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Secondary 2 History Chapter 5


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Singapore, Secondary 2 History
Overview of Chapter 1-4; Chapter 5

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Secondary 2 History Chapter 5

  1. 1. <ul><li>Chapter 1 – Singapore has a history before ‘1819’ </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 2 – The start of Singapore as a British trading settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 3 – Different roles that different immigrant communities had in Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 4 – British government in Singapore </li></ul>
  2. 2. Before 1819: Singapore was a busy port for trade. 1819: Sir Stamford Raffles sets up trading post 1826 - Singapore, Malacca and Penang become British colony of the Straits Settlements. 1750 -1850 Industrial - Revolution 1867 - Straits Settlements become crown colony of British Empire. 1869 - Suez Canal opens, trade booms. 1914-1918 World War I 1929 Wall Street Crashes (start of the Great Depression)
  3. 3. 1941 - World War II. Japan bombs Singapore. 1942 - Singapore falls to Japan, which renames it Syonan (Light of the South). 1945 - Japan defeated. Singapore under British military administration. 1946 - Singapore becomes separate crown colony. 1947 – Year of Strikes 1948 – Elections 1950 – Maria Hertogh Riots 1954 – Anti-National Service Riots 1955 – Elections (Rendel Constitution) - Hock Lee Bus Riots 1956 – Students’ Riot
  4. 4. 1959 - Self-government attained with Lee Kuan Yew as prime minister. 1963 - Singapore joins the Federation of Malaya, Sabah (North Borneo), and Sarawak in the Federation of Malaysia. 1964 – Racial Riots 1965 - Singapore separated from Malaysia and became independent!
  5. 5. <ul><li>Iphone </li></ul><ul><li>launch </li></ul>World Cup Thailand civil war Obama becoming President of USA Justin Bieber
  6. 7. <ul><li>Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Opening of Suez Canal </li></ul><ul><li>World War I </li></ul><ul><li>Great Depression </li></ul>What are these events all about? How did these events affect Singapore?
  7. 8. <ul><li>Politically: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under British rule ( aCrown colony) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economically </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free port (for maritime trade) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade as main economic activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Socially </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different groups of immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrants were discriminated by the British </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>It is a series of events which, taken together, made changes to the way people lived and worked </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Events: Invention of new machines and the discovery of new sources of power (steam-engine) to drive these machines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These events led to the Industrial Revolution </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Impact of Industrial Revolution in Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in productivity but… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>need more raw materials to manufacture the goods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need new markets outside their own countries to sell their goods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asia as a possible solution to these two problems </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><ul><li>Increase in travelling (to look for raw materials and new markets) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. What does this mean for Singapore?
  13. 15. <ul><li>Shipping route to the East before 1869 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Length of journey from London to Singapore: 120 days </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>Ferdinand de Lesseps, French engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Shipping route with the Suez Canal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Length of journey from London to Singapore: 50 days </li></ul></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>Growth in trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore became a port for the collection of goods from the East and the distribution of manufactured goods from the West </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goods became cheaper as the cost of shipping goods was reduced (shorter distance and time taken to ship goods from place to place) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>Improvements in communications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications improved as shorter time was taken to deliver letters and documents </li></ul></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>Improvements in port facilities: the New Harbour in 1852 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overcrowding due to the amount of trading in Singapore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The New Harbour was built in 1852 to help improve services at the port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New wharves, docks, storehouses and machine shops were built. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern machinery were used and a railway system was set up to link the port to other parts of Malaya. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 21. S.T.E.A.M. (Industrial Revolution) <ul><li>S hips (increase) </li></ul><ul><li>T rade (increase) </li></ul><ul><li>E uropeans (came to…) </li></ul><ul><li>A sia (looking for…) </li></ul><ul><li>M arket and Materials, Mail (increase) </li></ul>
  19. 22. F.A.S.T, O.K! (Suez Canal) <ul><li>F erdinand de Lesseps </li></ul><ul><li>A ll year shipping </li></ul><ul><li>S hortened time and distance </li></ul><ul><li>T rade increased </li></ul><ul><li>For Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>O vercrowded, (so, they set up…) </li></ul><ul><li>K eppel Habour </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>3 impacts on Singapore? </li></ul><ul><li>2 developments? </li></ul><ul><li>1 opinion: Did the 2 external events have a positive or negative impact on Singapore? </li></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><ul><li>Military conflict among the European countries, which eventually involved the rest of the world (e.g. Africa and India) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy (before), Ottoman Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allied powers: Britain, France, Russia, and later, Italy </li></ul></ul>
  22. 26. <ul><li>Rush for food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People were afraid that there would be a lack of food, and rushed to stock up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prices of food increased. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government had to step in to control the import and export of food to other parts of Asia </li></ul></ul>
  23. 27. <ul><li>Danger to Singapore’s trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German warship, Emden was stationed in the East and attacked British trading ships in the Indian Ocean. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This affected Singapore’s shipping and trade, until Emden was destroyed. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 29. <ul><li>Sepoy Mutiny of 1915 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sepoys (Indian Troops from the British army) rebelled against the British. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They did not want to continue fighting for the British. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebels killed Europeans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British government realized that it could not afford to be careless about Singapore’s defence – threats to Singapore’s peace could come from both inside and outside the country </li></ul></ul>
  25. 30. A 2 <ul><li>= Austria-Hungary + Germany + Italy + Ottoman empire </li></ul><ul><li>= Allies = Britain, France, Russia </li></ul>Impact on Singapore R ush for food (hungry!) T rade endangered (German warship ‘Emden’) M utiny of Indian troops (rebellion)
  26. 31. <ul><li>Great Depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Depression’  a time when there is a great decrease in business activities with widespread unemployment (economic downturn) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Great’  the huge impact the depression had on many countries around the world </li></ul></ul>Great Depression
  27. 32. <ul><li>24 th Oct 1929 Wall Street Crash – America’s stock market crashed </li></ul><ul><li>Banks were bankrupted. </li></ul><ul><li>Many lost their life savings </li></ul><ul><li>As the number of poor people increased, demand for goods fell – people could not afford to pay. </li></ul><ul><li>Business became poor and people were retrenched  more became financially poor. </li></ul><ul><li>This affected not only America, but also spread to the rest of the world, including Singapore. </li></ul>
  28. 34. <ul><li>Decrease in trade and businesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Companies that depended on overseas trading suffered losses and had to retrench workers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Businessmen became bankrupted </li></ul></ul>
  29. 35. <ul><li>Increase in unemployment and hardship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployed workers had to depend on their friends or relatives. Many returned to their homeland because they could not find jobs to support themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation in Singapore was so bad, that the British government had to step in to improve the economic situation: restriction and reduction of the number of immigrants coming into Singapore </li></ul></ul>
  30. 36. <ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>U nemployment for millions </li></ul><ul><li>S uffering and hardship </li></ul><ul><li>T rade fell sharply </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>U nemployment and hardship </li></ul><ul><li>G overnment restricted immigration and sent unemployed immgrants </li></ul><ul><li>H ome </li></ul>anks and usinesses go ankrupt