a good time when they are not. Louis Menand THAT KIND OF MOVIE
  133. 133. THAT KIND OF MOVIE If you are to have the thought of a rough and untaught man, you must have it in a rough and untaught way; but from an educated man, who can without effort express his thoughts in an educated way, take the graceful expression, and be thankful. Only get the thought, and do not silence the peasant because he cannot speak good grammar. ▸ John Ruskin, Stones of Venice II p. 167
  134. 134. THAT KIND OF MOVIE It was Kael’s therapeutic advice to the overcultivated that if they just concentrated on responding to the stimulus, the aesthetics would take care of themselves. What good is form if the content leaves you cold? The academic term for the kind of antiformalism Kael promoted is “postmodernism.” Postmodernism in the arts simply is anti-essentialism. Louis Menand, “She Found It At The Movies”
  135. 135. You Me Rock Water Fire Stick Hairy Bang! Sleep Smelly Small Big Cave Food Thing Shiny Go OG
  136. 136. THAT KIND OF MOVIE A new, immersive roleplaying game like nothing you’ve seen before. Paul CZEGE Minotaurs in a human civilization sundered by a surreal, trackless jungle. 𐑓𐑰𐑤 𐑞 𐑕𐑳𐑯𐑪𐑯𐑘𐑹 𐑣𐑲𐑛 $27.00 THE “EXTERNALS” “They lie because they don’t trust language or the motives of those who use it…they’re the ultimate revolutionaries, impassioned and pathological, gorgeous and vigorous.
  137. 137. OSCILLATION SILVIO GAGGI FROM TEXT TO HYPERTEXT
  138. 138. THE SKELETONS JASON MORNINGSTAR THE SKELETONSA game by JASON MORNINGSTAR Years fly by like dead leaves. Everything is darkness. Everything is silence.You stand vigilant before the sarcophagus without thought or breath—such is your compulsion.You do not remember your name and still you watch. The flesh has fallen off your bones and still you watch. And then one day there is light and motion and you weigh your bearded axe and raise your shield, lusting for the fray, eager to measure your skill against these tomb-robbing children so full of blood.You’ll never be alive again, but in this moment—in the chaos between violation and destruction—you truly live, and you remember what you once were, and you taste the sun. ©2015 Bully Pulpit Games LLC. Editing by Autumn Winters and Steve Segedy. Additional setting material by Sara Williamson. Layout and art by Brennen Reece Skeleton Art CC-A The Wellcome Collection, James Ward, Eduard Weber, Marcin Białek, sjwells53 Thanks to Stras Acimovic, Caitlynn Belle, Ray Benefield, Nathan Black, Jesse Coombs, Jim Crocker, Klint Finley, Kristin Firth, Ephraim Gregor, Greg Jansen, Alexis Lainoff, Ian McEwan, Marshall Miller, Scott Morningstar, Jessica Morrell, Ian Oakes, Jillian Ordes-Finley, George Royer, Charley Sharp, Michel Sherer, Krista White, Sara Williamson, and many others!
  139. 139. THAT KIND OF MOVIE MAID
  140. 140. METAFICTION “What is this place, Mr. Chang? Do you know? I’m afraid I have only the faintest idea, and that doesn’t make much sense.” Chang laughed harshly. “Well now,” he said. “That’s a long story.” “I know. It’s my story. But it seems very real at the moment. Is it?” “As real as you and me. Which is to say, not very, but all we have.” ARCADIA
  141. 141. THE ROMANTIC NATURE OF AUTOMATA
  142. 142. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  143. 143. 01-10 slovenly trull 11-25 brazen strumpet 26-35 cheap trollop 36-50 typical streetwalker 51-65 saucy tart 66-75 wanton wench 76-85 expensive doxy 86-90 haughty courtesan 91-92 aged madam 93-94 wealthy procuress 95-98 sly pimp 99-00 rich panderer HARLOT ENCOUNTER TABLE Dungeons and Dragons
  144. 144. THE EXUBERANCE OF THE AUTOMATON “For instance, a bronze helmet that was the symbol of the dwarven duchess was lost on site after the duchess passed on from natural causes, and it took several years for another dwarf to find it and give it to the next duke -- the handover process is now more routine. Kobolds are also no longer allowed to make claims on artifacts (they still steal them, of course). They always store them in the trophy room now -- finding a single artifact held by a kobold somewhere in the living area was too difficult. Artifacts were disappearing out of my backpack, and that's sorted out.” DWARF FORTRESS
  145. 145. CONFLICT #696 696: (715c, 695b) The protagonist, a patriot, but a wanderer and an outcast, is deprived of all news of his native land. (823)(826)(859)
  146. 146. 31 Servant 32 Cocotte 33 Zoologist 34 Acrobat 35 Palmist 36 Florist 37 Fencer 38 Canvasser 39 Taxi dancer 40 Editor 41 Aviatrix
  147. 147. THE EXUBERANCE OF THE AUTOMATON BREAKING THE LINE ▸ Heart Suit ▸ Robert Coover
  148. 148. EXUBERANT AUTOMATA 2 I have a disability you don’t know about. 3 I’ve changed religions. 4 I’ve been sober for three months. 5 I used to steal from your parents. Josh T. Jordan, The Sky Is Gray and You Are Distressed
  149. 149. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  150. 150. LESSONS FOR HYPERTEXT NARRATIVE IDENTIFICATION AND DISTANCE ▸ Framing stories provide emotional distance ▸ First person narration promotes identification, while third person encourages reflection on and analysis of the character’s faults and actions. ▸ Second person is fraught. ▸ You will never the the Prince of Denmark
  151. 151. LESSONS FOR HYPERTEXT NARRATIVE THEORY ▸ The hypertext author is neither more or less dead than any other. ▸ Socially constituted characters are new. They should not be restricted to mere labels intended to flatter the immature. ▸ Story and plot both matter. ▸ Everyone is a subject, and every element that can be a signifier will become a signifier.
  152. 152. LESSONS FOR HYPERTEXT NARRATIVE COMPUTATION ▸ Sparse character models can be manipulated, but that readers understand them to be false ▸ Rich character models are unpredictable; this can be an advantage or a liability. ▸ Automata must argue explicitly for their own seriousness. ▸ A story in which the narrator is the only interesting character is problematic; when we ourselves are the only interesting character, the problem is worse. ▸ A character is a character because it says so.
  153. 153. LESSONS FOR HYPERTEXT NARRATIVE LANGUAGE AND MEANING ▸ A story in which the narrator is the only interesting character is problematic; when we ourselves are the only interesting character, the problem is worse. ▸ The breakdown of meaning in the age of modernity is not new. Ask Kafka. ▸ The tyranny of the line can be broken; recovering the line when we want narrative coherence is sometimes a challenge. ▸ The landscape can be a character and, indeed, is often a romantic hero.
  154. 154. “…a world in which there is indeed no salvation, but on the other hand nothing to be saved. This is the post-tragic realm of postmodernism. Postmodernism is too young to remember a time where there was (so it was rumoured) truth, identity, and reality, and so feels no dizzying abyss beneath its feet.” (Eagleton, p. 58)
  155. 155. STORIES ART AUTOMATING NARRATIVE THEDEATHOFTHE AUTHOR AREYOUMYMOTHER? SERIOUSHYPERTEXT ONEDAMNTHINGAFTER ANOTHER MYFRIENDHAMLET GEARSANDPULLEYS THATKINDOFMOVIE THEEXUBERANCEOF THEAUTOMATON ERRORS LESSONSFOR HYPERTEXTNARRATIVE THEPATHAHEAD NARRATIVEAUTOMATA
  156. 156. EXPOSITION NARRATIVE INTERTEXTUALITY
  157. 157. PRIVATE AUTOMATA
  158. 158. LONG TIME
  159. 159. SOCIAL LOCATIVE GAMES
  160. 160. WIT VS. FRIGIDITY
  161. 161. SERIOUSNESS VS. SOLEMNITY
  162. 162. VISUALIZATION DEBUGGING
  163. 163. REAL
  164. 164. MORALITY
  165. 165. BEYOND FUN
  166. 166. VOICE AND FRAME
  167. 167. NONFICTION
  168. 168. TELL ME A STORY

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