Chapter 3


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Chapter 3

  1. 1. Community Ecology
  2. 2. <ul><li>Climate greatly affects the distribution of organisms in the biosphere, creating distinct biological communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Species adapt to changes in biotic and abiotic factors, which leads to greater biodiversity. </li></ul>3 CHAPTER
  3. 3. <ul><li>Species in the same community interact in many different ways. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, competition can occur among organisms for the same resources in the community. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Succession describes the gradual change in the type of plants in a community. </li></ul>3 CHAPTER
  4. 4. <ul><li>The distribution of living things is limited by the environmental conditions in different areas of Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>The distribution of life in the biosphere depends on abiotic factors like average temperature and precipitation (the climate ). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate is affected by location on Earth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where abiotic factors are similar, similar ecosystems exist with similar organisms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomes are major ecosystems with similar abiotic conditions containing similar organisms. </li></ul></ul>3.1 VOCABULARY climate latitude elevation climatograph biome tundra permafrost boreal forest canopy temperate deciduous forest understorey temperate rainforests grassland savannas tropical rainforests deserts polar ice
  5. 5. <ul><li>Factors affecting Abiotic Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latitude & Elevation </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>See Fig 5 & 6 p. 52-53 In Textbook </li></ul>
  7. 10. Biomes Projects See your Biomes Projects Handout for details. These are due June 8 th !!!! You are responsible for teaching the class about your Biome. The class will have sharts to fill in while watching your presentations 3 CHAPTER
  8. 11. <ul><li>Tropical Rainforest </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate Rainforest </li></ul><ul><li>Tundra </li></ul><ul><li>Deciduous Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Boreal Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Taiga </li></ul><ul><li>Savannah </li></ul><ul><li>Grassland </li></ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul>
  9. 13. 3.2 VOCABULARY adaptation natural selection mimicry coevolution biodiversity primary productivity extinction extirpation keystone species <ul><li>When faced with a change in the biotic or abiotic conditions in an ecosystem, a population will adapt to the changes, leave the area, or die out. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An adaptation is any genetic trait that improves an organism’s chance of surviving and reproducing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural selection is a process that favours the survival of organisms with traits that make them better adapted to the environment, while eliminating organisms that are poorly adapted. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Predation is a strong force in natural selection. </li></ul><ul><li>The variety of organisms and the variation among them within a given ecosystem or biome is called biodiversity , which varies from one location to another as a function of abiotic factors. </li></ul>
  10. 14. 3.3 VOCABULARY niche competition interspecific competition intraspecific competition resource partitioning adaptive radiation proliferation foreign species ecological succession pioneer species primary succession climax community secondary succession <ul><li>Competition can occur between different species in the community or between individuals of the same species. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign species may be introduced to ecosystems and out-compete native species. </li></ul><ul><li>Succession is a process of gradual change in the types of plants that represent the structure of a community. </li></ul>
  11. 15. 3 <ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>The biosphere contains distinct biological communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Species adapt to changes in environmental conditions and to other organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Species in communities interact in many different ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Succession is an indication of change in an ecosystem. </li></ul>CHAPTER