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Educating the Educators. Begining of Capacity building in Rural India

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Crrid

  1. 1. Education for Sustainable Development in the Contest of Rural Sanitation Today M.P. Singh B. Tech.(Civil); M.I.E. (Mech.) Earthizenz Eco Friendly Systems email: [email_address] [email_address] Presentation in a Workshop at CRRID on 28/09/2011
  2. 2. Dictionary Meaning of Literacy <ul><li>The condition or quality of being literate , especially the ability to read and write </li></ul><ul><li>The condition or quality of being knowledgeable in a particular subject or field: Cultural Literacy; Computor Literacy, Environment Literacy etc. </li></ul><ul><li>possession of education </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sustainable Development (SD) <ul><li>Sustainable Development is, Development that </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;meets the needs of the present generation, </li></ul><ul><li>without compromising the ability of future generations, to meet their own needs&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Brundtland Report (1987). </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability is reached in an </li></ul><ul><li>environmentally, </li></ul><ul><li>socially </li></ul><ul><li>and economically healthy world. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sustainable Development (SD) <ul><li>SD is for everyone; </li></ul><ul><li>Yet it is achieved only through everyone’s contribution </li></ul><ul><li>to a partnership approach that engages multiple sectors and stakeholders. </li></ul><ul><li>Society expects responsible behaviour and it is time to change our actions towards SD. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) <ul><li>Education is a key driver to achieve this transformation. </li></ul><ul><li>Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) encourages a shift from viewing education as a delivery mechanism to a lifelong, holistic and inclusive learning process. </li></ul><ul><li>ESD not only creates awareness but also builds capacity and decision making ability of a community. </li></ul><ul><li>ESD calls for action! </li></ul>
  6. 6. Action Towards Sustainability <ul><li>ESD action includes: </li></ul><ul><li>creating awareness </li></ul><ul><li>providing education </li></ul><ul><li>building capacity </li></ul><ul><li>increasing participation </li></ul><ul><li>imparting values </li></ul><ul><li>providing training, in ESD </li></ul><ul><li>This results in action towards sustainability. </li></ul>
  7. 7. A Chinese Proverb “ Tell me and I will forget, Show me and I may Remember, Involve me and I will under stand.”
  8. 8. Ecological Footprint <ul><li>Need to reduce our Ecological Footprint. </li></ul><ul><li>There is critical need for a change in lifestyles and development models to ensure a sustainable future . </li></ul><ul><li>Correctness of our choices today </li></ul><ul><li>will determine </li></ul><ul><li>The Brightness of Future and the coming generations . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Handprint <ul><li>Handprint is a Measure of Positive Action </li></ul><ul><li>towards </li></ul><ul><li>Environment and Sustainable Development. </li></ul>
  10. 10. India Report to the World Conference on ESD, Bonn, Germany, 2009
  11. 11. Rural Sanitation In India Total Sanitation Campaign in Today’s Context
  12. 12. Background <ul><li>Central Rural Sanitation Program (CRSP): </li></ul><ul><li>Launched in 1986 to: </li></ul><ul><li>Improve the quality of life of the rural people </li></ul><ul><li>provide privacy and dignity to women. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The earlier concept of sanitation limited to </li></ul><ul><li>disposal of human excreta by </li></ul><ul><li>cesspools ( a kind of Soakpit) </li></ul><ul><li>open ditches, </li></ul><ul><li>pit latrines, bucket system etc. </li></ul>Background Contd.
  14. 14. Background Contd. Today it includes: <ul><li>Liquid and solid waste disposal, </li></ul><ul><li>Personal, domestic and environmental hygiene. </li></ul>
  15. 15. From CRSP to TSC <ul><li>A comprehensive Baseline Survey conducted in 1996-97 showed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>55% of those with private latrines were self-motivated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2% were motivated by the Subsidy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>54% were driven by convenience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>51% were prepared to spend upto Rs. 1000/-on sanitary toilets. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Creating a Demand <ul><li>This Resulted in a shift to a ‘Demand Driven Approach’ </li></ul><ul><li>TSC is all about creating a Demand from the People themselves for better sanitation Facilities through: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information, Education and Communication (IEC) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human Resource Development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity Building </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Objectives of TSC <ul><ul><li>The main objectives of the TSC are as under: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate felt demand for sanitation facilities through awareness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover schools/ Anganwadis in rural areas with sanitation facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote hygiene education and sanitary habits among students. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies in sanitation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate open defecation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert dry latrines to pour flush latrines </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Types of Household Toilets Lid Cover Toilet Simple pit
  19. 19. Types of Household Toilets Ventilated improved pit Toilet (VIP)
  20. 20. Types of Household Toilets Pour Flush toilet
  21. 21. Types of Household Toilets Two Pit Pour Flush toilet
  22. 22. Types of Household Toilets Single offset pit water seal pour flush toilet
  23. 23. Types of Household Toilets Ecosan Toilet
  24. 24. School Toilets
  25. 25. Beyond TSC <ul><li>Demand for sanitation has increased. </li></ul><ul><li>Today there is a demand to have urban like sanitation in villages. </li></ul><ul><li>Some NGOs, SHGs and Community Groups have altered whole villages. </li></ul><ul><li>Following slides show work being done </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Scenario Today <ul><li>The Govt; under the World Bank scheme, is providing sanitation facilities on a 90:10 basis. </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs backed by NRIs are also doing good work on a 75:25 basis </li></ul>
  27. 27. Components of Sanitation <ul><ul><li>Sewerage System: the sewage carriage system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disposal System </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Types of Sewerage System <ul><ul><li>Small bore Settled Sewerage System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplified Sewerage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional Sewerage as in towns </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Decision Tree Sewerage System Is Simp. Sew. Cheaper than Onsite Sanitation? YES Is minm. 40LPD per Cap water available? YES Do most houses have Safe Septic tanks? NO Simplified Sewerage Can balance houses have septic tanks? Keeping safe distances from specified Structures? YES YES Settled (Small Bore) Sewerage NO NO Is Water Supply Augmentation Feasable? YES NO Go For onsite San.
  30. 30. Our Dream Treatment of Rural Waste Energy Neutral System No Random Methane Emission Carbon Neutral System Maximum wastewater Reuse/Recharge Rainwater Filtration & HARVEST Recovery of Energy via Biomethanation of Solids and Liquids Fertilizer & Energy from Sludge Self Sustaining Process No Nitrous Oxide Emission
  31. 31. Current Scenario fertilizer production from finite resources food Mixing of flow streams, misuse of drinking water for transport 90% untreated waste disposal in water bodies sewage sludge Overexploitation of groundwater Courtesy gtz GHG Emissions N2O CH4 CO2
  32. 32. Dream Scenario Restoring Soil Fertility Treatment / Hygienization / Energy Recovery Water Reuse NO Waste Disposal in Water Bodies Rainwater Harvesting food Organic Waste Faeces Urine Greywater Energy and Fertilizer Recovery through Biomethanation Agricultural Use Courtesy gtz Emission Reduction GHG Emissions N2O CH4 CO2
  33. 33. The System Hitherto @ NGOs
  34. 34. The System Hitherto @ NGOs Secondary Treatment/ Disposal Primary/ Secondary Treatment Primary Treatment <ul><li>Septic Tank HRT = 72 Hrs </li></ul><ul><li>Recirculating Filter ensures minimum clogging chances. </li></ul><ul><li>Being Centralized, the septic tank is preceded by a collecting chamber and a pump house for dosing Raw Sewage </li></ul><ul><li>Both Septic Tank And Filter are power dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of treatment dependant on Power continuity </li></ul>Recirculating Sand Filter Maturation/ Storage Pond Centrlized Septic Tank
  35. 35. The System Hitherto @ GoP <ul><li>The advantage of cost saving in sewerage is lost by having a settler in every house. </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot maintain mandatory distances in congested places </li></ul><ul><li>Lift Station requires Energy for pumping </li></ul><ul><li>Aeration Tanks are Energy dependant. </li></ul>Primary Intercepter/ settler at Household Level Lift Station Secondary Treatment Aeration Tanks and then to polishing pond
  36. 36. <ul><li>Waste water from building </li></ul><ul><li>Sedimentation chamber </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure pipe sludge </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid pipe siphon action </li></ul><ul><li>Settlement chamber </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid to filtration </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltration system </li></ul><ul><li>Composting plant </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation/secondary treatment </li></ul>Post Kyoto Changes in EI Nolson’s (Inventor of System) Concept of Small Bore System Not to have a septic tank in every house but one for a cluster of several houses Use the small bore sewerage system after settlement A truly Hybrid System
  37. 37. Current System (Under Discussion) @ NGOs
  38. 38. Decentralised Wastewater Management
  39. 39. The Systems Now in Use @ NGOs <ul><li>Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Systems (DEWATS) </li></ul><ul><li>DEWATS is based on different natural treatment techniques </li></ul><ul><li>put together in different combinations according to need. </li></ul><ul><li>In this method the reed bed/Root Zone system acts as a secondary treatment unit, </li></ul><ul><li>Vetiver grass forms part of the Collage of plants </li></ul><ul><li>This is preceded by a baffled reactor where most of the treatment takes place. </li></ul><ul><li>The treated water from the reed bed system is stored in a polishing pond for the aerobic process. Vetiver Floats naturally aerate the pond </li></ul>
  40. 40. Decentrlised Hybrid System <ul><li>DEWATS is based on four basic treatment modules, </li></ul><ul><li>which are combined according to specific requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-treatment and sedimentation in settlement tank or in </li></ul><ul><li>septic tank </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary anaerobic treatment in baffled reactors </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic/ anaerobic treatment in reed bed system. </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic treatment in ponds </li></ul>
  41. 41. Primary Treatment <ul><li>A unit called a settling tank is used for this phase. It is a </li></ul><ul><li>sedimentation tank in which settled sludge is stabilised by anaerobic digestion. </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolved and suspended matter leaves the tank untreated. </li></ul><ul><li>The treatment efficiency of a septic tank is in the range of 30 per cent BOD removal. </li></ul><ul><li>A settling tank can also be incorporated into an anaerobic baffled tank as the first section of a settler device. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Secondary Treatment <ul><li>Baffled reactor is used for this phase. </li></ul><ul><li>Several tanks (upflow chambers) are built in a series to digest degradable Matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Baffles guide WW between the chambers from top to bottom and up again . </li></ul><ul><li>During the process the fresh influent is mixed and inoculated for digestion with the active blanket deposit of suspended particles and microorganisms occurring naturally at the bottom of each chamber in such conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the physical separation of Chambers, various microorganisms are present at different stages, allowing high treatment efficiency </li></ul>
  43. 43. Secondary Treatment <ul><li>At the end of the treatment device a chamber can be set aside as an anaerobic filter in order to improve further the treatment efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>A filter media allowing contact with the sewage stream is used, which is very efficient in retaining and digesting the remaining pollutants. </li></ul><ul><li>The problem of encountering clogging is minimised due to the digestion and treatment in the baffled reactor. </li></ul><ul><li>The primary and secondary treatment systems are constructed below ground level and are built together as a single and compact setup. </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 90 per cent of the original pollution load is removed at this stage. </li></ul>Anaerobic filter
  44. 44. The Systems Now in Use @ VLIF Anaeroobic Filter Planted Filter Primary/ Secondary treatment Anaerobic Filter (Attachable to BR. Anaerobic Baffled Reactor Horizontal Planted Filter/ Root Zone/ Wetland
  45. 45. Combined into One Unit The Settling tank, Baffled upflow reactor and Anaerobic Filter can be plugged together, The whole system is underground and has a total Hydraulic Residence time of 8 t0 14 hrs. like the UASB reactor
  46. 46. The whole System can fit in any place and is always underground Small surfaces become available for treatment (sidewalks, private yards, parking lots, alleys, parks, etc.) In a Street
  47. 47. The right combination and dimension of Modules is important.
  48. 48. Tertiary Treatment <ul><li>A horizontal planted gravel filter acts through the combined effect of the filter material and plants growing on the filter media. </li></ul><ul><li>Usage of sand as the main filter materials was replaced by pebbles and granite stones. </li></ul><ul><li>The wastewater is resupplied with oxygen while passing through the planted gravel filter. </li></ul><ul><li>The effluent is odour free. Since baffled reactor is being used to provide secondary treatment the size of the planted filter is reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>This leads to a cost reduction, less needed space above ground </li></ul><ul><li>The use of Vetiver grass alongwith other plants further increases the efficiency and hence the size. </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover, the issue of N2O emission is effectively taken care of. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Planted Gravel Filter
  50. 50. Vetiver Floats in Ponds
  51. 51. Case Histories
  52. 52. Locations for Final treatment next to existing ponds Location for Storage of Filtered Rainwater Runoff, to form a lake
  53. 53. Original Site for centralized treatment with pump house etc Nullah Water Course Four Decentralized sites chosen for Primary Treatment, 2 along Nullah & 2 along water course
  54. 54. Baffled Reactor 1, along Nullah Baffled Reactor 2, along Nullah Baffled Reactor 3 Baffled Reactor 4 Natural Wetland to be modified with Vetiver for sec.& Ter trtmnt. Vetiver plantation for final Nutrient uptake, in water course Narur Contd.
  55. 55. Effluent is currently discharging here into the Bein It is proposed to pump the raw Sewage across the Bein for treatment here
  56. 56. Section of the Bein Treatment along the acquired area long the Bein
  57. 57. The Bein Pedestrian Pathway Green Cover (Vetiver and other plants) Fruit trees and soil protecting Hedgerows <ul><li>Total treatment can be along the length of the Bein. </li></ul><ul><li>The baffled Reactor can be under the pathway </li></ul><ul><li>The Wetland can be in the green belt </li></ul><ul><li>The water can be absorbed by the green belt and rows of vetiver. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Original Location of Baffled Reactors and collection cum treatment pond <ul><li>The water table was too high. </li></ul><ul><li>The depth of the Baffled Reactor had to be reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>A waterproof liner was installed. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment with a special enzyme that will produce bacteria to reduce Sludge. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzyme will also produce Oxygen producing bacteria in the pond. </li></ul>New position of 9 chamber reactor Water body with enzyme treatment and Vetiver floats
  59. 59. Village Kakkar Planted Filter being inaugurated
  60. 60. Village Kakkar Planted Filter as Tertiary Treatment
  61. 61. Village Kakkar Water from Baffled Septic tank to planted Filter
  62. 62. Village Kakkar Treated Water after Planted Filter
  63. 63. Decentralized Wastewater System in the Author’s House
  64. 64. Four Chamber Baffled Reactor in my House
  65. 74. Planted Filter
  66. 75. Water collected in an underground water tank and pumped up in an overhead tank as per need.

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