Carbon footprint and Ecological Footprint


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Lezione tenuta dalla dott.ssa Gabriella Chiellino, AD eAmbiente Srl, presso l'università di Yaoundè - Camerun.

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Carbon footprint and Ecological Footprint

  1. 1. Gabriella Chiellino eAmbiente Srl Carbon footprint and Ecological Footprint
  2. 3. CO 2 and Global warming Global climate change Increased concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere since the revolution industry.  The temperature rise It represents one of the most important indicators that we are living beyond the capacity of ecosystems to absorb disturbances. Decreased emissions An effort by the productive sectors to reduce emissions and the concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere is vital to combat climate change in progress.
  3. 4. Consumption of resources Population is growing Since XX century population is growing quickly.  Life style is changing In Europe and America expecially, people are living beyond the capacity of ecosystems to absorb disturbances. Resources are scarce To make goods we need to use resources that are not always renewable.
  4. 5. The differences CARBON FOOTPRINT Assessment throughout the life cycle of a product / process related to the impact category "global warming " (in terms of CO 2 eq.) ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT The ecological footprint is a statistical index used to measure request for human nature and its factories. It relates the human consumption of natural resources with the earth's capacity to regenerate them. WATER FOOTPRINT The WF is a geographically explicit indicator showing volumes of water consumption and pollution and the locations
  5. 6. First part: Carbon footprint CARBON FOOTPRINT FIRST PART
  6. 7. Applicable law Screening study Complete study under the rules UNI EN ISO 14040:2006 UNI EN ISO 14044:2006 EPD Environmental Product Declaration Time + internal resources for data retrieval Testing a possible third body on internal methodology Certification of a possible third body in accordance with standard Comunication Comunication / Ecodesign Comunication
  7. 8. Carbon markets <ul><li>BINDING </li></ul><ul><li>The trading of greenhouse gas emissions has been established through the EU Directive 2003/87/EC to fulfill their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>Annex I of Directive: </li></ul><ul><li>Combustion installations exceeding 20 MW </li></ul><ul><li>Petroleum Refineries </li></ul><ul><li>Coke ovens </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul><ul><li>VOLUNTEER </li></ul><ul><li>There are independent verification and validation services to voluntary projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, for the issuance of VERs (Verified Emissions Reductions), or &quot;emission reduction units&quot;. </li></ul>Objective: environmental communication
  8. 9. What happended with CO 2 ? The whole life on earth is based on photosynthesis of chlorophyll: Reactions during which green plants produce organic substances -mainly carbohydrates -from carbon dioxide and water, in the presence of light. This series of chemical reactions within the anabolic processes (synthesis) of carbohydrates and is totally opposed to the reverse process of catabolisi (oxidation). Reaction of the molecules 6 CO 2  (carbon dioxide) + 6 H 2 O (Water) + light -> C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose) + 6 O 2  (Oxygen)
  9. 10. And then? The “food chain” or “net chain” (better) provides to feed animals and the uman:
  10. 11. Dynamic balance The CO 2 cycle on earth (but also water cycle, nitrogen cycle etc.) are in dynamic balance during the years. Only with other sources not renewable (fossils) this dynamic balance is altered with many pollution problems.
  11. 12. Carbon footprint: measure CF measures the impact that human activities have on the environment in terms of amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide (CO 2 equivalent). Production Activities kWh energy m3 water Materials / resources Administrative kWh energy m3 methane Transportation Km covered Waste Kg produced Processing tonnes of CO2 equivalent SimaPro 7.3.0. Analyst
  12. 13. Carbon footprint: measure Processing Method of calculation Categories of impact Mid-Point Evaluate the causes of the damage End-Point Evaluate the damage <ul><li>Acidification </li></ul><ul><li>Eutrophication </li></ul><ul><li>Global Warming </li></ul><ul><li>Thinning of the ozone layer </li></ul><ul><li>Photochemical oxidation </li></ul><ul><li>Land use </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil Fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Ecotoxicity </li></ul><ul><li>Ionizing radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Human Health </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem quality </li></ul><ul><li>Decay of natural resources </li></ul>SimaPro 7.3.0. Analyst
  13. 14. Example of results The results are expressed as: Equivalent units CO 2 eq. kg SO 2 eq. kg CFC-11 eq. &quot;Eco-points&quot; Normalized equivalent units around them, with a percentage of the total European currency. Example with different kind of beverages bottles! Explanation of categories   Decay of natural resources   Ecosystem quality   Human health
  14. 15. Reduce and compensate emissions The calculation of carbon footprint provides tons of CO2 equivalent produced in a year The Company may decide to reduce emissions with a reduction plans (technological improvements, logistics etc.). So they may decide to compensate (offset) for remaining emissions (in part or entirely) . Total CO 2 CO 2 reduced CO 2 offset A number of tonnes of CO 2
  15. 16. Projects Project Choice Purchase of credits corresponding 1 ton = 1 credit Emissions offset Publication on the register Cancellation of debt certificates Environmental Communication Forest managemet Energy saving Biogas from landfills <ul><li>1 ton = 1 credit </li></ul><ul><li>Public Register </li></ul><ul><li>Credits Certificates </li></ul>
  16. 17. Our experience Calculation of CO2 equivalent Projections of the reduction with improvement initiatives Communication on the company website and 1.000.000 of paper carnet Withdrawal of claims and posting to register eCO2care Calculation of CO2 equivalent to 20 emitters
  17. 18. Second part: Ecological footprint First part: Carbon footprint ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT SECOND PART
  18. 19. Introduction It measures the area of biologically productive land and sea needed to regenerate the resources consumed by a human population. Using the ecological footprint, it is possible to estimate how many virtual &quot;Planet Earth&quot;  is needed to support humanity if everybody lived according to a certain lifestyle.
  19. 20. First approach
  20. 21. In detail To calculate the ecological footprint of men’s consumption (goods,cereals, meat, fruits, vegetables, roots and tubers, legumes, etc.) you put in report the amount of each good consumed with a constant yield in kg / ha (kilograms per hectare). The result is a surface .
  21. 22. We have different behaviour
  22. 23. The situation: our world Density of world’s population Effective growth and forecast of world’s population
  23. 24. Why is it important? We need to do green choices Scenarios
  24. 25. Methodology Overview The  2010 National Footprint Accounts  use over 5,000 data points for each country, each year, derived from internationally recognized sources to determine the area required to produce the biological resources a country uses and to absorb its wastes, and to compare this with the area available. Biocapacity is measured by calculating the amount of biologically productive land and sea area available to provide the resources a population consumes and to absorb its wastes, given current technology and management practices. Equivalence factors, and the specific land use types included in the Ecological Footprint: cropland, grazing land, fishing ground, forest land, carbon uptake land, and built-up land. DATA REPORT EQUIVALENCE FACTORS
  25. 26. Methodology Overview An example of methodology of calculation
  26. 27. Report Regarding some studies, even with modest projections for population growth, consumption and climate change,  by 2030  humanity will need the capacity of  two Earths  to absorb carbon dioxide waste and keep up with natural resource consumption.
  27. 28. Standard’s path Global Footprint Network has released the Ecological Footprint Standards 2009 and has begun the 2012 Standards update process. The 2009 Standards build on the first set of internationally recognized Ecological Footprint Standards, released in 2006 , and include key updates – such as, for the first time, providing standards and guidelines for product and organizational Footprint assessments. Ecological footprint is still a young method
  28. 29. Problems Both the Carbon Footprint and the Ecological footprint must develop to comply on a global level, so that the results are actually comparable . The drafting of standards goes in this direction, although it is also necessary to standardize the methodology of data collection, processing not only of themselves.
  29. 30. Future Environmental problems need to be measured and possibly solved with effective methods. Carbon footprint and Ecological footprint, using their indicators can direct us to take effective action to minimize impacts and changing lifestyles, and industrial production.
  30. 31. Second part: Ecological footprint First part: Carbon footprint WATER FOOTPRINT THIRD PART
  31. 32. Water Footprint <ul><li>The Water Footprint (WF) is a measure of human appropriation of freshwater resources </li></ul><ul><li>Blue WF refers to consumption of blue water resources (surface and ground water). </li></ul><ul><li>Green WF is the volume of green water (rainwater) consumed, which is particularly relevant in crop production. </li></ul><ul><li>Grey WF is an indicator of the degree of freshwater pollution and is defined as the volume of freshwater that is required to assimilate the load of pollutants based on existing ambient water quality standards. </li></ul><ul><li>The WF is a geographically explicit indicator showing volumes of water consumption and pollution and the locations </li></ul>
  32. 33. Water Footprint
  33. 34. Water Footprint - Product <ul><li>the volume of fresh water used to produce the product </li></ul><ul><li>summed over the various steps of the production chain. </li></ul><ul><li>when and where the water was used: a WF includes a temporal and spatial dimension </li></ul>
  34. 35. Water Footprint - Consumer <ul><li>the total volume of water appropriated for the production of the </li></ul><ul><li>goods and services consumed </li></ul><ul><li>equal to the sum of the water footprints of </li></ul><ul><li>all goods and services consumed </li></ul><ul><li>dimensions of a Water Footprint </li></ul><ul><li>( Volume, where, when, Type of water use) </li></ul><ul><li>Global average Water Footprint: 1385 m3/yr per capita </li></ul>Countries United Kingdom Italy Cameroon Kenya USA Canada Japan France Germany Average Water Footprint (m3/yr per capita) 1258 2303 1245 1101 2842 2333 1379 1786 1426 Part of footprint falling outside of the country (%) 75,2 60,7 5,4 17,4 20,2 20,7 76,9 46,3 68,8
  35. 36. Water Footprint - Nation <ul><li>Water footprint of national consumption </li></ul><ul><li>total amount of water that is used to produce the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the nation. </li></ul><ul><li>two components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>internal water footprint – inside the country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>external water footprint – in other countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water footprint of national consumption = </li></ul><ul><li>= water footprint within the nation + virtual water import – virtual water export </li></ul>
  36. 37. Water Footprint - Nation
  37. 38. Water Footprint Rappresentation of virtual water balance per country and direction of gross virtual water flows related to trade in agricultural and industrial products over the period 1996-2005. Only the biggest water savings (> 5 Gm3/yr) are shown.
  38. 39. Water Footprint Rappresentation of global water savings associated with international trade in agricultural products (1996-2005). Only the biggest water savings (> 5 Gm3/yr) are shown.
  39. 40. Water Footprint - Business <ul><li>Operational water footprint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the direct water use by the producer – for producing, manufacturing or for supporting activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supply - chain water footprint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the indirect water use in the producer’s supply chainvirtual water import – virtual water export </li></ul></ul><ul><li>total volume of freshwater that is used directly and indirectly to run and support a business </li></ul><ul><li>temporal and spatial dimension: when and where was the water used. </li></ul><ul><li>three components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>green: volume of rainwater consumed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blue: volume of surface or groundwater consumed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grey : volume of polluted water </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Water Footprint
  41. 42. WF and CF <ul><li>Water footprint and carbon footprint are complementary tools </li></ul>Water footprint Carbon footprint <ul><li>measures freshwater appropriation </li></ul><ul><li>spatial and temporal dimension </li></ul><ul><li>actual, locally specific values </li></ul><ul><li>always referring to full supply-chain </li></ul><ul><li>focus on reducing own water footprint </li></ul><ul><li>(water use units are not interchangeable) </li></ul><ul><li>measures emission GHG </li></ul><ul><li>no spatial / temporal dimension </li></ul><ul><li>global average values </li></ul><ul><li>supply-chain included only in ‘scope 3 carbon accounting’ </li></ul><ul><li>many efforts focused on offsetting </li></ul><ul><li>(carbon emission units are interchangeable) </li></ul>
  42. 43. WF and LCA - CF <ul><li>For companies, water footprint assessment and LCA are complementary tools . </li></ul><ul><li>WF assessment is a tool to support formulation of a sustainable water management strategy in operations and supply chain </li></ul><ul><li>LCA is a tool to compare the overall environmental impact of different products </li></ul><ul><li>WF is a general indicator of water use; application of WF in inventory phase of LCA is one particular application. </li></ul>Water footprint Life Cycle Assessment <ul><li>measures freshwater appropriation </li></ul><ul><li>multi-dimensional (type of water use, location, timing) </li></ul><ul><li>actual water volumes, no weighing </li></ul><ul><li>measures overall environmental impact </li></ul><ul><li>no spatial dimension </li></ul><ul><li>weighing water volumes based on Impacts </li></ul>
  43. 44. WF Assessment In general, the approach is based on: And the assessment…
  44. 45. WF Assessment <ul><li>Sustainability of the </li></ul><ul><li>cumulative </li></ul><ul><li>water footprints in </li></ul><ul><li>different catchments </li></ul>Sustainability of the WFs of specific processes Sustainability of the WFs of specific products
  45. 46. WF Assessment <ul><li>Step 1 – Sustainability Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental flow requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental green water requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ambient water quality standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basic human needs – min. drink-water, food security, employm. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rules of fairness – fair allocation, water user & water polluter principle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient allocation and use of water </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 47. WF Assessment <ul><li>Step 1 - Environmentale Flow requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Catchment level </li></ul><ul><li>Monthly level </li></ul><ul><li>Generic rule of thumb: 80% of natural runoff, on a monthly basis </li></ul><ul><li>Use data from generic global methodology, but replace with better studies give better local estimates </li></ul>
  47. 48. WF Assessment <ul><li>Step 2 – Hotspots </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental sustainability criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Green water footprint < available green water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blue water footprint < available blue water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grey water footprint < available assimilation capacity </li></ul></ul></ul>If we consider the Grey WF criterion: Grey Water Footprint < runoff Assimilative capacity non fully used Grey Water Footprint = runoff Fulle assimilative capacity of the river used Grey Water Footprint > runoff Pollution exceed the assimilative capacity of the envorinment
  48. 49. WF Assessment <ul><li>Step 3 - 4 – Primary and secondary impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Primary impacts </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes to hydrology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes to water quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary impacts </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effects on abundance of certain species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effects on biodiversity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effects on human health </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effects on employment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effects on distribution of welfare </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effects on income in different sectors of economy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 50. ISO Standard on WF <ul><li>Water Footprint: Requirements and Guidelines” </li></ul><ul><li>International standard for water footprinting (ISO 14046) </li></ul><ul><li>This International Standard specifies requirements and guidelines to assess and report Water Footprint based on LCA </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology, communication </li></ul><ul><li>Important stages to consider </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency with ISO 14000 series including environmental metrics such as Carbon footprint, LCA (ISO14040), Greenhouse Gases quantification and communication (ISO14064, ISO 14067) and Environmental communication (ISO14020) </li></ul><ul><li>Review/Validation </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Towards industry and practitioners </li></ul>
  50. 51. ISO Standard on WF <ul><li>The proposed International Standard will deliver </li></ul><ul><li>principles, requirements and guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>for a water footprint metric of </li></ul><ul><li>products, processes and organisations </li></ul><ul><li>based on the guidance of </li></ul><ul><li>impact assessment as given in ISO 14044 </li></ul><ul><li>It will define how the different types of water sources (for example ground, surface, lake, river…) should be considered, how the different types of water releases should be considered, and how the local environmental conditions (dry areas, wet areas) should be treated. </li></ul><ul><li>For products : it will apply the life cycle approach and will be based on the same product system as specified in ISO 14040 and ISO 14044 </li></ul><ul><li>For organisation : it will consider the guidance given by ISO 14064 for GHG </li></ul><ul><li>The standard will also address the communication issues linked to the WF </li></ul>
  51. 52. Shared responsability <ul><li>Consumers or consumer or environmental organizations push businesses and governments to address water use and impacts along supply chains </li></ul><ul><li>Some businesses act voluntarily in an early stage, driven by </li></ul><ul><li>consumers or investors </li></ul><ul><li>Governments promote businesses in an early phase and implement regulations in a later phase </li></ul><ul><li>Governments, companies, consultants and accountants use same standard definitions and calculation methods </li></ul><ul><li>International cooperation , through UN and other institutions ... </li></ul>
  52. 53. Current Development <ul><li>Increasing communication on water </li></ul><ul><li>Publication of « Water Footprint » results of products in the news,… </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing demand for standards </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., “The company said it was the world’s first food company to add an H2O label to product packaging and that it had developed its own calculation model because no internationally established formula and product label yet exists. […] we need to ensure that there are consistent standards across the board,” - Carbon Footprints to Water Footprints (The New York Times, April 17 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Multitude groups active in water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Footprint Network (WFN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alliance for Water Stewardship (AWS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World Resource Institute (WRI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Environment Federation (Water Quality) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul>
  53. 54. WF reduction and offsetting <ul><ul><li>Reduce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce by avoid: do not undertake water - using activities altogether </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce by improved production: replace one technique by another technique that results in a lower or even zero Water Footprint </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Offset </li></ul><ul><li>Compensate the residual water footprint by making a reasonable investment in establishing or supporting projects that aim at a sustainable, equitable and efficient use of water in the catchment where the residual Water Footprint is located </li></ul>
  54. 55. WF reduction and offsetting
  55. 56. Ultimate perspective   Agricolture Industry Green WF Decrease greenwater footprint (m3/ton) by increasing green water productivity (ton/me) in both rain - fed and irrigated agricolture. Increase total production from rain - fed agricolture Not relevant Blue WF Decrease blue water footprint (m3/ton) by increasing blue water productivity (ton/m3) in irrigated agricolture. Decrease ratio blue/green water footprint. Decrease global blue water footprint (e.g. by 50%) Zero blue water footprint: no losses trough evaporation - full recycling - only blue water footprint related to the incorporation of water into a product cannot be avoided Grey WF Reduced use of artificial fertilisers and pesticides; more effective application. Grey water footprint can go to zero through organic farming Zero grey water footprint no pollution - full recycling, recapturing heat from heated effluents and treatment of remaining return flows
  56. 57. Reducing humanity WF <ul><ul><li>Consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of the direct Water Fooprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>water saving toilet, shower-head, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of the indirect Water Fooprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>substitution of a consumer product that has a large water footprint by a different type of product that has a smaller water footprint </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>substitution of a consumer product that has a large water footprint by the same product that is derived from another source with smaller water footprint </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask product transparency from businesses and regulation from governments </li></ul></ul>
  57. 58. Reducing humanity WF <ul><ul><li>Companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared terminology & calculation standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product transparency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>water footprint reporting / disclosure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>labelling of products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>certification of businesses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative footprint reduction targets – benchmarking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of the operational water footprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>water saving in own operations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of the supply-chain water footprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>influencing suppliers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>changing to other suppliers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>transform business model in order to incorporate or better control supply chains </li></ul></ul></ul>
  58. 59. Reducing humanity WF <ul><ul><li>Investors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce risk of investments: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>physical risk formed by water shortages or pollution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>risk of damaged corporate image </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>regulatory risk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>financial risk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand accounting and substantiated quantitative water footprint reduction targets from companies </li></ul></ul>
  59. 60. Reducing humanity WF <ul><ul><li>Governments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embed water footprint assessment in national water policy making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote coherence between water and other governmental policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce the own organizational water footprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reduce the water footprint of public services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote product transparency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>support or force businesses to make annual water footprint accounts and to implement water footprint reduction measures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. through promoting a water label for water-intensive products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. through water-certification of businesses </li></ul></ul></ul>
  60. 61. International cooperation <ul><ul><li>International protocol on water pricing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum water rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tradable water footprint permits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water - labelling of water-intensive products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water-certification of industries and retailers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International nutrient housekeeping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared guidelines on water-neutrality for businesses </li></ul></ul>
  61. 62. Initiatives
  62. 63.