Fresh Water,  the basis for life…. The people of Sri Lanka obtain water for drinking, sanitation, agriculture and recreati...
Surface Accumulation of Water Rivers, streams and wewas are fed through the surface accumulation of water by way of precip...
<ul><li>Natural Forests have a direct bearing on both precipitation  and percolation of rain-water into the soil. </li></u...
<ul><li>A significant feature of  a  forest is the volume of leaf litter on the forest floor. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil fauna...
Present Status of our watersheds <ul><li>The decline in natural forest cover combined with erroneous methods of reforestat...
Ecological Restoration of our watersheds <ul><li>In a bid to reverse the trend of forest/watershed degradation, the Neo Sy...
Some examples of our efforts…… The analog forest growing in the Upper Mahaweli Watershed in Mirahawatte
What is significant was that the establishment of over 60% shade in the analog forest in Mirahawatte and the increase in l...
Land Use In the Hulu Ganga micro watershed In terms of land use, this watershed has three monocultures of tea, Pinus  and ...
More than 15,000 consumers in Kundalase are supplied with  drinking water from the Hulu Ganga Intake. In 1987-1988, the wa...
Farmer Kalpage’s garden is located just above the river reservation in Hulu Ganga. His once abandoned garden has now been ...
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Fresh Water Restotration

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In a bid to reverse the trend of forest/watershed degradation, the Neo Synthesis Research Centre began a series of experiments in 1982 in a technology called analog forestry. What is significant was that the establishment of over 60% shade in the analog forest in Mirahawatte and the increase in leaf litter has led to a greater accumulation of surface water. This has led to a dramatic return of perennial water flows in the streams found on the land.

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Fresh Water Restotration

  1. 1. Fresh Water, the basis for life…. The people of Sri Lanka obtain water for drinking, sanitation, agriculture and recreation from rivers, streams, wewas, wells and springs.
  2. 2. Surface Accumulation of Water Rivers, streams and wewas are fed through the surface accumulation of water by way of precipitation in the form of rainfall, mist, fog, or hailstones.
  3. 3. <ul><li>Natural Forests have a direct bearing on both precipitation and percolation of rain-water into the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Forests release moisture </li></ul><ul><li>into the air through transpiration and evaporation. </li></ul><ul><li>Forests also release organic particles such as pollen, leaf dust and bacteria into warm, moist updrafts of air that create nuclei for raindrops to form; thus seeding the clouds as it were. </li></ul><ul><li>Another important role of forests is condensation. Moisture condensed from night mists and fogs can form up to 80% of all the actual water resources that forests bring to bear </li></ul><ul><li>on the land. </li></ul>Precipitation Condensation
  4. 4. <ul><li>A significant feature of a forest is the volume of leaf litter on the forest floor. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil fauna degrade the leaf litter to form humus which absorbs rainfall or mist like a sponge; up to 1 cm of rain can be held by leaf litter of 3 cm in depth. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence without forests, rainfall would erode hill sides and wash off all the precious soil, so essential in watershed management. </li></ul>Soil and Leaf litter seen in a natural forest
  5. 5. Present Status of our watersheds <ul><li>The decline in natural forest cover combined with erroneous methods of reforestation have resulted in the drastic reduction in the productivity of our watersheds. </li></ul><ul><li>In turn, this has had a negative impact on the quantum and quality of water generated by these watersheds. </li></ul>Hakgala, Nuwara Eliya, the Upper Mahaweli watershed
  6. 6. Ecological Restoration of our watersheds <ul><li>In a bid to reverse the trend of forest/watershed degradation, the Neo Synthesis Research Centre began a series of experiments in 1982 in a technology called analog forestry. </li></ul><ul><li>Here forests analogous to the closest native forest in structure and ecological function were established containing trees and plants that yielded valuable products. </li></ul>ECOLOGICALSUCCESSION refers to the process by which vegetation on a patch of bare land progresses towards an increasingly stable and mature ecosystem like a mature forest. The process of moving from the colonization of bare land through to the growth of a climax ecosystem is called Seral Progression.
  7. 7. Some examples of our efforts…… The analog forest growing in the Upper Mahaweli Watershed in Mirahawatte
  8. 8. What is significant was that the establishment of over 60% shade in the analog forest in Mirahawatte and the increase in leaf litter has led to a greater accumulation of surface water. This has led to a dramatic return of perennial water flows in the streams found on the land.
  9. 9. Land Use In the Hulu Ganga micro watershed In terms of land use, this watershed has three monocultures of tea, Pinus and Eucalyptus. Almost no natural forest exists in the micro watershed. Land Use map of Hulu Ganga Intake
  10. 10. More than 15,000 consumers in Kundalase are supplied with drinking water from the Hulu Ganga Intake. In 1987-1988, the water quality analysis in Huluganga showed an average turbidity of less than 20 FTU ( Formazine Turbidity Units). In 2000, the turbidity of the raw water has increased by large amounts to more than 400 FTU. The treatment plant is shut down for several days during rainy days, because it could not take the high turbidity without initial settling and hence no water is distributed to consumers in Kundasale. Pinus plantation causes high silt load
  11. 11. Farmer Kalpage’s garden is located just above the river reservation in Hulu Ganga. His once abandoned garden has now been converted into a productive analog forest garden with numerous tree crops interspersed with vegetables grown organically. Within the first six months, his income levels increased dramatically. From just 2 beds of tomatoes he earned Rs.8,000.00! Kalpage’s garden in Hulu Ganga

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