ALGAE
<ul><li>Photosynthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Live in aqueous environments (ie. In or near water) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack extern...
<ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular algae = Kingdom Protista </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multicellular algae ...
<ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><li>don’t need protection from drying out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can have very thin leaf-like st...
<ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><li>water absorbs much of the suns energy that chlorophyll needs as it passes through it </li><...
<ul><li>1881, the German plant physiologist T. W. Engelmann placed a filamentous green alga under the microscope and illum...
 
<ul><li>With modern instruments, a plot of the rate of photosynthesis as a function of wavelength of light produces a grap...
<ul><li>because sea water absorbs most of the red & violet wavelengths, the deeper you get, the dimmer and bluer the light...
<ul><li>Algae has evolved two mechanisms to help </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional types of chlorophyll </li></ul></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>1. Write a paragraph explaining how the following adaptations contribute to the survival of algae in water and mig...
CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO TYPES OF CHLOROPHYL & ACCESORY PIGMENTS THEY HAVE
 
<ul><li>Colonies: Assemblage of individual cells with variable or constant number of cells that remain constant throughout...
<ul><li>Coenobium: Colony with constant number of cells, which cannot survive alone; specific „tasks“ among groups of cell...
 
<ul><li>Single Celled – Chlamydomonas </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial – Volvox </li></ul><ul><li>Multicellular – Ulva </li></ul>
<ul><li>CONTAIN CHOROPHYLLS a & b </li></ul><ul><li>STORE FOOD AS STARCH </li></ul>
<ul><li>CONTAIN CHLOROPHYLLS a & c </li></ul><ul><li>ALSO CONTAIN FUCOXANTHIN ACCESORY PIGMENT </li></ul>
<ul><li>CONTAIN CHOROPHYLL a & sometimes d </li></ul><ul><li>ALSO HAVE PHYCOBILIN ACCESORY PIGMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>LIVE...
<ul><li>Algae, the major food of fish (and thus indirectly of many other animals), are a keystone in the aquatic food chai...
<ul><li>Seaweeds, e.g., the kelps and the red algae (nori), have long been used as a source of food, especially in Asia.  ...
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Ealand Algae Notes Bio 11

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Ealand Algae Notes Bio 11

  1. 1. ALGAE
  2. 2. <ul><li>Photosynthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Live in aqueous environments (ie. In or near water) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack external tubes to move water and materials from one part of the plant to another </li></ul><ul><li>Unicellular or multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Cells have a cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Contain chlorophyll a (sometimes other forms of chlorophyll also) </li></ul><ul><li>Complicated alternating sexual & asexual reproduction cycles </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular algae = Kingdom Protista </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multicellular algae = Kingdom Plantae </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><li>don’t need protection from drying out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can have very thin leaf-like structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>these thin structures can exchange O2, CO2, & nutrients directly with the H2O </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no specialized tissues for carrying </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2. don’t need stem-like structures for support </li></ul><ul><li>3. reproductive cells can swim through water </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><li>water absorbs much of the suns energy that chlorophyll needs as it passes through it </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>particularly, sea water absorbs large amounts of red and violet wavelengths </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>1881, the German plant physiologist T. W. Engelmann placed a filamentous green alga under the microscope and illuminated it with a tiny spectrum of visible light. </li></ul><ul><li>In the medium surrounding the strands were motile, aerobic bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>After a few minutes, the bacteria had congregated around the portions of the filament illuminated by red and blue light. </li></ul><ul><li>Assuming that the bacteria were congregating in regions where oxygen was being evolved in photosynthesis, Engelmann concluded that red and blue light are the most effective colors for photosynthesis. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>With modern instruments, a plot of the rate of photosynthesis as a function of wavelength of light produces a graph like this. More precise than Engelmann's but telling the same story . </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>because sea water absorbs most of the red & violet wavelengths, the deeper you get, the dimmer and bluer the light gets </li></ul><ul><li>dim blue light contains very little energy that chlorophyll a can use </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Algae has evolved two mechanisms to help </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional types of chlorophyll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll b </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll c </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll d </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessory pigments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absorb different wavelength of light than chlorophyll and pass the energy they absorb on for photosynthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflect different wavelengths of light than chlorophyll  wide range of algae color </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>1. Write a paragraph explaining how the following adaptations contribute to the survival of algae in water and might not contribute to the survival of algae on dry land </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thin leaf like structures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No waterproof covering </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No stem like structures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No system of internal tubes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Write a paragraph explaining the restriction that aquatic life places on algae’s photosynthetic ability, the proof of this theory, and the adaptations it has resulted in </li></ul>
  11. 12. CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO TYPES OF CHLOROPHYL & ACCESORY PIGMENTS THEY HAVE
  12. 14. <ul><li>Colonies: Assemblage of individual cells with variable or constant number of cells that remain constant throughout the colony life </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Coenobium: Colony with constant number of cells, which cannot survive alone; specific „tasks“ among groups of cells is common </li></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>Single Celled – Chlamydomonas </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial – Volvox </li></ul><ul><li>Multicellular – Ulva </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>CONTAIN CHOROPHYLLS a & b </li></ul><ul><li>STORE FOOD AS STARCH </li></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>CONTAIN CHLOROPHYLLS a & c </li></ul><ul><li>ALSO CONTAIN FUCOXANTHIN ACCESORY PIGMENT </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>CONTAIN CHOROPHYLL a & sometimes d </li></ul><ul><li>ALSO HAVE PHYCOBILIN ACCESORY PIGMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>LIVE DEEPER IN THE OCEANS BECAUSE PHYCOBILIN IS VERY EFFICIENT AT ABSORBING BLUE LIGHT </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>Algae, the major food of fish (and thus indirectly of many other animals), are a keystone in the aquatic food chain of life; they are the primary producers of the food that provides the energy to power the whole system. </li></ul><ul><li>They are also important to aquatic life in their capacity to supply oxygen through photosynthesis. </li></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>Seaweeds, e.g., the kelps and the red algae (nori), have long been used as a source of food, especially in Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Kelp are also much used as fertilizer, and kelp ash is used industrially for its potassium and sodium salts. </li></ul><ul><li>agar and carrageen, used as a stabilizer in foods, cosmetics, and paints. </li></ul>

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