Presentation - IAI Autumn 2010


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Presentation - IAI Autumn 2010

  1. 1. The N18 Oranmore to Gort Archaeological Excavations Programme & the use of GIS from Project Design to Publication Finn Delaney & Maurizio Toscano Eachtra Archaeological Projects IAI Autumn conference Belfast 5th & 6th November 2010
  2. 2. Overview • Introduction The Scheme GIS – what is it? Why we adopted the methodology • Set-up • The system and process as developed • Benefits • Outcomes • Summary • Acknowledgements
  3. 3. Introduction
  4. 4. Eachtra Archaeological Projects were commissioned to provide archaeological services in four Phases • Phase 1 – Surveys, Test Excavations and Reporting • Phase 2 – Full Excavation of significant archaeological features or deposits discovered during the phase 1 works • Phase 3 – Post-excavation analyses and the production of illustrated reports fit for publication • Phase 4 - Monitoring
  5. 5. Phase 1 All work at phase 1 followed recommendations made by EIS for the scheme • Desk based study • Earthwork surveys • A building survey • Townland boundary Surveys • A watercourse survey • Test excavation by hand • Test excavation by machine • Field walking • Centre line testing by machine in all other areas (162,263 m²)
  6. 6. Project Team • 6 excavation teams – 6 directors (John Lehane, Gerry Mullins, Agnes Kerrigan, Tori McMorran, Linda Hegarty and Enda O’Mahony), 13 supervisors, 1 osteo archaeologist, 56 site assistants and 6 general operatives • Liaison officer/fencer • Surveyor and assistant • GIS x 3 – management, data input and reporting • Office manager and assistant • Senior Archaeologist
  7. 7. Phase 2 • 23 sites excavated – January to June 2008, November 2009 and March 2010 • Producing 1000’s of records – Context sheets – Registers – Samples – Finds – Photographs – Scaled drawings
  8. 8. Phase 3 – Post excavation Large specialist team highlights the collaborative nature of the project Speciality Name Artefact catalogue Sara Camplese Charcoal Mary Dillon Aerial photographs Gavin Duffy Isotope analysis Jane Evans Osteoarchaeology Jonny Geber Plant remains Penny Johnston Artefact conservation Susannah Kelly Historical research Alison McQueen Human bone illustration Malgorzata Kryczka Soil analysis Stephen Lancaster Anaiml bones Margaret McCarthy Early medieval Burial consultation Elizabeth O’Brien Lithic artefacts Farina Sternke Photography John Sunderland Reconstruction drawings Dan Tietzsch-Tyler GIS analysis Maurizio Toscano Interactive CD-ROM Robin Turk Archaeometallurgy Tim Young Radiocarbon dates 14 Chrono Centre at Queen’s University
  9. 9. GIS - Definition • A geographic information system (GIS), is any system that captures, stores, analyses, manages, and presents data that are linked to location • GIS is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis, and database technology (Wikipideia)
  10. 10. Set-up
  11. 11. Pre-excavation Planning and system building • Eachtra’s Recording Methodology & • Maurizio Toscano’s experience in GIS design and computer science gained in the Archaeological School of Sienna
  12. 12. The system and process as developed
  13. 13. The system • Two core elements • A relational database (Alphanumeric data – Photos, context sheets and registers) • A geo-database (store and manage scale drawings) • The data model was created from scratch to specifically deal with archaeological data • The structure was organised to gather all of the information produced and recorded during an excavation
  14. 14. Eachtra Documentation System Site Steps Office Steps Read-only open access map for consultation Restrict access for map making and data analysis Post-Ex update EAPOD GIS Specialist reports Registers Post-ex Plans (Raster and Vector) Photos Context Sheets
  15. 15. Relational database • The use of a proper database instead of a simple spreadsheet is crucial to the GIS system as a whole due to the necessity of ensuring data integrity and the control of language during data entry
  16. 16. Database structure Stratigraphic Index Finds Photos Samples 1:M Skeleton Sheets Drawings Masonry Sheets Specialists Reports 1:1 1:1 Stratigraphic Index
  17. 17. Eachtra Archaeological Projects Office Database
  18. 18. Geo-database • This is used on-site to store the digitised permatrace plans • Project data – excavation areas, CPO line, OS data, test trenches, chainage • Landscape data – Contour, townland, lakes and rivers, RMP sites and infrastructure • Geophysical data • Historic maps • Aerial Photographs
  19. 19. Permatrace plans • Individual plans are drawn by grid square (5x5 m.); • Each grid square plan is then scanned as a raster file and put into place by matching up the grid square points on the permatrace drawing to the corresponding grid square points on the GIS site plan.
  20. 20. Permatrace plans Plans ‘stitched’ together
  21. 21. Geophysical data
  22. 22. Aerial photos
  23. 23. Historical maps
  24. 24. Benefits
  25. 25. Benefits of GIS Benefits Micro Macro Planning √ √ Excavation √ √ Post- excavation √ √ Dissemination √ √
  26. 26. Micro or Site level Benefits
  27. 27. Macro or project Level Benefits
  28. 28. Research Themes Informed by the Review of Needs in Irish Archaeology – Heritage Council 2007 • early medieval settlement and society as reflected by the previously known sites recorded in the national Sites and Monuments Record and the new evidence from the cashel sites excavated for this project • burial and society in the early medieval period in south Galway • the Bronze Age landscape of south Galway as reflected by the previously known sites and stray finds, and new evidence from the burnt mounds excavated along the new road • settlement history in south Galway in the 19th and early 20th centuries as revealed by the demesne landscapes and the excavated tenant farmstead and clachan settlements
  29. 29. Outcomes • 23 Final Excavation reports • Articles • Banner Display • Interactive CD • Monograph Publication - ‘In the Lowlands of South Galway’
  30. 30. Summary of General Benefits • Planning tool which provides a structure, system and a process – it becomes a project management tool • All of the vast amount of data informs the results • Site plans become an instrument of research – vector data suited to publication and amalgamation • Allows for informed analysis of results on a site basis as well as on a project level • Allows for streamlined collaboration and Teamwork • The digital archive becomes a valuable resource
  31. 31. Benefits to the N18OG Project • Completed • Kept to Programme • Quality ? Presentation Data and Analysis
  32. 32. Acknowledgements • Jerry O’Sullivan, Project Archaeologist • Tony Collins and Laura Heneghan, Galway County Council • Joseph O’Brien, Engineering Consultancy, Hyder Tobin • Martin Reid, Department of the Environment Heritage, and Local Government • The co-operation with the testing and excavation programme by the landowners along the scheme is also gratefully acknowledged.