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Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)

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A group of over a hundred pits, postholes and stakeholes were located on the hilltop at Stagpark. The features dated from the Early Bronze Age to the Middle Iron Age which would suggest that the hilltop was occupied over a long period of time. Four pits containing burnt fills were recorded in Area A and Area C. The pits were similar in terms of morphology, size and date. The two sets of pits were located within 1m of each other and c. 40m apart. Almost identical Early Bronze Age dates were returned for two of the pits. The pits may have functioned as cremation pits, although minute traces of burnt bone was recorded in only one of the fills. They may also have been utilised for a domestic purpose. One of the two large pits (C.1001) in Area B was dated to the Early Bronze Age. It is difficult to interpret the function of these pits as they are exceptionally large. Stakeholes recorded on the upper sides of pit C.1001, these may have formed a frame or covering for the pit.
The recovery of two sherds of Late Bronze Age coarse ware from a pit, in the vicinity of the hearth-pit C.22, in the northwest section of Area A, would indicate that this area was utilised during the Late Bronze Age. A cluster of three pits and eight stakeholes were located to the southeast of the hearth.
Four of the stakeholes in particular could have formed a shelter around the hearth open to the west.
Although no dating evidence was obtained from the features in the vicinity of the large pits C.66 and C.90 it is possible that they are associated with the Late Bronze Age activity surrounding the hearth C.22.
A Middle Iron Age date was returned from the later re-cut of the large pit C.110. An L-shaped alignment, consisting of three pits, 13 stakeholes and three postholes, extended to the north and east of the pit. The alignment measured c. 6m north-south by 13m east-west. It could be associated with the Middle Iron Age pit C.110, the Early Bronze Age cremation pits or the Late Bronze Age features.
A number of fulachta fiadh were recorded downslope to the north and south of the site. Three burnt mounds were recorded (CO019-019, -020 and -021) within 500m of the site, while four other burnt mounds were excavated as part of this road project; Stagpark 1 (04E1119) was 600m to the south, Stagpark 2 (04E1121) was 200m away to the north and Mitchelstown 2 (04E1071) was 1.5km to the north. The fulachta fiadh are located on heavier clay subsoil. Radiocarbon dates obtained from some of the burnt mounds would suggest that these sites were utilized during the Early Bronze Age.
The site, possibly located on the margins of prehistoric settlement, forms an interesting contrast to a Middle Bronze Age settlement site excavated at Mitchelstown 1 (04E1072). The remains of at least three circular houses were excavated at Mitchelstown 1. The site was located on a limestone ridge on the northern bank of the Gradoge River. The opposing site on the southern bank of the Gradoge River was subsequently occupied by the Anglo Normans in the thirteenth century. The material evidence recorded on site was scant. No associated pits and stakeholes were associated with the structures. It is possible that these features were located outside the route corridor.

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Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)

  1. 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 10 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report 04E1120 - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork Bronze Age and Iron Age features
  2. 2. Final Excavation Report of Bronze Age and Iron Agefeatures at Stagpark,N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road,Co. CorkJuly 2006Client: Cork County Council, National Roads Office, Richmond, Glanmire, Co. Cork.Licence No.: 04E1120Licensee: Bruce Sutton Contact details: The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork. Tel.: 021 470 16 16 Fax: 021 470 16 28 E-mail: info@eachtra.ie Web Site: www.eachtra.ie
  3. 3. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Table of Contents i Acknowledgements ............................................................................................ iv ii Project details .....................................................................................................v iii Non-Technical Summary ................................................................................... vi 1 Introduction .......................................................................................................1 1.1 Site location ..................................................................................................1 1.2 Scope of the Project ......................................................................................1 1.3 Circumstances of discovery ..........................................................................1 1.4 Date and duration of excavation works .........................................................2 1.5 Size and composition of the excavation team ................................................2 2 Receiving Environment ......................................................................................3 2.1 The Natural Landscape ................................................................................3 2.2 The Human Landscape ................................................................................4 3 Original Research Framework ............................................................................8 4 Excavation Results ..............................................................................................9 4.1 Excavation Methodology ..............................................................................9 4.2 Full Stratigraphic Report ..............................................................................9 5 Conclusion ......................................................................................................... 15 6 Bibliography ...................................................................................................... 16 6.1 Other Sources .............................................................................................17 7 Figures ............................................................................................................... 18 8 Plates .................................................................................................................28 9 Appendices ........................................................................................................ 34 9.1 Appendix 1: Matrices .................................................................................34 9.2 Appendix 2: Context Register .....................................................................44 9.3 Appendix 3: Finds Register.........................................................................71 9.4 Appendix 4: Plant Remains Report for 04E1120 ........................................72 9.5 Appendix 5: Pottery Report ........................................................................74 9.6 Appendix 6: Lithics Finds Report for 04E1020 – Mitchelstown .................76 9.7 Appendix 7: Bone Report ...........................................................................77 9.8 Appendix 8: Summary account of site archive .............................................78 9.9 Appendix 9: Dissemination Strategy............................................................78Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ iii
  4. 4. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 List of Figures Figure 1: Portion of discovery map showing route of N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. ...........................18 Figure 2: Portion of RMP sheets CO019 & CO010 showing route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. .. ..............................................................................................................................................19 Figure 3: Portion of 1st edition maps sheets 10 & 19 showing Mitchelstown Demesne and the route of the N8 Mitchelstown Road. ................................................................................................................. 20 Figure 4: Route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road showing location of all archaeological sites. .......21 Figure 5 Portion of route of N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road showing location of Excavation Areas A, B and C. ..............................................................................................................................................22 Figure 6: Post-excavation plan Area A. .................................................................................................23 Figure 7: Post-excavation plan and section of hearth C.22 Area A. ..................................................... 24 Figure 8: Sections of C.66 and C.110 Area A. ......................................................................................25 Figure 9: Post-excavation plan and sections Area B. .............................................................................26 Figure 10: Post-excavation plan Area C. ...............................................................................................27 List of Plates Plate 1: Area A post-excavation from east. .............................................................................................28 Plate 2: Area A post-excavation from west. ............................................................................................28 Plate 3: View of hearth C.22 mid-excavation Area A. ...........................................................................29 Plate 4: View of hearth C.22 post-excavation Area A. ...........................................................................29 Plate 5: View of pit C.110 mid-excavation Area A. ................................................................................30 Plate 6: View of pit C.66 mid-excavation Area A. .................................................................................30 Plate 7: View of pit C.83 pre-excavation Area A. ...................................................................................31 Plate 8: View of pit C.83 mid-excavation Area A. .................................................................................31 Plate 9: View of pits C.1014 and C.1001 mid-excavation Area B. ..........................................................32 Plate 10: View of eastern section pit C.1001 Area B. .............................................................................32 Plate 11: View of pit C.2002 Area C. ....................................................................................................33 Plate 12: View of pit C.2004 Area C. ....................................................................................................33Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ iv
  5. 5. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 i Acknowledgements Eachtra Archaeological Projects would like to acknowledge the following organisations and people for their contributions to this project. Cork County Council Ken Hanley Project Archaeologist for Cork County Council David Herbert Plant Hire Ltd The Site Excavation team Karen Buckley, Helen Doyle, Ian Magee, Vera Manning, Ciaran O’Seaghdha and Bruce Sutton. The Post-Excavation team Karen Buckley, Sara Camplese, Anluan Dunne, Enda O’Mahoney, Bruce Sutton and Robin Turk. Archaeological Specialists Plant remains report by Abigail Brewer and Penny Johnston, Burnt bone report by Linda Fibiger, Pot- tery report by Helen Roche and Eoin Grogan and Lithics report by Farina Sternke.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ v
  6. 6. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Project details Project N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road Site Name Stagpark 1 Site Type Bronze Age and Iron Age features Licence No. 04E1120 Licensee Bruce Sutton Townland Stagpark Nat. Grid Ref. 180057 111912 – 180042 112007 Report Type Excavation Report Report Status Final Report Date of Submission July 2006 Distribution Ken Hanley, Project Archaeologist Cork County Council, Dept. of the En- vironment, Heritage and Local Government, National Museum of Ireland and Cork Archaeological Survey Office.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ vi
  7. 7. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Non-Technical Summary This report details the results of an archaeological excavation undertaken by Eachtra Archaeological Projects of a site on the route of the proposed N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road, on behalf of Cork County Council. The proposed bypass involves the construction of 4.5km of the N8 from Cloonlough, south of Mitchelstown, to the junction of the R513 and the N8, north of Mitchelstown. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in June, July and Septem- ber 2004 under licences 04E0889-04E0892 issued by Department of the Environment Heritage and Local Government (DoEHLG). The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test sites of ar- chaeological potential identified in the EIS and geophysical surveying and to test for any previously unknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sites identified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the construction of the bypass in order to avoid delays and costs during construction works. This phase of the project was carried out from September- December 2004 and excavations were conducted by two licensed directors under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. In total five sites were excavated during this phase of works and all excavations were carried out initially under separate licences issued by DoEHLG and subsequently under Ministe- rial Order. One of these sites, Stagpark 1 is the subject of this report. It was identified in the testing in the town- land of Stagpark, between chainages 1400-1500 of the proposed road scheme and excavated under Licence Number 04E1120. The site comprised a complex of features dating to the Early Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age and Iron Age.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ vii
  8. 8. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 1 Introduction 1.1 Site location This report details the results of the archaeological excavation of a site on N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road (MRR), County Cork (National Grid Co-ordinates 180057 111912 – 180042 112007). The site is located c.1.5 km to the west of Mitchelstown, 700m south of the N73 Mitchelstown to Mallow road (Figure 1). It is located in the townland of Stagpark, the Parish of Brigown and barony of Condons and Clangibbon. 1.2 Scope of the Project This Archaeological Services Project was carried out on behalf of Cork County Council, National Roads Design Office, Richmond, Glanmire, Co. Cork. This project was funded by the Irish Govern- ment under the National Development Plan, 2000-2006. The purpose of the Project was to conduct Archaeological Site Investigations within the lands made available for the scheme and to assess the nature and extent of any new or potential archaeological sites uncovered. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in June, July and Septem- ber 2004 under licences 04E0889-04E0892 issued by Department of the Environment Heritage and Local Government (DoEHLG). The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test sites of ar- chaeological potential identified in the EIS and geophysical surveying and to test for any previously unknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sites identified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the construction of the bypass in order to avoid delays and costs during construction works. This phase of the project was carried out from September- December 2004 and excavations were conducted by two licensed directors under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. In total five sites were excavated during this phase of works and all excavations were carried out initially under separate licences issued by DoEHLG and subsequently under Ministe- rial Order. Following completion of fieldwork a dissemination strategy was undertaken and submitted to the project archaeologist. A programme of post-excavation analysis was agreed and commenced. It is pro- posed that all final reports will be submitted to the relevant authorities by December 2005 and that publication and public lectures/seminars will follow thereafter. A lecture on the preliminary findings was given to Mitchelstown Historical Society in May 2005 by the project and senior archaeologists. It is envisaged that a second lecture will be given to Mitchelstown Historical Society during their au- tumn/winter programme 2006-07. 1.3 Circumstances of discovery Prehistoric archaeological material was discovered at Stagpark 1 during archaeological test trenching undertaken in June 2004 under licence 04E0890. Topsoil in the vicinity of the sites was subsequently stripped by tracked machine using a flat bucket under the direction of the licensed director. When the limits of the site had been determined, full excavation of the site commenced under license 04E1120.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 1
  9. 9. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 1.4 Date and duration of excavation works The excavation commenced on 11th August 2004 under licence 04E1120 and was completed on the 3rd September 2004. 1.5 Size and composition of the excavation team The archaeological excavation team consisted of the license holder, one supervisor, three site assistants and one general operative.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 2
  10. 10. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 2 Receiving Environment 2.1 The Natural Landscape 2.1.1 Geology The topography of East Cork and Waterford consists of east-west orientated valleys separated by in- tervening ridges. The ridges consist of sandstones and mudstones of the Devonian Period (Old Red Sandstone) laid down 355-410 million years ago and the valleys of Carboniferous limestones laid down 290-355 million years ago. The sediments covering many of the rocks are mainly of glacial origin deposited by glacial ice or meltwater (Sleeman et al. 1995, 1). Major earth movements have resulted in the uplifting and folding of the rock units. Anticlines occur when local uplift results in a convex upward fold. Synclines occur when local uplift results in a concave upward fold (ibid. 3). The Mitchelstown Syncline is composed of a variety of Carboniferous Formations. Three of these for- mations are located in the area of the route of the N8 MRR. The Croane Formation is composed of a mixture of mudstones and cherts and is estimated to be about 300m thick (ibid. 31). The Rathronan Formation is composed of micrites, wackestones and cherts (ibid. 32). The O’Mahony’s Rock Forma- tion consists of micrites, packstones, wackestones and grainstones and is estimated to be about 100m thick. The type area is between Mitchestown Castle and Killee House to the west (ibid.). 2.1.2 Soils and their uses The soils to the north of the Gradoge River to the west of Mitchelstown are characterised by a mix of acid brown earths, gleys and grey brown podzolics, which are derived from mixed sandstone and limestone glacial till while the underlying rock is Carboniferous limestone. The acid brown earths and gleys occur in the gently rolling valleys of Cork and Waterford mainly at altitudes of 0-75m (Gardiner 1980, 61). The soils have a wide use range and are suitable for tillage and grass production. The soils to the south of the Gradoge River are characterized by a mix of gleys and peaty gleys which are derived from glacial till of mixed sandstone-shale composition with a small admixture of limestone in places. They occur mostly at altitudes of 76m to 152m. The soils have a limited use range as they are poorly drained even on good slopes. They are best suited to grassland (ibid. 77-79) 2.1.3 Topography The route of the N8 Mitchelstown relief road (MRR) traverses the townlands of Cloonlough, Stag Park and Mitchelstown on the western side of the town of Mitchelstown. The route extends from the N8 c. 1km south of Mitchelstown, crosses the N73 Mitchelstown/Mallow road, the Gradoge River Valley and traverses the ridge on the northern side of the river valley to the junction of the R513 Mitch- elstown/Ballylanders road and rejoins the N8. The northern half of the route traverses Mitchelstown Demesne, breaching the estate wall at the junction with the N73 and the R513. The southern half of the route climbs from c. 120m OD to 130m OD before descending to the banks of the Gradoge River, 80m OD and climbing northwards to the apex of the limestone ridge 110m OD.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 3
  11. 11. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 The land is for the most part under pasture and is located at an altitude of between 80-130m OD. The landscape of the Mitchelstown area is dominated by the Galtee Mountains to the north, the Bal- lyhoura Mountains to the west and the Kilworth Mountains (the foothills of the Knockmealdown Mountains) to the south. The Gradoge River is a tributary of the Funshion River. It rises south of Mitchelstown on the southern slopes of the Kilworth Mountains and drains into the Funshion to the immediate west of the route of the N8 MRR. The River Funshion drains into the River Blackwater south of Kilworth. The site of Stagpark 1 was located at the top of a hill in an area of pastoral grassland. The ground sloped away at a gentle gradient on all sides. The area commands extensive views in all directions, par- ticularly to the north and south. The drainage within the field was poor and there was a large active field drain that extended across the southwest corner of the site. The field to the south, which lay down slope, was also extremely waterlogged and an area of rushes could be traced around a depression in the field, possibly delineating the extent of an old pond. 2.2 The Human Landscape 2.2.1 Archaeological Background There is a paucity of known archaeological sites within a 2 km radius of the route of the N8 MRR. Three prehistoric sites, fulachta fiadh (CO019-019, -020, -021) are recorded in Stagpark and Bal- lykearney between 100-500m of the route corridor. The site of Mitchelstown Castle (CO019-026), the associated demesne and the historic town of Mitchelstown (CO019-149) are the principle medieval and post-medieval sites in the vicinity of the route corridor (Figures 2 and 3). 2.2.2 Mesolithic 7000 BC - 4000 BC The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 7000 BC - 4000 BC). In Munster, the majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Mesolithic occupation has ‘come from the Blackwater valley in Co. Cork’ (Woodman 1989, 116). Flint scatters were recorded in the townlands of Ballynamona (CO018-099) and Wallstown (CO018-100) on the northern and southern sides of the Awbeg river respectively c. 15km to the west of the route of the N8 MRR (Power et. al. 2000, 2). 2.2.3 Neolithic 4000 BC -2500 BC The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the beginnings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became more sedentary in nature. Sub- stantial Neolithic settlement sites have been recorded at Lough Gur, Co. Limerick and Cloghers, Co. Kerry. The material culture includes the manufacture of pottery, flint and stone arrowheads, scrapers, axes etc. The range of monuments types includes Megalithic tombs (court tombs, portal tombs, pas- sage tombs and wedge tombs), single burial graves and stone circles.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 4
  12. 12. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 There is a paucity of evidence for Neolithic settlement sites in the south-west of Ireland. Recent in- frastructural development has increased the amount of Neolithic sites in County Cork. The nearest known Neolithic house was excavated on the N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy in the townland of Gortore. The structure was dated to the Early Neolithic cal BC 3928-3655 (UB 6769). Further evidence of the Neolithic was recorded at Fermoy and Curraghprevin. 2.2.4 Bronze Age 2000 BC -500 BC The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy, the mining of copper ores and manufacture of copper, bronze and gold items. The range of burial site types includes, cist graves, pit and urn burials, cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and standing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sites are known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh, over 2,000 examples have been recorded in County Cork alone. These monuments survive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt packed with heat-shattered stones and are generally situated close to a water source. In many cases, however, all that survives to the present day are black spreads with fragments of shattered stones visible in ploughed fields. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as ‘cooking places’, whereby stones were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a trough of water, the water continued to boil with the addition of hot stones and wrapped food was cooked within the hot water. The trough eventually filled with small stones, ash and charcoal that were removed and formed the basis of the familiar mound. The absence of animal remains and the scarcity of associated hearths have fuelled the debate in relation to the func- tion of the sites. Other theories on their interpretation include bathing and dyeing textiles together with the production of hot water and steam for curative purposes and sweat houses (Kelly 1989, 225). Waddell (1998, 177) suggests the semi-industrial purpose of using the boiling water for dipping hides as part of the preparation of the leather, while Dunne (pers. comm.) suggests a relationship between burnt mounds and Bronze Age funerary rites and burial practices. There are few wedge tombs or stone circles known from north or east Cork. Two of the exceptions are wedge tombs located at Labbacallee (CO027-086) and at Manning (CO027-091) both located c. 8 km south of the N8 MRR. Labbacallee is one of the largest wedge tombs in the country. The cemetery of Mitchelstowndown West contains 53 small barrows. Four of this group were selected for excavation by the Discovery Programme (Daly et. al. 1992, 44). The site of the cemetery is located 16 km to the north of the N8 MRR. Until recently Bronze Age settlement sites were a rarity in North Cork. A Bronze Age occupation site was recorded underlying the medieval ringfort Lisleagh I (CO027-158) c.3.5km to the south of the N8 MRR (Power et. al. 2000, 210). A house site was excavated at Killydonoghoe on the route of the N8 Glanmire-Watergrasshill Bypass (Sherlock, 2003). A large Bronze Age settlement site consisting of four enclosures and three circular houses was excavated in 2003 at Ballybrowney on the route of thePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 5
  13. 13. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy (Cotter 2004, 38). A Middle Bronze Age settlement site was excavated in Mitchelstown (04E1072), a complex of Early and Late Bronze Age pits were excavated in Stagpark (04E1120) and three fulachta fiadh were exca- vated in Stagpark (04E1121 & 04E1119) on the route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. In addition a rare and important hoard of Early Bronze Age pottery was excavated on the banks of the Gradoge River (04E1071). 2.2.5 Iron Age 500 BC – 400 AD At present, there is little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in the Cork region. Settlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify (Woodman, 2000) while the material cul- ture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks, which are believed to have marked tribal boundaries are one of the most visible monuments of the period. Three separate stretches of one such boundary, the Claidh Dubh, have been recorded in County Cork. The longest stretch, c. 24 km extends from the Nagle Mountains, across the Blackwater valley and into the Ballyhoura Hills. The Claidh Dubh crosses the N73 c. 12km west of the N8 MRR. Radiocarbon dating following excavation of a section of it revealed it dated to some time before 100AD (Doody 1995, 23). Three of the five hillfort sites in Cork are located in North Cork (Power et al, 2000, 205). Caherdrinny is located at the western end of the Kilworth Mountains, c. 3 km to the south of the N8 MRR and Corrin is located at the eastern end of the Nagle Mountains c. 15 km to the south of the N8 MRR. A complex of monuments in Conva townland (c. 15 km to the southwest of the N8 MRR) was identi- fied by aerial photography in the Blackwater Valley. Crop marks indicated three enclosures (CO034- 7201, -7202, -7203) and a number of large pits (CO034-7204) possibly comprising a rectangular enclosure. The site was investigated in 1992 by Martin Doody of the Discovery Programme which involved geophysical prospection, topographic survey and trial excavation. Sections were dug through the three enclosures and through four of the large pits. Metal debris was discovered and radiocarbon dates indicated that the complex dated to the Iron Age/Early Medieval period. A complex of pits, dating to the Iron Age, cal BC 346-45 (UB6719) was excavated in Stagpark (04E1120) on the route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. 2.2.6 Early Medieval 400 AD – 1000 AD The Early Medieval Period/Early Christian Period is characterised by the arrival of Christianiaty to Ireland. Early ecclesiastical sites are located at Brigown (CO019-030) on the southeastern side of Mitchelstown and to the west of the N8 MRR at Aghacross (CO019-002), Leabba Molagga and Mar- shalstown. The monastery of Brigown founded in the 7th century gives its name to the modern parish (Power 1996, 3).Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 6
  14. 14. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 The characteristic monument type of the period was the ringfort. Ringforts are the most numerous archaeological monument dating to the Early Christian Period, found in Ireland, with estimates of between 30 and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s (Barry, 1987). As a result of continued research these monuments have a narrow date range during the Early Christian period between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. Although there are some very elaborate examples of ringforts they often take the form of a simple earth or stone enclosure and functioned as settlements for all classes of secular society (Stout, 1997). A major research excavation of two ringfort was undertaken at Lisleagh c. 3.5km to the south of the route of the N8 MRR. Structural, domestic and industrial evidence was recorded at both sites. A number of stake and wattle round houses, and iron working were recorded in Lisleagh I. Two phases of occupation were recorded at Lisleagh I. The Lisleagh I was constructed in the early seventh century and was occupied into the ninth century AD (Monk 1995, 105-116). 2.2.7 Medieval 1000 AD – 1300 AD & Late Medieval 1300 AD -1500 AD The period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans. Mitchelstown was formerly known as Brigown / Mitchelstown (CO019-149). It was listed as a market town in 1299 and was located on the southern bank of the Gradoge River, to the east of Mitchelstown Castle (Power, D. et al. 2000, 595). The town developed under the patronage of the House of Desmond. It passed into the hands of the Earls of Kingston in the 17th century (Power 1996, 23). Mitchelstown Castle was located on a limestone ridge on the southern bank of the Gradoge River. The first settlers, the Anglo-Norman FitzGibbons, held the title of White Knights. Their territory extended from Mitchelstown to Kilmallock (Power 2000, 1) and they built a tower house on the ridge. The White Knight lineage ended in the 17th century and the estate passed through marriage into the hands of the Fenton family (ibid. 3) and ultimately to the Kingstons. The earlier castle was destroyed in the wars of 1641. A corn-drying kiln dating to the Later Medieval Period cal AD 1310-1434 (UB 6833) was excavated in Stagpark 2 (04E1121). 2.2.8 Post-Medieval 1500 AD – 1800 AD In 1776 Lord Kingsborough, the 2nd earl of Kingston, created the new town of Mitchelstown. He demolished the old town between Kingston College and the Castle. Kingston College developed into a Georgian square. The new town was centred between the two parallel main streets of George Street and Cork Street. King Square and New Market Square became the focal points of the town (ibid.). St George’s Church, built in 1801, was located at the southern end of George Street and King Square at the northern end. New Market Square was located midway and on the western side of Cork Street. The new town was built on 138 acres. Lord Kingsborough, the second earl of Kingston, built a new mansion on the site of the White Knights castle and a demesne around the mansion in the 18th century. A demesne wall was constructed aroundPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 7
  15. 15. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 the parkland of some 1240 acres. The wall was ‘six-and-a-quarter-mile long…between eight and ten feet in height’ (Power 1996, 24). All public roads that were located within the area of the demesne were closed and rerouted on the periphery of the wall. Entry to the demesne was gained through Mallow Gate also known as White Gate, Limerick Gate and the main entrance was at King Square. Extensive works were undertaken within the area of the demesne which resulted in ‘a quadrangle of buildings, a garden of five English acres surrounded by a wall, large conservatories and lavishly arranged gardens became part of the scene. Two artificial lakes were developed beneath the rockface on which the castle stood ’ (ibid., 24). Several hundred acres of woodland comprising of oak, ash, larch, beech and alder were planted within the demesne. In 1823 the third earl of Kingston demolished the Georgian house and built a new castle on the same site. The architects James and George Pain designed and built this neo-Gothic castellated mansion. The limestone buildings formed three sides of a courtyard (Power 1996, 42). Mitchelstown Castle was burnt by Republican forces in 1922. The stone was bought by the Cistercian Monks of Mount Melleray and reused to build a church. Few traces of the castle are visible today. At present, Dairygold occupies the site of the former castle. The 1240 acres of parkland was divided into farms, the town park and a golf course. 3 Original Research Framework The following issues will be addressed in this excavation report.  The construction date or date of initial site activity and the date of abandonment.  The absolute / relative chronology of site use in terms of phases and events.  The location of known contemporaneous and comparable sites.  The extent of the viable economic catchment area in terms of sources of water, food, raw materials, transportation routes etcPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 8
  16. 16. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 4 Excavation Results 4.1 Excavation Methodology Three areas were excavated under license 04E1120 at Stagpark 1 (Figure 5). The site was divided into three areas of activity, A, B and C. Area A was located on the summit of the hill, it measured 25m N-S by 38m E-W. Area B was located 15m to the north with an area of excavation that measured 15m N-S by 10m E-W. Area C was located 25m downslope to the north. The area of excavation measured 8m N-S by 15m E-W. A grid was established in each area of excavation of Stagpark 1 and the ground within it was cleaned by hand to locate and identify all archaeological features. Each identified feature was excavated, planned, photographed and recorded, with every fill and cut being assigned a context number. Charcoal and soil samples were taken from appropriate fills where necessary. All artefacts were retrieved, registered, bagged and labelled. 4.2 Full Stratigraphic Report See Appendix 1 for the full stratagraphic matrix 4.2.1 Stratigraphic sequencing 4.2.1.1 Area A A total of 95 features were excavated across Area A at Stagpark 1 (Figure 6). This included 59 stake- holes, 10 postholes and 27 pits of various sizes. An Early Bronze Age date and a Middle Iron Age date were returned for two of the features. A single fragment of flint (04E1120:213:4) was recovered from the topsoil in Area A; it was identified as a small core, un-diagnostic in nature. Many of the features can be roughly grouped in to clusters of pits, postholes and stakeholes, with some isolated features scattered across the site. Unless otherwise stated the features contained single fill. Early Bronze Age Two small pits (C.83 and C.84) were located in the southern central portion of the site, 1.2m apart. Pit C.83 contained a single silt fill which included frequent charcoal. The charcoal was identified as ash and returned a radiocarbon date of cal BC 1885-1690 (UB-6721). Pit C.84 contained two fills (C.92 and C.93). The upper silt fill included charcoal and minute flecks of burnt bone. The burnt bone was too small and degraded to be extracted and identified but the charcoal from this pit was also identi- fied as ash. While the pits contained burnt fills the material had not been burnt in situ. The pits were similar in terms of size and fill to two pits (C.2002 and C.2004) located c.100m to the north in Area C and they were interpreted as possible cremation pits.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 9
  17. 17. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 A single pit (C.143) and stakehole (C.136) were located c. 2m to the northeast of the possible cremation pits and another single pit (C.119), stakehole (C.124) and posthole (C.129) were located c. 5m to the south of the possible cremation pits. Late Bronze Age A large steep sided hearth-pit C.22 was located in the northwestern area of the site. The three fills (C.21, C.26 and C.27) included a large quantity of burnt clay and charcoal. The base of the hearth was heat-scorched. It was the only feature on site that displayed definite evidence of in situ burning. A single stakehole cut the base of the hearth and two stakeholes were located to the south and north of the hearth respectively. A cluster of three pits (C.13, C.20 and C.29) were located to the southeast of the hearth. The fill of pit C.20 included two sherds of Late Bronze Age pottery (04E1120:19:1 and 2). Another pit C.9 was located to the northwest. Eight stakeholes (C.6, C.15, C.18, C.24, C.31, C.33, C.35 and C.39) were located within 2.5m of the hearth. Although the stakeholes appeared to form no obvious pattern or structure, it is possible that some (C.6, C.39, C.43, and C.45 in particular) may have formed a wind- break, spit or fire-side furniture associated with the hearth. A shallow pit C.2, 0.05m in depth, was located 9m to the north of the hearth C.22. The base of the pit was cut by two stakeholes (C.4 and C.5). The features located in the south-western and northern central portion of the site are tentively dated to the Late Bronze Age on the basis of similarity with the Late Bronze Age features already described. A large pit C.66 was located in the south-western portion of the site. Two stakeholes (C.75 and C.77) were located to the north and south of the pit respectively, in a pattern similar to those located on the periphery of the hearth C.22. A further two stakeholes (C.51 and C.57) were located to the northwest. Eight stakeholes, two postholes and a pit were located in isolation or in small clusters c. 4m to the east and west of the pit C.66. 16 stakeholes (C.87, C.94, C.95, C.96, C.98, C.99, C.100, C.101, C.103, C.104, C.106, C.107, C.108, C.112 and C.113), two postholes (C.91 and C.97) and a pit C.90 were located in the northern central portion of the site. Four of the stakeholes cut the base of the pit (C.98, C.99, C.100 and C.101) and the remaining stakeholes, many of which were intercut, were located to the north of the pit. The two postholes were located at the western end of the pit. Four pits (C.162, C.165 C.168 and C.210) and a single stakehole (C.166) were located to the west of the pit C.90 and associated stakeholes. Middle Iron Age A large pit C.110 was located in the southern central portion of the site. It had been re-cut twice, initially by pit C.159 and laterally by pit C.109. A radiocarbon date of cal BC 346-45 (UB 6719) wasPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 10
  18. 18. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 returned from charcoal retrieved from the fill of pit C.109. A shallow pit (C.139) and an alignment of six irregularly spaced stakeholes (C.117, C.122, C.126, C.131, C.133 and C.138) were located to the north of pit C.110. The stakeholes extended north-south for a distance of c. 3.5m. A further alignment of two pits (C.147 and C201) seven stakeholes (C.158, C.161, C.170, C.172, C.173, C.185 and C.207) and three postholes (C.183, C.204 and C.212) were located in the central eastern section of the site. The alignment extended c.13 m from east-west and formed a right angle with the alignment of six stakeholes to the west. An alignment of four pits ((C.176, C.191, C.185 and C.197). three postholes (C.175, C.178 and C.187) and two small stakeholes (C.181 and C.189) was located to the east of pit C.110. The alignment was orientated northeast-southwest. 4.2.1.2 Area B Early Bronze Age Three pits (C.1001, C.1016 and C.1014) and a single posthole (C.1012) were excavated in Area B (Fig- ure 2, plate 1). Two of the pits (C.1001 and C.1014) were extremely large. C.1001 measured 6.25m by 3.25m by 2.18m deep and contained clay fills. The lower two fills included charcoal and burnt clay. Very occasional small fragments of burnt bone were retrieved from the lower fills of the pit and they were examined by L. Fibiger. The majority of the bone could not be identified as animal or human, though at least one animal bone fragment was present in the sample. A radiocarbon date of cal BC 2130-1887 (UB 6745) was returned from charcoal retrieved from the basal fill C.1011. 11 stakeholes were located around the upper southern half of the pit and five stakeholes around the upper northern and eastern half. Pit C.1014 was located c. 1.5m southwest of pit C.1001. It measured 4.3m by 3.64m, by more than 2.05m in depth and had been re-cut. The full depth of the pit could not be realised due to health and safety reasons. The re-cut C.1025 measured 3.64 in diameter by 1.33m in depth. The third pit C.1016 was located c. 4m to the north-west. It was irregular in plan and measured 0.64m by 0.34m by 0.12m deep. The posthole C.1012 (0.31m by 0.39m by 0.31m in depth) was located c. 3m south of the pit. 4.2.1.3 Area C Early Bronze Age Three pits (C.2002, C.2004 and C.2007) were recorded in Area C. The silt fill of pits C.2002 and C.2004 included frequent charcoal. Some of the charcoal was identified as hazel/alder. A radiocarbon date of cal BC 1885-1689 (UB-6720) was returned from charcoal from pit C.2002. The pits were simi- lar in terms of size and fill to two pits (C.83 and C.84) excavated in Area A. Pit C.2007 was locatedPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 11
  19. 19. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 1m to the north. It contained two clay fills (C.2005 and C.2006) which included occasional flecks of charcoal. 4.2.2 Stratigraphic discussion A total of 103 features were excavated at Stagpark 1 these included 58 stakeholes, 12 postholes and 33 pits of various sizes, in an area that measured in total c. 48m N-S by 62m E-W. All of the features cut the sub-soil and no occupation horizons or discernible structures were recorded. The features can be grouped on the basis of radiocarbon dates and morphology to the Early Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age and Middle Iron Age. A group of four pits containing burnt fills and two very large pits were dated to the Early Bronze Age, at least three large pits with associated smaller pits, stakeholes and postholes were tentively dated to the Later Bronze Age and a large pit and associated L-shaped alignment of stakeholes and pits are dated to the Middle Iron Age. 4.2.2.1 Radiocarbon dates Radiocarbon dates were returned from the Radiocarbon Laboratory at Queens University Belfast. The four dates returned were accelerator dates obtained from samples of charcoal. Three of the dates are Early Bronze Age, the fourth is Middle Iron Age. Table 1 Lab. Code Sample Ma- Context No. Yrs BP Calibrated Dates terial 2 sigma UB-6719 Charcoal 109 2114 +/- 34 cal BC 346-45 UB-6720 Charcoal 2001 3461 +/- 38 cal BC 1885-1689 UB-6721 Charcoal 88 3463 +/- 38 cal BC 1885-1690 UB-6745 Charcoal 1011 3621 +/- 38 cal BC 2130-1887 4.2.2.2 Plant Remains The plant remains were examined by A. Brewer and P. Johnston (Appendix 4). No plant remains other than charcoal were recorded from any of the samples taken from 04E1120. 4.2.2.3 Pottery The pottery was examined by H. Roche and E. Grogan (Appendix 5). A base-angle sherd and a body sherd were uncovered in pit C.20 and represent a single Late Bronze Age flat-based coarse vessel. Traces of carbonised matter are present on the interior surface of the fabric, a probable indication that it had been used at some stage in a domestic context. This type of pottery is consistent with other coarse, flat-based Late Bronze Age vessels found in domestic and funerary contexts throughout the country, for example, at Mondaniel 1, on the N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy Bypass (Roche and Grogan 2005). 4.2.2.4 Lithics The lithics were examined by Farina Sternke (Appendix 6). A single flint core was recovered from thePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 12
  20. 20. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 topsoil. It is undiagnostic in nature but is likely to be associated with the Bronze Age features. 4.2.2.5 Cremated bone The cremated bone assemblage was examined by L. Fibiger (Appendix 7). 17 fragments were retrieved from a fill of pit C.1001 in Area B. Surface preservation was poor and none of the fragments were diag- nostic. The majority of remains could therefore not be positively identified as either animal or human bone. At least one animal bone fragment appeared to be present, identified through its very smooth and almost polished cortical surface. 4.2.2.6 Discussion & Interpretation A group of over a hundred pits, postholes and stakeholes were located on the hilltop at Stagpark. The features dated from the Early Bronze Age to the Middle Iron Age which would suggest that the hilltop was occupied over a long period of time. Four pits containing burnt fills were recorded in Area A and Area C. The pits were similar in terms of morphology, size and date. The two sets of pits were located within 1m of each other and c. 40m apart. Almost identical Early Bronze Age dates were returned for two of the pits. The pits may have functioned as cremation pits, although minute traces of burnt bone was recorded in only one of the fills. They may also have been utilised for a domestic purpose. One of the two large pits (C.1001) in Area B was dated to the Early Bronze Age. It is difficult to interpret the function of these pits as they are exceptionally large. Stakeholes recorded on the upper sides of pit C.1001, these may have formed a frame or covering for the pit. The recovery of two sherds of Late Bronze Age coarse ware from a pit, in the vicinity of the hearth-pit C.22, in the northwest section of Area A, would indicate that this area was utilised during the Late Bronze Age. A cluster of three pits and eight stakeholes were located to the southeast of the hearth. Four of the stakeholes in particular could have formed a shelter around the hearth open to the west. Although no dating evidence was obtained from the features in the vicinity of the large pits C.66 and C.90 it is possible that they are associated with the Late Bronze Age activity surrounding the hearth C.22. A Middle Iron Age date was returned from the later re-cut of the large pit C.110. An L-shaped align- ment, consisting of three pits, 13 stakeholes and three postholes, extended to the north and east of the pit. The alignment measured c. 6m north-south by 13m east-west. It could be associated with the Middle Iron Age pit C.110, the Early Bronze Age cremation pits or the Late Bronze Age features. A number of fulachta fiadh were recorded downslope to the north and south of the site. Three burnt mounds were recorded (CO019-019, -020 and -021) within 500m of the site, while four other burnt mounds were excavated as part of this road project; Stagpark 1 (04E1119) was 600m to the south, Stagpark 2 (04E1121) was 200m away to the north and Mitchelstown 2 (04E1071) was 1.5km to the north. The fulachta fiadh are located on heavier clay subsoil. Radiocarbon dates obtained from some of the burnt mounds would suggest that these sites were utilized during the Early Bronze Age.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 13
  21. 21. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 The site, possibly located on the margins of prehistoric settlement, forms an interesting contrast to a Middle Bronze Age settlement site excavated at Mitchelstown 1 (04E1072). The remains of at least three circular houses were excavated at Mitchelstown 1. The site was located on a limestone ridge on the northern bank of the Gradoge River. The opposing site on the southern bank of the Gradoge River was subsequently occupied by the Anglo Normans in the thirteenth century. The material evidence recorded on site was scant. No associated pits and stakeholes were associated with the structures. It is possible that these features were located outside the route corridor.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 14
  22. 22. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 5 Conclusion The archaeological evidence, including the range of dating evidence, from Stagpark 1 would suggest that the hilltop was occupied on a long-term intermittent basis. It was not possible to discern between all features that related to Bronze Age activity as opposed to Iron Age activity and it is possible that later phases of activity could have destroyed the earlier evidence. The majority of the material evidence would suggest that the occupation was domestic in nature, through the size of the assemblages was scanty. No coherent domestic structure was recorded at Stagpark but the scatter of pits, postholes and stakeholes would suggest that the features were peripheral to the core of the settlement, which may have been located outside the road corridor.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 15
  23. 23. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 6 Bibliography Barry, T.B. 1987 The Archaeology of Medieval Ireland, Routledge, London and New York. Buckley, V. 1990, ‘Experiments using a reconstructed fulacht with a variety of rock types: implications for the petro-morphology of fulachta fiadh’ in Buckley, V. (Ed.) Burnt Offerings: international contributions to Burnt Mound Archaeology, pp.170-172. Dublin. Cotter, E. (2005) Bronze Age Ballybrowney County Cork in Recent Archaeological Discoveries on National Road Schemes 2004 NRA. Daly, A., Grogan, E. (1992) Excavation of Four Barrows in Mitchelstowndown West, Knocklong, County Limerick. Discovery Programme Reports 1 pp44-60. Royal Irish Academy. Doody, M. (1995), ‘Ballyhoura Hills project’, Discovery Programme Reports 2, 12-44. Royal Irish Academy. Dublin. Doody, M. (1999), ‘Ballyhoura Hills project’, Discovery Programme Reports 5, 97-110. Royal Irish Academy. Dublin. Kelly, M.J. (1989) Early Ireland An Introduction to Irish Prehistory. Cambridge University Press. Monk, M. 1995 A Tale of Two Ringforts Lisleagh I and II in Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society Vol.100 p105-116. NRA Archaeological Discoveries N8 Watergrasshill Bypass. NRA Archaeological Discoveries N8 Rathcormac Fermoy. Power, D., Lane, S., and Byrne, E., Egan, U., Sleeman, M., with Cotter, E., Monk, J. (2000), Archaeological Inventory of County Cork, Volume 4: North Cork Parts I & II. Dublin. Roche, H. and Grogan, E. 2005 The N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy Bypass. The Prehistoric Pottery. Unpublished Report for ACS Ltd. Sleeman A. G. and McConnell, B (1995) Geology of East Cork-~Waterford, Geological Survey of Ireland. Waddell, J. (1998) The Prehistoric Archaeology of Ireland. GUP. Galway. Woodman, P.C. (1989) ‘The mesolithic in Munster: a preliminary assessment’, in Bonsall, C (ed), The Mesolithic in Europe, 116-24. John Donald. Edinburgh. Woodman, P.C. (2000) ‘Hammers and Shoeboxes: New Agendas for Prehistory’ in New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Papers in commemoration of Liz Anderson. Wordwell, 1-10.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 16
  24. 24. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 6.1 Other Sources Record of Monuments and Places (RMP), Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, 7 Ely Place Upper, Dublin 2. Topographical Files of the National Museum of Ireland, Kildare Street, Dublin 2.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 17
  25. 25. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 7 Figures Figure 1: Portion of discovery map showing route of N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 18
  26. 26. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Legend Bronze Age Medieval Post-medieval 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1 04E1071 Mitchelstown 2 04E1121 Stagpark 2 04E1120 Stagpark 1 04E1119 Spagpark 3 Figure 2: Portion of RMP sheets CO019 & CO010 showing route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 19
  27. 27. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 ell W ay nd Su Well Field Yeomens Field A Ballyarthur Field Parkanimrish Clyroe Field B Glen Field C Limekiln Field Donnellys Field D Laknock Field Sandpit Field Deer Park Garrane Warren Field New Orchard Park G ond Fishp High Field Mitchelstown Castle I Brick Field E H Milk Field Turnpike Field F J Reference Extent of Mitchelstown Demense Line of N8, Mitchelstown Relief Road A Barretts Grove B Old Pheasantry C Farm Yard D Kiltaunave Old Grave Yard E Carriganoura Wood F Whitegate Grove G Orchard Grove H Troopers Lough I Site of Church & Graveyard J Parkaphuca Figure 3: Portion of 1st edition maps sheets 10 & 19 showing Mitchelstown Demesne and the route of the N8 Mitchelstown Road.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 20
  28. 28. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Area A Area B Figure 4: Route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road showing location of all archaeological sites.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 21
  29. 29. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 5 Portion of route of N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road showing location of Excavation Areas A, B and C.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 22
  30. 30. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 6: Post-excavation plan Area A.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 23
  31. 31. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 A 22 A1 A A1 21 25 26 27 22 50 cm 0 50 cm Figure 7: Post-excavation plan and section of hearth C.22 Area A.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 24
  32. 32. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 A A1 # # 52 # # # 53 # 70 # # # # 71 # 73 72 # 66 B 155 120 B1 109 154 148 151 149 180 152 110 153 50 cm 0 50 cm Figure 8: Sections of C.66 and C.110 Area A.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 25
  33. 33. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 9: Post-excavation plan and sections Area B.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 26
  34. 34. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 10: Post-excavation plan Area C.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 27
  35. 35. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 8 Plates Plate 1: Area A post-excavation from east. Plate 2: Area A post-excavation from west.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 28
  36. 36. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 3: View of hearth C.22 mid-excavation Area A. Plate 4: View of hearth C.22 post-excavation Area A.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 29
  37. 37. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 5: View of pit C.110 mid-excavation Area A. Plate 6: View of pit C.66 mid-excavation Area A.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 30
  38. 38. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 7: View of pit C.83 pre-excavation Area A. Plate 8: View of pit C.83 mid-excavation Area A.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 31
  39. 39. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 9: View of pits C.1014 and C.1001 mid-excavation Area B. Plate 10: View of eastern section pit C.1001 Area B.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 32
  40. 40. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 11: View of pit C.2002 Area C. Plate 12: View of pit C.2004 Area C.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 33
  41. 41. 9 Appendices 04E1120 9.1 Appendix 1: Matrices C.213 Area B Matrix C.1002 C.1013 C.1017 C.1015 C.1003 C.1012 C.1018 C.1016 C.1004 C.1019 C.1005 C.1020 KeyPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road Period 1 Phase 1: C.1006 C.1021 Formation of natural subsoil C.1007 C.1025 Period 2 Phase 1: Bronze Age Occupation C.1008 C.1022 Period 2 Phase 2: Infilling after site C.1009 C.1014 abandonment. Period 3 Phase 1: C.1010 Modern activity C.1011 C.1023 C.1001 C.1024 C.21434 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  42. 42. 04E1120 C.213 Area C Matrix C.2001 C.2003 C.2005 C.2002 C.2004 C.2006 Key Period 1 Phase 1: C.2007 Formation of naturalPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ subsoil Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road Period 2 Phase 1: Bronze Age Occupation C.214 Period 2 Phase 2: Infilling after site abandonment. Period 3 Phase 1: Modern activity35 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  43. 43. C.213 Area A Matrix 04E1120 Key C.1 C.7 C.8 C.16 C.14 C.17 C.25 Period 1 Phase 1: Formation of natural C.2 C.4 C.5 C.6 C.9 C.13 C.15 C.18 C.215 subsoil Period 2 Phase 1: Bronze Age Occupation C.19 C.21 Period 2 Phase 2: C.20 C.26 Infilling after site abandonment.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road Period 3 Phase 1: C.27 Modern activity C.22 C.21436 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  44. 44. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C.76 C.77 C.52 C.53 C.70 C.71 C.72 C.73 C.66 C.50 C.51 C.48 C.49 C.46 C.47 C.44 C.45 C.42 C.43 C.213 C.214 C.38 C.39 C.34 C.35 C.32 C.33 C.30 C.31 C.28 C.29 C.23 C.24Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 37
  45. 45. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C.92 C.93 C.84 C.88 C.83 C.80 C.81 C.82 C.79 C.78 C.74 C.75 C.69 C.68 C.67 C.213 C.214 C.64 C.65 C.62 C.63 C.60 C.61 C.58 C.59 C.56 C.57 C.54 C.55Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 38
  46. 46. C.213 04E1120 C.85 C.89 C.92 C.116 C.86 C.90 C.91 C.99 C.100 C.97 C.101 C.98 C.93 C.117 C.87 C.94 C.95 C.96Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ C.214 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road Key Period 1 Phase 1: Formation of natural subsoil Period 2 Phase 1: Bronze Age Occupation Period 2 Phase 2: Infilling after site abandonment. Period 3 Phase 1: Modern activity39 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  47. 47. 04E1120 C.213 C.102 C.105 C.114 C.111 C.118 C.121 C.123 C.125 C.115 C.103 C.104 C.106 C.107 C.108 C.112 C.113 C.119 C.122 C.124 C.126 C.109 C.148 C.149Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ C.150 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road C.120 C.155 C.159 C.151 C.152 C.154 C.153 C.110 C.21440 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  48. 48. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C.167 C.168 C.166 C.164 C.165 C.163 C.162 C.160 C.161 C.146 C.147 C.157 C.158 C.142 C.143 C.213 C.214 C.145 C.144 C.139 C.137 C.138 C.134 C.135 C.136 C.132 C.133 C.130 C.131 C.127 C.128 C.129Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 41
  49. 49. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C.190 C.191 C.188 C.189 C.186 C.187 C.184 C.185 C.182 C.183 C.180 C.181 C.213 C.214 C.179 C.178 C.177 C.176 C.174 C.175 C.169 C.170 C.173 C.171 C.172Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 42

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