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ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING IN EUROPE, Green Certificates and Industry


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The Center for Thematic Environmental Networks (TEN) is a Center for education and research in the fields of environment and sustainable development.
TEN Center promotes the exchange of knowledge and information on the environmental field and offers tools and supplementary approaches in order to solve environmental issues with specific reference to sustainable development.

TEN Center:
 promotes education and advanced training programs on sustainable development and environmental management;
 develops research activities on the main areas of environmental protection, with specific focus on developing countries;
 hosts initiatives which provide a meeting platform for the competent authorities, researchers and those who are involved in environmental and sustainable development issues.

Since 2003, TEN manages and coordinates advanced training programs devised for director generals and managers of public administrations, researchers and private sector experts from the People’s Republic of China and Eastern European countries. The aim is to augment and improve the capabilities of policy-makers and to facilitate knowledge transfer in order to promote sustainable environmental, social and economic policies.

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ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING IN EUROPE, Green Certificates and Industry

  1. 1. ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING IN EUROPE Green Certificates and Industry Gabriella Chiellino, Venice International University
  2. 2. Environmental European and Italian legislation Italian legislation The basic in the Italian Legal System with regard to protection of environment is the Environment Law D.Lgs 152/2006 PURPOSE Law is to protect and improve environment, to ensure optimum and efficient use of lands and natural resources and protection thereof, to prevent water, soil and air pollution and to protect flora, fauna and historical wealth of the country
  3. 3. Environmental European and Italian legislation European legislation Nature protection: BirdsDirective Habitats Directive IntegratedCoastal Zone Management Water qualityand Dredging Water Framework Directive EuropeanMarine Strategy Wastemanagement EuropeanWasteDirective Directive on Port Reception Air Quality Sulphur Directiveuse of fuel with low sulphur level Air Quality Directivenew standards for PM 2,5 & PM 10 Recommendation on Shore Side Electricity Directive 2000/60/CE Water Framework Directive (WFD) - 23/10/2000 IPPC Directive 96/61/EC Directive 2000/76/EC - 4/12/2000 Incineration 89/369 & 429 (MW) 94/67 (HW) Replaced by 2000/76/EC Landfill 99/31/EC Sewage Dir. 86/278/EEC Packaging Waste Dir. 94/62/EC PCBs Dir.96/59/EC RAEE Dir.2002/95EC
  4. 4. 1. Voluntary environmental auditing : a) Process control (EMS: EMAS-ISO 14001-CFC) b) Product control (Ecolabel) 2. Implementing environmental auditing: EMAS a) Statistics of EMS implementation b) Initial Environmental Review b) Environmental Statement c) Validation and Registration a) Advantages of introducing EMAS 3. CFC 4. Ecolabel and EDP 5. LCA: Life Cycle Assessment Voluntary environmental auditing in Europe
  5. 5. The voluntary audit observes TWO different areas of environmental impact management Process control Product control ISO 14001, EMAS, CFC Ecolabel, EDP what how Control companies have regarding the performance of their products and their impacts on the environment (Life cycle Assessment) Companies implement their own environmental management system Voluntary Environmental Audit Voluntary environmental auditing in Europe
  6. 6. EMS: “Environmental Management System” <ul><li>a systematic way of managing immediate and long-term impacts of an organisation’s services, processes and products on the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>a way of maintaining order and consistency to address environmental concerns through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allocation of resources, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assignment of responsibility, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ongoing evaluation of practices, procedures and processes. </li></ul></ul>Process control
  7. 7. In Europe there are two E.M.S. EMAS European Regulation International Standard ISO 14001 Process control EMS: “Environmental Management System”
  8. 8. Iso 14001- EMAS (EC regulation 761/01) ISO 14001 International model, which has been used in Italy since 1996 as UNI EN ISO (UNI is the Italian Standards Organisation). This guideline shows its APPLICATION: Voluntary schemes for organisations willing to commit themselves to evaluate and improve their environmental performance Process control E.M.S. ISO 14001 and ISO 14004 Indicators Performance ISO 14031 Audit ISO 19011 Comunication Next ISO 14063 EMAS (EC Reg.761/2001) The scheme, available to companies since 1995 (Council Regulation (EEC) No 1836/93) was originally restricted to companies in industrial sectors. EMAS has been open to all economic sectors including public and private services since 2001. (Regulation (EC) No 761/2001). In addition, EMAS was strengthened by the integration of EN/ISO 14001 as the environmental management system required by EMAS. EMS: “Environmental Management System”
  9. 9. <ul><li>Site: </li></ul><ul><li>all land at a distinct geographic location under management control of an organisation covering activities, products and services. This includes all infrastructure, equipment and materials . </li></ul>EMAS in Europe: organisations and sites as of 15/7/2004 Statistics of EMS implementation <ul><li>Organisation : </li></ul><ul><li>a company, corporation, firm, enterprise, authority or institution, or part or combination thereof, whether incorporated or not, public or private, that has its own functions and administrations. </li></ul>Source:
  10. 10. EMAS in Italy Italy’s most important EMAS registered organisations Source: Statistics of EMS implementation 14001 in Italy
  11. 11. Source: the ISO Survey of ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 14001 certificates, 2003 Growth from 1998 to 2003 (no. of organisations per year) ISO 14001 CHINA Statistics of EMS implementation
  12. 12. Source: the ISO Survey of ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 14001 certificates, 2003 YEAR 2003 4. Statistics of EMS implementation
  13. 13. EMAS is strengthened by the integration of EN ISO 14001 as the environmental management system required by EMAS Implementing environmental auditing: EMAS EMAS ISO 14001
  14. 14. Validation and Registration The environmental review, EMS, audit procedure and the environmental statement must be approved by an accredited EMAS verifier and the validated statement needs to be sent to the EMAS Competent Body for registration and made publicly available before an organisation can use the EMAS logo. The Eco-audit Eco-Label Committee for EMAS is a body of the Member State of EC nominated by the government. The organisations that have this registered document are in the Official European Register For Registration: EPA is the agency that works with the Italian EMAS Committee that checks the environmental data and legal compliance declared in the Environmental Statement VALIDATION AND REGISTRATION Environmental Statement
  15. 15. EMAS Audit Registration First Certification ISO 14001 Environmental Audit Validate Environmental Statement EMAS Committee Certification Organisation (eg. DNV, BVQI, certiquality…) Emas Verifier Italian EPA Environmental Protection Agency (APAT ) VALIDATION AND REGISTRATION Environmental Statement
  16. 16. PERIODIC MAINTENANCE EMAS: UP TO DATE Environmental Statements The certification or validation lasts for 3 YEARS. During the 3 years, there are 2 or 3 Periodic Maintenance checks by the Committee. The certification needs to be renewed every 3 years. VALIDATION AND REGISTRATION Environmental Statement 0 1 I° 0 3 III° 2 II°
  17. 17. EMAS APAT National Environmental Agency (public) FIRMS : SCHEDULED CONTROLS every 3 years OBLIGATORY CONTROLS National and Regional laws (e.g.: emissions limits, waste disposal,…). Authorisations given by governmental organisations (Provinces, Regions, State) FIRMS must respect the law and obtain the necessaries authorisations. RANDOM CONTROLS Controls by ARPA (Regional Environmental Agencies), NOE (Emergencies Management), GUARDIA DI FINANZA (financial controls), etc.. EMAS accredited VERIFIER (private). In Italy: 10 (e.g. DNV, Certiquality, BVQI,…) approves technical support Ecoaudit-Ecolabel Committee : 14 members (representatives of Environment, Industry, Health and Treasury Ministries) EMAS section : 7 members
  18. 18. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS DIRECT: annex VI Activities over which organisation can be expected to have an influence (eg. public administration organisations, banks etc.) INDIRECT: annex VI IER: Environmental Aspects Implementing environmental auditing: EMAS Activities organisations have direct control over (eg. Industrial companies ) (a) emissions to air; (b) releases to water; (c) Waste management, particularly hazardous wastes (d) use and contamination of land (e) use of natural resources & raw materials (f) local issues (g) transport issues (h) risks of environmental accidents (i) effects on biodiversity. (a) product related issues; (b) capital investments, granting loans and insurance services; (c) new markets; (d) choice and composition of services; (e) administrative & planning decisions; (f) product range compositions; (g) the environmental performance and practices of contractors, subcontractors and suppliers.
  19. 19. Criteria for assessing the significance of an organisation’s environmental aspects (a) information about the activities, products and services of the organisation that may have an environmental impact; (b) the organisation’s existing data on material and energy inputs, discharges, wastes and emissions in terms of risk; (c) views of interested parties (public citizens, etc.) (d) the regulated environmental activities of the organisation ( legal compliance ) (e) procurement activities (f) design, development, manufacturing, distribution, servicing, use, re-use, recycling and disposal of the organisation’s products ; (g) those activities of the organisation with the most significant environmental costs , and environmental benefits. Initial environmental review Implementing environmental auditing: EMAS
  20. 20. Environmental management system, annex I Deming cycle: continual improvement <ul><li>What is PLAN? </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental aspects: The organisation identifies the environmental aspects of its activities, products or services; </li></ul><ul><li>Legal and other requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives and targets </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental management programme(s) </li></ul>What is DO? a) Structure and responsibility; b) Training, awareness and competence; c) Communication; d) Environmental management system documentation; e) Operational control; f)Emergency preparedness and response What is CHECK? Internal audits ensure that the activities carried out by an organisation are being conducted in accordance with established procedures. The audit may also identify any problems with those established procedures or any opportunities for improving those procedures. <ul><li>ACT : The organisation’s top management reviews the environmental management system, to ensure its continuing suitability, adequacy and effectiveness. </li></ul>Environmental Managment System Implementing environmental auditing: EMAS
  21. 21. PLAN:Environmental programme Sets the environmental aims and the future steps needed to improve the organisation’s environmental performance. Environmental Managment System Implementing environmental auditing: EMAS   ISSUES     OBJECTIVE/TARGET   ACTIVITIES   TIME-FRAME   Materials – use of materials   Reduction of the environmental impact through the use of materials by 20%   Incorporate environmental guidelines into purchasing policy       end 200x   Solvents and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Emissions of solvents and VOCs     Reduction of solvent emission to annual average levels below: 53 g/m 2 (solids) 56 g/m 2 (metallics)     Introduction of new paintshop operations       mid 200x      
  22. 22. Monitoring and Measurement Check-audit Assessing how well the system is working. How do you know how you are doing? An EMS without an effective monitoring and measurement program is like driving at night without the headlights on: You know that you are moving but you can’t tell where you are going! Environmental indicators Environmental Managment System Implementing environmental auditing: EMAS
  23. 23. Guidance on the EMAS environmental statement (guideline n.4) ENVIRONMENTAL STATEMENT Environmental Statement The data generated by an environmental management system will be used in a number of different ways to show the environmental performance of an organisation. For this purpose organisations may use relevant existing environmental performance indicators .
  24. 24. Here are some of the requirements specified in Annex III, point 3.2. To give a clear understanding of the organisation and its activities , products and services . INTENT • maps and diagrams; • annotated aerial photographs; • flow diagrams; • classification (i.e. the NACE code) of the organisation; • name of contact person (if applicable). GOOD PRACTICE Environmental Statement
  25. 25. relate the environmental impacts of the organisation’s activities to the inputs and outputs of its operations in an ‘environmental balance sheet’ : EXAMPLE Environmental Statement
  26. 26. To present data on the environmental performance of the organisation and its progress in achieving its objectives and targets. Also to show how the organisation’s environmental performance is changing over time. INTENT Emission of CO2 in relation to targets and legal provisions: EXAMPLE Environmental Statement
  27. 27. EMAS FIRM OBLIGATORY CONTROLS National and Regional laws (e.g.: min % of recycling, disposal of dangerous and not dangerous waste,...) ARPA (compliance with national and regional legal standards), Town Administration (local authorisations),… Example:WASTE Ecoaudit-Ecolabel Committee : APAT National Environmental Agency EMAS section EMAS accredited VERIFIER e.g. DNV Verifies through analysis in situ the compliance with legal standards (e.g. concentration, documentation, authorisations,…) Check waste management, legal update,…(e.g. MUD: should indicate all produced wastes, divided into given categories) When: uncertain FIRM When the firm asks for certification and thereafter every 3 years
  28. 28. <ul><li>Cost Reduction : Identifying the areas where economic efficiency can be increased </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Legislation Compliance: Legislative compliance is maintained and made simple due to the varied controls </li></ul><ul><li>Funding and Insurance: Tax and insurance policies for environmental dammage are defined according to the risk of each individual business/organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Market opportunity: Is an advantage in a eco-compatible market that is constantly expanding </li></ul><ul><li>Client demand </li></ul><ul><li>Good Business Image </li></ul>ADVANTAGES OF INTRODUCING EMAS 7. Conclusion
  29. 29. <ul><li>FSC was established to </li></ul><ul><li>promote </li></ul><ul><li>environmentally appropriate, </li></ul><ul><li>socially beneficial and </li></ul><ul><li>economically viable </li></ul><ul><li>management of the world's </li></ul><ul><li>forests. </li></ul>Forest Stewardship Council 7. Conclusion
  30. 30. Enviromental Economic Social Forest Stewardship Council cta ITALIA
  31. 31. FSC: global fundation, global impact
  32. 32. FSC: global fundation, global impact
  33. 33. Ten largest FSC certificates FSC: global fundation, global impact
  34. 34. <ul><li>FSC: </li></ul><ul><li>1- ENVIRONMENTALLY APPROPRIATE – The harvest of timber and non-timber products maintains the long-term ecology, biodiversity and productivity </li></ul><ul><li>2- SOCIALLY BENEFICIAL – Local communities have a say, Aboriginal and traditional rights are respected, workers are properly training and society enjoys long-term benefits </li></ul><ul><li>3- ECONOMICALLY VIABLE – Forest management that both ensures and is the result of sound financial management </li></ul>Why FSC? 7. Conclusion
  35. 35. <ul><li>STANDARDS </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by SOCIAL, ENVIRONMENTAL and ECONOMIC stakeholders; </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible with international norms; </li></ul><ul><li>Widely recognized and internationally accepted. </li></ul><ul><li>ACCREDITATION & CERTIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>Standards and certification bodies are independently accredited. </li></ul><ul><li>MARKETPLACE TRUST </li></ul><ul><li>A brand that symbolizes responsibly managed forests. </li></ul>FSC’s Value proposition 7. Conclusion
  36. 36. <ul><li>1. Compliance with Laws and FSC Principles </li></ul><ul><li>2. Tenure and Use Rights and Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>3. Indigenous Peoples' Rights </li></ul><ul><li>4. Community Relations and Worker's Rights </li></ul><ul><li>5. Benefits from the Forest </li></ul><ul><li>6. Environmental Impact </li></ul><ul><li>7. Management Plan </li></ul><ul><li>8. Monitoring and Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>9. Maintenance of High Conservation Value </li></ul><ul><li>Forests </li></ul><ul><li>10. Plantations </li></ul>FM certification: 10 Principles 7. Conclusion
  37. 37. How does FSC certification work? 􀀹 Tracking from forest to final product. 􀀹 Independent, third-party auditing. 􀀹 Certification code – e.g. SW-COC-002359
  38. 38. <ul><li>ECO-LABELLING SCHEME </li></ul><ul><li>applies more specifically </li></ul><ul><li>to the environmental characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>of single products and services. </li></ul><ul><li>The life-cycle approach </li></ul><ul><li>is applied to assess </li></ul><ul><li>the “birth to death” of the product and its environmental impact at every stage </li></ul>Eco-LABEL Products Product control
  39. 39. What is LCA? Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a technique for assessing the environmental aspects of products, technologies and activities from various points in their life cycle Its life cycle stages includes: 1. Manufacturing (raw material acquisition through production) 2. In-Use (operation of investigated objects) 3. Transport of products 4. End-of-life (recycling/disposal) It is also called ‘cradle-to-grave’ analysis Phases of LCA (ISO 14040)
  40. 40. Life cycle of fuel cells LCA
  41. 41. <ul><li>In this phase the following points have to be addressed or defined: </li></ul><ul><li>the purpose of the study and its intended application </li></ul><ul><li>the boundaries, data sources , assumptions and limitations of the study </li></ul><ul><li>the criteria for selecting input and output flows or processes </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of a “ Functional unit ” which becomes the reference object of the study </li></ul><ul><li>data quality requirement , for instance time-related and geographical coverage, the consistency, representativity and uncertainty of the data and the critical review procedure </li></ul>Goal and Scope Definition 7. Conclusion
  42. 42. <ul><li>It involves data collection and calculation procedures to quantify relevant inputs and outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Input and output flows involve consumed or produced goods, emissions, waste streams etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection usually follows the process chain </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction  conversion  transport  production  use  disposal /recycling </li></ul>Inventory Analysis (LCI) 7. Conclusion
  43. 43. <ul><li>The potential impacts of the inputs and outputs of the inventory analysis are determined in this phase </li></ul><ul><li>Major impact categories are: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Global warming potential or Greenhouse effect </li></ul><ul><li>2. Stratospheric ozone depletion </li></ul><ul><li>3. Acid rain or acidification </li></ul><ul><li>4. Photochemical oxidation </li></ul><ul><li>5. Eutrophication </li></ul>Impact Assessment (LCIA) 7. Conclusion
  44. 44. <ul><li>It involves data collection and calculation procedures to quantify relevant inputs and outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Input and output flows involve consumed or produced goods, emissions, waste streams etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection usually follows the process chain </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction  conversion  transport  production  use  disposal /recycling </li></ul>Inventory Analysis (LCI) 7. Conclusion
  45. 45. <ul><li>In this phase, the study aims to identify and evaluate different options of reducing the environmental impact of the system </li></ul><ul><li>In order to check the data used in LCA, the following analysis has to be carried out: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Uncertainty analysis </li></ul><ul><li>2. Perturbation analysis </li></ul><ul><li>3. Comparative analysis </li></ul>Inventory Analysis (LCI) 7. Conclusion
  46. 46. LCA screening aimed at measuring the environmental impact of different Pepsi packaging Case Study Raw materials production Package production Filling operations Distribution Impact Impact Impact Impact Minimise impacts through our energy, water and packaging use by comparing CAN, PET, GLAS, BIB and STEEL TANKS production
  47. 47. Methodology Adopted to Collect Data <ul><li>Collected data based on 5 packaging types : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Group 1 : dispensing (steel tank, BIB); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Group 2 : others (glass bottles, aluminium cans, PET bottles). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analysis in order to measure the impact of different packagings during their whole life cycle (from the cradle to the grave), starting from the raw materials up to the waste disposal after utilization. </li></ul><ul><li>Functional unit adopted in the analysis: packaging capacity of 1 lt of beverage . </li></ul><ul><li>Approach based on an increasing detail in data collection , taking into account quality and reliability as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Data entry in the selected software (Simapro) and following process . </li></ul>Case Study
  48. 48. Packaging Production Phase and Transport to the Bottler ELEMENTS TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT Quantity and type of materials used for packaging production (can, bottle, tank, cap, etc.) Quantity and type of packaging materials (eg. polyethylene, plastic bend, paperboard) Packaging transport from production site to the bottler (weighted average km) Transport category (eg. EURO 1, 2, 3 etc.) ELEMENTS NOT CONSIDERED Pallet and other packaging material to return (pallets and wood frames) and their mean duration Case Study
  49. 49. Product Filling Phase ELEMENTS TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT Energy, gas, oil gas, etc. consumption (per beverage unit) ELEMENTS NOT CONSIDERED Wastewater, emissions into the atmosphere and waste produced during the process Case Study
  50. 50. Final Packaging and Transportation Phase ELEMENTS TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT Quantity and type of packaging material Transportion to the sale point (weighted mean km) ELEMENTS NOT CONSIDERED Transport category (eg. EURO 1, 2, 3 etc.) Packaging residuals Case Study
  51. 51. Product Utilization Phase ELEMENTS TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT Energy consumption machines and coolers ELEMENTS NOT CONSIDERED Refrigerating components Glasses used to drink the beverages CO2 release Case Study
  52. 52. Product End Life Phase ELEMENTS TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT Quantity to final landfill disposal and to recycle/reuse Trasport of packaging (glass bottles and tanks) back to the plant (considering mean duration and filling cycles per year) ELEMENTS NOT CONSIDERED Waste trasport to the landfill/recycle site Case Study
  53. 53. First results Impacts of the different products considered on some environmental aspects
  54. 54. First results Energy consumption of the considered products for different energy sources
  55. 55. <ul><li>Prof. Gabriella Chiellino </li></ul><ul><li>Work e-mail : </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>University e-mail : </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Internet site </li></ul>THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION