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Appropriiate Technology for Wastewater Treatment In Punjab India


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Rural Sanitation, DEWATS, Decentralized Treatment of Wastewater,

Published in: Design, Technology
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Appropriiate Technology for Wastewater Treatment In Punjab India

  1. 1. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Appropriate TechnologiesAppropriate Technologies for Rural Sanitation:for Rural Sanitation: Recovery Recycle & ReuseRecovery Recycle & Reuse of GHGs, Water & Nutrientsof GHGs, Water & Nutrients M.P. SinghM.P. Singh B. Tech.(Civil); M.I.E. (Mech.)B. Tech.(Civil); M.I.E. (Mech.) Earthizenz Ecofriendly SystemsEarthizenz Ecofriendly Systems email: mpsingh@earthizenz.orgemail: Made and presented on behalf of Village Life Improvement Foundation
  2. 2. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Need for this WorkshopNeed for this Workshop  Last Year questions were raised on the Simplified Sewerage Technology being used by the NRI NGOs.  A presentation was given in a similar workshop  The General opinion of the panel present was that choicechoice between settled or simplified sewerage depended on groundbetween settled or simplified sewerage depended on ground realities of individual villagesrealities of individual villages  A team of departmental Engineers visited the villages with Simplified Sewerage was operational.  There was hardly any comment on Simplified Sewerage, meaning that the carriage o sewage was satisfactory.  There were comments on the quality of effluent, which had nothing to do with Sewerage systems.  Moreover, the panel asked about the treatment system.  A decision treedecision tree was presented to Zero downZero down on Appropriate Technology
  3. 3. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Is Simp. Sew. Cheaper than Onsite Sanitation? YES Is minm. 40LPD per Cap water available? YES Do most houses have Safe Septic tanks? NO SimplifiedSimplified SewerageSewerage Can balance houses have septic tanks? Keeping safe distances from specified Structures? YES YES Settled (SmallSettled (Small Bore) SewerageBore) Sewerage NO NO Is Water Supply Augmentation Feasable?YES NO Go ForGo For onsite San.onsite San. Decision Tree Sewerage SystemDecision Tree Sewerage System
  4. 4. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Our Dream Treatment of RuralOur Dream Treatment of Rural WasteWaste Energy Neutral SystemEnergy Neutral System No Random Methane EmissionNo Random Methane Emission Carbon Neutral SystemCarbon Neutral System Maximum wastewaterMaximum wastewater Reuse/RechargeReuse/Recharge Rainwater Filtration &Rainwater Filtration & HARVESTHARVEST Recovery of Energy viaRecovery of Energy via Biomethanation of Solids and LiquidsBiomethanation of Solids and Liquids Fertilizer & Energy from SludgeFertilizer & Energy from Sludge SelfSelf SustaininSustainin g Processg Process No Nitrous Oxide EmissionNo Nitrous Oxide Emission
  5. 5. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems fertilizer production from finite resources foodfood Mixing of flow streams,Mixing of flow streams, misuse of drinkingmisuse of drinking water for transportwater for transport 90%90% untreateduntreated waste disposal inwaste disposal in water bodieswater bodies sewagesewage sludgesludge Overexploitation ofOverexploitation of groundwatergroundwater Current ScenarioCurrent Scenario Courtesy gtz GHGGHG EmissionsEmissions NN 22 OO CC HH 44CC OO 22
  6. 6. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Dream ScenarioDream Scenario Restoring Soil Fertility Treatment / Hygienization / Energy Recovery Water ReuseWater Reuse NO Waste Disposal in Water Bodies Rainwater HarvestingRainwater Harvesting food OrganicOrganic WasteWaste FaecesFaeces UrineUrine GreywaterGreywater Energy and Fertilizer Recovery through Biomethanation Agricultural Use Courtesy gtz GHGGHG EmissionsEmissions NN 22 OO CC HH 44CC OO 22 Em ission R eduction
  7. 7. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems The System Hitherto @ VLIFThe System Hitherto @ VLIF
  8. 8. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Secondary Treatment/ Disposal Primary/ Secondary Treatment Primary Treatment The System Hitherto @ VLIFThe System Hitherto @ VLIF 1) Septic Tank HRT = 72 Hrs 2) Recirculating Filter ensures minimum clogging chances. 3) Being Centralized, the septic tank is preceded by a collecting chamber and a pump house for dosing Raw Sewage 4) Both Septic Tank And Filter are power dependent 5) Quality of treatment dependant on Power continuity RecirculatingRecirculating Sand FilterSand Filter Maturation/Maturation/ Storage PondStorage Pond CentrlizedCentrlized Septic TankSeptic Tank
  9. 9. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems The System Hitherto @ GoPThe System Hitherto @ GoP 1)1) The advantage of cost saving inThe advantage of cost saving in sewerage is lost by having a settlersewerage is lost by having a settler in every every house. 2)2) Cannot maintain mandatoryCannot maintain mandatory distances in congested placesdistances in congested places 3)3) Lift Station requires Energy forLift Station requires Energy for pumpingpumping 4)4) Aeration Tanks are EnergyAeration Tanks are Energy dependant.dependant. PrimaryPrimary Intercepter/ settlerIntercepter/ settler at Householdat Household LevelLevel Lift StationLift Station SecondarySecondary TreatmentTreatment Aeration Tanks and then to polishingAeration Tanks and then to polishing pondpond
  10. 10. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems 1. Waste water from building 2. Sedimentation chamber 3. Pressure pipe sludge 4. Liquid pipe siphon action 5. Settlement chamber 6. Liquid to filtration 7. Infiltration system 8. Composting plant 9. Irrigation/secondary treatment Post Kyoto Changes in EI Nolson’s (Inventor of System) Concept of Small Bore System Not to have aNot to have a septic tank inseptic tank in every house butevery house but one for a clusterone for a cluster of several housesof several houses Use the smallUse the small bore seweragebore sewerage system aftersystem after settlementsettlement A truly HybridA truly Hybrid SystemSystem
  11. 11. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Current System (UnderCurrent System (Under Discussion) @ VLIFDiscussion) @ VLIF
  12. 12. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems DecentralisedDecentralised WastewaterWastewater ManagementManagement DecentralisedDecentralised WastewaterWastewater ManagementManagement
  13. 13. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems The Systems Now in Use @ VLIFThe Systems Now in Use @ VLIF  Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Systems (DEWATS)  DEWATS is based on different natural treatment techniques  put together in different combinations according to need.  In this method the reed bed/Root Zone system acts as a secondary treatment unit,  Vetiver grass forms part of the Collage of plants  This is preceded by a baffled reactor where most of the treatment takes place.  The treated water from the reed bed system is stored in a polishing pond for the aerobic process. Vetiver Floats naturally aerate the pond
  14. 14. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Decentrlised Hybrid SystemDecentrlised Hybrid System DEWATS is based on four basic treatment modules, which are combined according to specific requirements  Pre-treatment and sedimentation in settlement tank or in septic tank  Secondary anaerobic treatment in baffled reactors  Aerobic/ anaerobic treatment in reed bed system.  Aerobic treatment in ponds
  15. 15. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Primary TreatmentPrimary Treatment • A unit called a settling tank is used for this phase. It isA unit called a settling tank is used for this phase. It is aa • sedimentation tank in which settled sludge is stabilisedsedimentation tank in which settled sludge is stabilised by anaerobic anaerobic digestion. • Dissolved and suspended matter leaves the tankDissolved and suspended matter leaves the tank untreated.untreated. • The treatment efficiency of a septic tank is in theThe treatment efficiency of a septic tank is in the range of 30 per cent BOD removal.range of 30 per cent BOD removal. • A settling tank can also be incorporated into anA settling tank can also be incorporated into an anaerobic baffled tank as the first section of a settleranaerobic baffled tank as the first section of a settler device.device.
  16. 16. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Secondary TreatmentSecondary Treatment  Baffled reactor is used for this phase.  Several tanks (upflow chambers) are built in a series to digest degradable Matter.  Baffles guide WW between the chambers from top to bottom and up againfrom top to bottom and up again.  During the process the fresh influent is mixed and inoculated for digestion with the active blanketactive blanket deposit of suspended particles and microorganismsmicroorganisms occurring naturally at the bottom of each chamber in such conditions.  Because of the physical separation of Chambers, various microorganisms are present at different stages, allowing high treatment efficiency
  17. 17. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Secondary TreatmentSecondary Treatment • At the end of the treatment device a chamber can be set aside as an anaerobic filter in order to improve further the treatment efficiency. • A filter media allowing contact with the sewage stream is used, which is very efficient in retaining and digesting the remaining pollutants. • The problem of encountering clogging is minimised due to the digestion and treatment in the baffled reactor. • The primary and secondary treatment systems are constructed below ground level and are built together as a single and compact setup. • Nearly 90 per cent of the original pollution load is removed at this stage. Anaerobic filter
  18. 18. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Anaeroobic Filter Planted Filter Primary/ Secondary treatment The Systems Now in Use @ VLIFThe Systems Now in Use @ VLIF Anaerobic FilterAnaerobic Filter (Attachable to(Attachable to BR.BR. AnaerobicAnaerobic Baffled ReactorBaffled Reactor Horizontal PlantedHorizontal Planted Filter/ Root Zone/Filter/ Root Zone/ WetlandWetland
  19. 19. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Combined into One UnitCombined into One Unit The Settling tank,The Settling tank, Baffled upflow reactorBaffled upflow reactor and Anaerobic Filter canand Anaerobic Filter can be plugged together,be plugged together, The whole system isThe whole system is underground and has aunderground and has a total Hydraulic Residencetotal Hydraulic Residence time of 8 t0 14 hrs. like thetime of 8 t0 14 hrs. like the UASB reactorUASB reactor
  20. 20. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems The whole System canThe whole System can fit in any place and isfit in any place and is always undergroundalways underground Small surfaces become available forSmall surfaces become available for treatment (sidewalks, private yards,treatment (sidewalks, private yards, parking lots, alleys, parks, etc.)parking lots, alleys, parks, etc.) In a Street In a Street
  21. 21. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems The right combination and dimension of ModulesThe right combination and dimension of Modules is important.
  22. 22. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Tertiary TreatmentTertiary Treatment • A horizontal planted gravel filter acts through the combined effect of the filter material and plants growing on the filter media. • Usage of sand as the main filter materials was replaced by pebbles and granite stones. • The wastewater is resupplied with oxygen while passing through the planted gravel filter. • The effluent is odour free. Since baffled reactor is being used to provide secondary treatment the size of the planted filter is reduced. • This leads to a cost reduction, less needed space above ground • The use of Vetiver grass alongwith other plants further increases the efficiency and hence the size. • Moreover, the issue of N2O emission is effectively taken care of.
  23. 23. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Planted Gravel Filter
  24. 24. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Vetiver and Decentralized Treatment System
  25. 25. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Tertiary treatment
  26. 26. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Figure 11: Anaerobic treatment and final polishing in constructed wetland producing tertiary quality effluent. (Journey, W. K. and S. McNiven. 1996.)
  27. 27. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Vetiver in Planted Filter
  28. 28. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Vetiver In Tertiary TreatmentVetiver In Tertiary Treatment
  29. 29. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems
  30. 30. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Vetiver In Treatment in PondsVetiver In Treatment in Ponds
  31. 31. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Case HistoriesCase Histories
  32. 32. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Locations for Final treatment next to existing ponds Location for Storage of Filtered Rainwater Runoff, to form a lake
  33. 33. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Original Site for centralized treatment with pump house etc Nullah Water Course Four Decentralized sites chosen for Primary Treatment, 2 along Nullah & 2 along water course
  34. 34. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Baffled Reactor 1, along Nullah Baffled Reactor 2, along Nullah Baffled Reactor 3 Baffled Reactor 4 Natural Wetland to be modified with Vetiver for sec.& Ter trtmnt. Vetiver plantation for final Nutrient uptake, in water course Narur Contd.
  35. 35. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Effluent isEffluent is currentlycurrently discharging heredischarging here into the Beininto the Bein It is proposed toIt is proposed to pump the rawpump the raw Sewage across theSewage across the Bein for treatmentBein for treatment herehere
  36. 36. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Section ofSection of the Beinthe Bein Treatment alongTreatment along the acquired areathe acquired area long the Beinlong the Bein
  37. 37. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems The BeinThe Bein PedestrianPedestrian PathwayPathway Green CoverGreen Cover (Vetiver and(Vetiver and other plants)other plants) Fruit treesFruit trees and soiland soil protectingprotecting HedgerowsHedgerows Total treatment can be along theTotal treatment can be along the length of the Bein.length of the Bein. The baffled Reactor can beThe baffled Reactor can be under the pathwayunder the pathway The Wetland can be in the greenThe Wetland can be in the green beltbelt The water can be absorbed byThe water can be absorbed by the green belt and rows of vetiver.the green belt and rows of vetiver.
  38. 38. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Original Location ofOriginal Location of Baffled Reactors andBaffled Reactors and collection cum treatmentcollection cum treatment pondpondThe water table was too high. The depth of the Baffled Reactor had to be reduced.  A waterproof liner was installed. Treatment with a special enzyme that will produce bacteria to reduce Sludge. Enzyme will also produce Oxygen producing bacteria in the pond. New position ofNew position of 9 chamber9 chamber reactorreactor Water bodyWater body with enzymewith enzyme treatment andtreatment and Vetiver floatsVetiver floats
  39. 39. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Decentralized WastewaterDecentralized Wastewater System in the Author’s HouseSystem in the Author’s House
  40. 40. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Four Chamber Baffled Reactor in my House
  41. 41. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems
  42. 42. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems
  43. 43. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems
  44. 44. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems
  45. 45. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems
  46. 46. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems
  47. 47. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems
  48. 48. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems
  49. 49. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems
  50. 50. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Planted Filter
  51. 51. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Water collected in anWater collected in an underground waterunderground water tank and pumped uptank and pumped up in an overhead tankin an overhead tank as per per need.