Archaeological Report - Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)

948 views

Published on

The site at Mitchelstown 1 was discovered during archaeological investigations along the route of the Mitchelstown Relief Road. The site comprised three houses constructed in at least two phases, one of the houses having been cut by the other two. The houses were approximately 10m in diameter and were roughly D-shaped in plan, with entrances centrally located on the straight side, facing east. One of the houses showed clear evidence of having had an internal division in the form of a slot trench running between two structural postholes. The slot trench could have held a wattle wall separating the entrance area (approximately one-third of the floor area) from the remainder of the house.
Little evidence was found of the material culture or economy of the inhabitants of the Mitchelstown houses. No pottery was recovered from the site and the few lithics were undiagnostic.
The number of cereal grains recovered from the soil samples was too small to allow any interpretation of the economy or diet of the population. A striking aspect of the environmental material however was the large number of seeds of the Dock family. These are usually considered to be weed seeds brought into houses inadvertently along with cereals. However, that is unlikely here, given the paucity of cereal grains on the site, and it may be that Dock seeds were deliberately gathered as a food source. Parallels for this have been found in Britain and Denmark where Dock seeds have been found in the gut contents of bog bodies.
The Mitchelstown houses have numerous parallels among the growing numbers of Middle Bronze Age houses now being discovered in recent Irish excavations and add to the expanding settlement pattern of the period.

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
948
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
9
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Archaeological Report - Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)

  1. 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 10 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report 04E1072 - Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork Middle Bronze Age houses
  2. 2. Archaeological Excavation Report,N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road,Mitchelstown,Co. Cork. January 2008Client: Cork County Council, National Roads Office, Richmond, Glanmire, Co. Cork.Licence No.: 04E1072 Contact details: The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork.Written by: Eamonn Cotter Tel.: 021 470 16 16 Fax: 021 470 16 28 E-mail: info@eachtra.ie Web Site: www.eachtra.ie
  3. 3. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Table of Contents Non-Technical Summary.............................................................................................1 1 Introduction ........................................................................................................2 1.1 Site location .......................................................................................................2 1.2 Scope of the Project............................................................................................2 1.3 Circumstances of discovery ................................................................................3 1.4 Date and duration of excavation works ...............................................................3 1.5 Size and composition of the excavation team ......................................................3 2 Receiving Environment .......................................................................................3 2.1 The Natural Landscape ......................................................................................3 2.2 The Human Landscape ......................................................................................5 3 Original Research Framework ............................................................................ 10 4 Excavation Results ..............................................................................................11 4.1 Excavation Methodology ...................................................................................11 4.2 Stratigraphic Report ..........................................................................................11 4.3 Artefactual evidence ..........................................................................................15 4.4 Environmental evidence ....................................................................................15 4.5 Dating evidence ...........................................................................................17 5. Discussion & Interpretation ..................................................................................... 19 6 Conclusion .............................................................................................................20 7 Bibliography .......................................................................................................21 7.1 Other Sources ...................................................................................................23 8 Figures ................................................................................................................24 9 Plates .................................................................................................................. 33 Copyright Notice: Please note that all original information contained within this report, including all original drawings, photographs, text and all other printed matter deemed to be the writer’s, remains the property of the writer and Eachtra Archaeological Projects and so may not be reproduced or used in any form without the written consent of the writer or Eachtra Archaeological Projects.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ iii
  4. 4. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 10 Appendix 1 Matrix .............................................................................................37 11 Appendix 2 Context Register ..............................................................................38 12 Appendix 3 Find Register .................................................................................. 100 13 Appendix 4 Plant remains report ....................................................................... 101 14 Appendix 5 Lithics Report & Catalogue ............................................................ 107 15 Appendix 6 Cremated Bone ............................................................................... 110 16 Appendix 7 Stones Catalogue ............................................................................ 111 17 Appendix 8 Archive Content.............................................................................. 112 18 Appendix 9 Dissemination Strategy ................................................................... 113 19 Appendix 10 Programme Schedule Dates & Deliveries ...................................... 114Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ iv
  5. 5. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 List of Figures Figure 1 Portion of Discovery Map showing route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. ..... 24 Figure 2 Portion of RMP sheets CO010 and CO019 showing route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. .......................................................................................................................... 25 Figure 3 Portion of 1st edition OS maps sheets CO010 and CO019 showing Mitchelstown Demesne and the route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road................................................ 26 Figure 4 Route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road showing location of all archaeological sites. .............................................................................................................................. 27 Figure 5 Post excavation plan of Area A. ............................................................................... 28 Figure 6 Mid- excavation plan showing slot trench for House B (beige) cutting slot trench for House C (blue). ..................................................................................................................... 29 Figure 7 Post-excavation plan and section of isolated pit C.368 in Area B. ........................... 30 Figure 8 Cross sections through some of typical structural postholes on the site. .................. 31 Figure 9 Illustration of quern stones 04E1072:1:6, 04E1072:387:13 and 04E1072:529:24. ... 32 List of Plates Plate 1 Aerial view of Houses A, B and C from the north. .................................................... 33 Plate 2 Aerial view of Houses A, B and C from the west. ...................................................... 33 Plate 3 Detail of slot trench for wall of House A. .................................................................. 34 Plate 4 Detail of C252 hearth House C. ............................................................................... 34 Plate 5 View of quern stone 04E1072:1:6 (listed as 04 in quern stones plates of artefacts). ... 35 Plate 6 View of quern stone 04E1072:387:13 (listed as 07 in quern stones plates of artefacts).35 Plate 7 View of quern stone 04E1072:529:24 (listed as 06 in quern stones plates of artefacts).36 Plate 8 View of flint artefacts 04E1072:1:1, 04E1072:1:3, 04E1072:6:1, 04E1072:325:1 and 04E1072:450:1. ..................................................................................................................... 36Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ v
  6. 6. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Non-Technical Summary This report details the results of an archaeological excavation undertaken by Eachtra Ar- chaeological Projects of a site on the route of the proposed N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road, on behalf of Cork County Council. The proposed bypass involves the construction of 4.5Km of the N8 from Cloonlough, south of Mitchelstown, to the junction of the R513 and the N8, north of Mitchelstown. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in June, July and September 2004 under licences 04E0889-04E0892 issued by Department of the Environ- ment Heritage and Local Government (DoEHLG). The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test sites of archaeological potential identified in the EIS and geophysical sur- veying and to test for any previously unknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sites identified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the construction of the bypass in order to avoid delays and costs during construction works. This phase of the project was carried out from September-December 2004 and excavations were conducted by two licensed directors under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. In total five sites were excavated during this phase of works and all excavations were carried out initially under separate li- cences issued by DoEHLG and subsequently under Ministerial Order. One of these sites, Mitchelstown 1, is the subject of this report. Mitchelstown 1 was identi- fied during phase 1 as a potential settlement site comprising a cluster of stakeholes and areas of burnt clay indicating a possible hearth. Archaeological resolution of this site commenced on August 3rd 2004 and was carried out by Eamonn Cotter under licence number 04E1072. Resolution of the site revealed three circular houses constructed in two phases. Each house was c. 10m in diameter and had an entrance facing east. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal samples from the site indicated a date range of c. 1490-1260 cal BC, placing them in the Middle Bronze Age.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 1
  7. 7. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 1 Introduction 1.1 Site location This report details the results of the archaeological excavation of a site on the N8 Mitchel- stown Relief Road (MRR), County Cork. The site was located c.0.5 km northwest of Mitch- elstown, at National Grid Co-ordinates 180869,113639 at an elevation of 106m OD (Fig. 1). It is located in the townland of Mitchelstown, the Parish of Brigown and barony of Condons and Clangibbon. 1.2 Scope of the Project This Archaeological Services Project was carried out on behalf of Cork County Council, National Roads Design Office, Richmond, Glanmire, Co. Cork. This project was funded by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan, 2000-2006. The purpose of the Project was to conduct Archaeological Site Investigations within the lands made available for the scheme and to assess the nature and extent of any new or potential archaeological sites uncovered. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in June, July and September 2004 under licences 04E0889-04E0892 issued by Department of the Environ- ment Heritage and Local Government (DoEHLG). The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test sites of archaeological potential identified in the EIS and geophysical sur- veying and to test for any previously unknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sites identified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the construction of the bypass in order to avoid delays and costs during construction works. This phase of the project was carried out from September-December 2004 and excavations were conducted by two licensed directors under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. In total five sites were excavated during this phase of works and all excavations were carried out initially under separate li- cences issued by DoEHLG and subsequently under Ministerial Order (Fig. 4). Following completion of fieldwork a dissemination strategy was undertaken and submittedPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 2
  8. 8. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 to the project archaeologist. A programme of post-excavation analysis was agreed and com- menced. A lecture on the preliminary findings was given to Mitchelstown Historical Society in May 2005 by the project and senior archaeologists. 1.3 Circumstances of discovery Archaeological testing in June 2004, under licence 04E0890, revealed a number of features of archaeological potential in the area, identified as a dense cluster of stakeholes and a possible hearth. The site was designated Mitchelstown 1. Topsoil stripping around these features was recommended, with full excavation of all features exposed. 1.4 Date and duration of excavation works Excavation commenced on August 3rd 2004, under Licence no. 04E1072, and continued for 8 weeks, ending on September 24th 2004. 1.5 Size and composition of the excavation team Team size averaged six people, including one director, one supervisor, two site assistants and two general operatives. 2 Receiving Environment 2.1 The Natural Landscape 2.1.1 Geology The geological structure of the East Cork area, in which the proposed road scheme is located, consists of east-west valleys (synclines) separated by intervening ridges (anticlines)1. The ma- 1 The following information on the geology of the area is taken from Sleeman A. G. and McConnell, B (1995) Geology of East Cork-~Waterford, Geological Survey of Ireland.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 3
  9. 9. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 jor towns and smaller settlements are predominately located within the valleys and often at important river crossings. The ridges are comprised of sandstones and mudstones of the Devonian ‘Old Red Sandstone’, laid down 355-410 million years ago, while the valleys are floored by poorly exposed Carboniferous limestones laid down 290-355 million years ago. Mitchelstown is located in one of these valleys, known in geological terminology as the Mitchelstown Syncline. This is an extension of the Fermoy Syncline, which incorporates the Blackwater River valley. The Mitchelstown Syncline extends north-eastwards between the Galty and Knockmealdown mountain ranges into South Tipperary. The geology of the area is characterised by a succession of various Carboniferous Limestones known collectively as the Carrick-on-Suir and Mitchelstown Succession. Two of the formations which form this group are represented in the area of the present site. They are the O’Mahony’s Rock Forma- tion, composed of shallow water algal laminites, and the Rathronan Formation, composed of micrites, wackestones and cherts. The bedrock geology of the area is overlain by more recent Quaternary sediments mostly deposited by melting glaciers and ice sheets during the various alternating warm and cold phases in the period from 1.6 million years ago to 10,000 years ago. Quaternary deposits generally range from 3-4m in thickness but thicknesses of up to 60m are known in the Blackwater valley. The nature of these sediments depends on the origin of the ice sheets that deposited them. The deposits in the valley between Mitchelstown and Cahir contain mostly sandstone debris derived from higher ground to the north. 2.1.2 Soils and their uses The soils to the north of the Gradoge River to the west of Mitchelstown are characterised by a mix of acid brown earths, gleys and grey brown podzolics, which are derived from mixed sandstone and limestone glacial till while the underlying rock is Carboniferous limestone. The acid brown earths and gleys occur in the gently rolling valleys of Cork and Waterford mainly at altitudes of 0-75m (Gardiner 1980, 61). These soils have a wide use range and are suitable for tillage and grass production. The soils to the south of the Gradoge River are characterized by a mix of gleys and peaty gleys which are derived from glacial till of mixed sandstone-shale composition with a small admixture of limestone in places. They occur mostly at altitudes of 76m to 152m. These soils have a limited use range as they are poorly drained even on good slopes. They are best suited to grassland (ibid. 77-79). The land along the route is for the most part under pasture.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 4
  10. 10. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 2.1.3 Topography (see Fig. 1) The topography of the Mitchelstown area comprises a broad plain running approximately east-west. The plain is dominated by the Galtee Mountains to the north, the Ballyhoura Mountains to the west and the Kilworth Mountains (the foothills of the Knockmealdown Mountains) to the south. It is drained mainly by the Funshion River which rises in the Galty mountains to the northeast and flows westwards to the north of Mitchelstown, before turn- ing southwards to join the Blackwater near Fermoy. The town itself is built on a plateau overlooking the Gradoge River, which rises in the north- ern slopes of the Kilworth mountains and flows westwards to join the Funshion 1.5Km west of the town. The route of the N8 Mitchelstown relief road (MRR) traverses the townlands of Cloonlough, Stag Park and Mitchelstown, to the south, west and north-west of the town. The southern part of the route initially runs westwards across the plateau at 125m OD before turning northwards, rising to 135m OD, then dropping sharply into the Gradoge valley at 80m OD. From there it rises north eastwards across the limestone ridge on the northern side of the val- ley at The archaeological site described in this report was located on the edge of a limestone plateau to the north of the Gradoge, overlooking the valley. 2.2 The Human Landscape 2.2.1 Archaeological Background There is a paucity of known archaeological sites within a 2 km radius of the route of the N8 MRR. Three prehistoric sites, fulachta fiadh (CO019-019, -020, -021) are recorded in Stagpark and Ballykearney within 100-500m of the route corridor. The site of Mitchelstown Castle (CO019-026), the associated demesne and the historic town of Mitchelstown (CO019- 149) are the principal medieval and post-medieval sites in the vicinity of the route corridor (Figs. 2 and 3).Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 5
  11. 11. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 2.2.2 Mesolithic 7000 BC - 4000 BC The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 7000 BC - 4000 BC). In Munster, the majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Mesolithic occu- pation has ‘come from the Blackwater valley in Co. Cork’ (Woodman 1989, 116). Flint scat- ters were recorded in the townlands of Ballynamona (CO018-099) and Wallstown (CO018- 100) on the northern and southern sides of the Awbeg river respectively c. 15km to the west of the route of the N8 MRR (Power et. al. 2000, 2). 2.2.3 Neolithic 4000 BC -2500 BC The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the beginnings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became more sedentary in nature. Substantial Neolithic settlement sites have been recorded at Lough Gur, Co. Limer- ick and Cloghers, Co. Kerry. The material culture includes the manufacture of pottery, flint and stone arrowheads, scrapers, axes etc. The range of monuments types includes Megalithic tombs (court tombs, portal tombs, passage tombs and wedge tombs), single burial graves and stone circles. There is a paucity of evidence for Neolithic settlement sites in the south-west of Ireland, though recent archaeological investigation associated with infrastructural development has revealed new sites from that period in County Cork. The nearest known Neolithic house was excavated on the N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy in the townland of Gortore. The structure was dated to the Early Neolithic cal BC 3928-3655 (UB 6769). Further evidence of Neolithic activity was recorded at Fermoy and Curraghprevin, on the same road scheme. 2.2.4 Bronze Age 2000 BC -500 BC The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy, the mining of copper ores and manufacture of copper, bronze and gold items. The range of burial site types includes, cist graves, pit and urn burials, cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and standing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sites are known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh, of over 2,000 examples of which have been recorded in County Cork alone. These monuments survive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt packed with heat-shattered stones and are generally situated close to a water source. In many cases, however, all that survives to thePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 6
  12. 12. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 present day are black spreads with fragments of shattered stones visible in ploughed fields. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as ‘cooking places’, whereby stones were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a trough of water, the water continued to boil with the ad- dition of hot stones and wrapped food was cooked within the hot water. The trough eventu- ally filled with small stones, ash and charcoal that were removed and formed the basis of the familiar mound. The absence of animal remains and the scarcity of associated hearths have fuelled the debate in relation to the function of the sites. Other theories on their interpreta- tion include bathing and dyeing textiles together with the production of hot water and steam for curative purposes and sweat houses (Kelly 1989, 225). Waddell (1998, 177) suggests the semi-industrial purpose of using the boiling water for dipping hides as part of the preparation of the leather. There are few wedge tombs or stone circles known from north or east Cork. Two of the excep- tions are wedge tombs located at Labbacallee (CO027-086) and at Manning (CO027-091) both located c. 8 km south of the N8 MRR. Labbacallee is one of the largest wedge tombs in the country. The Bronze Age cemetery of Mitchelstowndown West, located 16 km to the north of the N8 MRR, contains 53 small barrows. Four of these were selected for excavation by the Discovery Programme (Daly et. al. 1992, 44). Until recently Bronze Age settlement sites were a rarity in North Cork, but recent excava- tions have altered the picture. A Bronze Age occupation site was recorded underlying the medieval ringfort Lisleagh I (CO027-158) c.3.5km to the south of the N8 MRR (Power et. al. 2000, 210). A house site was excavated at Killydonoghoe on the route of the N8 Glanmire- Watergrasshill Bypass (Sherlock, 2003). A large Bronze Age settlement site consisting of three enclosures and three circular houses was excavated in 2003 at Ballybrowney on the route of the N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy (Cotter 2004, 38). 2.2.5 Iron Age 500 BC – 400 AD At present, there is little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in the Cork region. Set- tlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify (Woodman, 2000) while the material culture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks, which are believed to have marked tribal boundaries, are one of the most visible monuments of the period. Three separate stretches of one such boundary, the Claidh Dubh, have been recorded inPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 7
  13. 13. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 County Cork. The longest stretch, c. 24 km extends from the Nagle Mountains, across the Blackwater valley and into the Ballyhoura Hills. The Claidh Dubh crosses the N73 c. 12km west of the N8 MRR. Radiocarbon dating following excavation of a section of it revealed it dated to some time before 100AD (Doody 1995, 23). Three of the five hillfort sites in Cork are located in North Cork (Power et al, 2000, 205). Caherdrinny is located at the western end of the Kilworth Mountains, c. 3 km to the south of the N8 MRR and Corrin is located at the eastern end of the Nagle Mountains c. 15 km to the south of the N8 MRR. A complex of monuments in Conva townland (c. 15 km to the southwest of the N8 MRR) was identified by aerial photography in the Blackwater Valley. Crop marks indicated three enclosures (CO034-7201, -7202, -7203) and a number of large pits (CO034-7204) possibly comprising a rectangular enclosure. The site was investigated in 1992 by Martin Doody of the Discovery Programme which involved geophysical prospection, topographic survey and trial excavation. Sections were dug through the three enclosures and through four of the large pits. Metal debris was discovered and radiocarbon dates indicated that the complex dated to the Iron Age/Early Medieval period. 2.2.6 Early Medieval 400 AD – 1000 AD The Early Medieval Period/Early Christian Period is characterized by the arrival of Christian- ity to Ireland. Early ecclesiastical sites in the vicinity of Mitchelstown are located at Brigown (CO019-030) to the immediate southeast, Kildrum (CO020-025) to the east, Aghacross (CO019-002) to the west, Labbamolagga (CO010-003) to the northwest and Killeenemer (CO19-092) to the southwest. The monastery of Brigown founded in the 7th century gives its name to the modern parish (Power 1996, 3). The characteristic monument type of the period was the ringfort, with estimates of between 30 and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s (Barry, 1987). As a result of continued research these monuments are ascribed a narrow date range between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. Although there are some very elaborate exam- ples of ringforts they often take the form of a simple earthen or stone enclosure and func- tioned as settlements for all classes of secular society (Stout, 1997). In the late 1980’s and early 1990’s a long-term research excavation of two ringforts was undertaken at Lisleagh c. 3.5km to the south of the route of the N8 MRR. Structural, domestic and industrial evidence was recorded at both sites. The Lisleagh I site was constructed in the early seventh century andPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 8
  14. 14. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 was occupied into the ninth century AD (Monk 1995, 105-116). 2.2.7 Medieval 1000 AD – 1300 AD & Late Medieval 1300 AD -1500 AD The period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans, who established numer- ous manors, towns and settlements to administer their extensive landholdings throughout Munster. The Brigown area was colonised by the St. Mitchel family who established the town which was eventually to bear their name (Nicholls 1993, 187), and which was listed as a mar- ket town in 1299 (O Brien 1993, 94). Nothing is known of the earliest castle in the area, but ruins surviving in the eighteenth century were said to be those of a castle that was destroyed in the wars of 1641 (Smith 1750, vol 1, 346). That castle was located on a limestone ridge on the southern bank of the Gradoge River, to the west of the modern town, and close to where the later castle (described below) was subsequently located. Some time after 1340 the area was acquired by the White Knights, a branch of the Norman Geraldine family (Nicholls, op. cit.). It subsequently passed into the hands of the Fentons in the early seventeenth century and, in the eighteenth, to the Earls of Kingston (Power 2000, 6). 2.2.8 Post-Medieval 1500 AD – 1800 AD In the second half of the eighteenth century Lord Kingsborough, the 2nd earl of Kingston, embarked on an ambitious programme of expansion. He demolished the old town and re- placed it with a new Georgian town laid out in a grid pattern, with two squares, new churches and new commercial and industrial buildings. The developments also included a new mansion near the site of the earlier castle, and an ex- tensive demesne extending to some 1240 acres, enclosed by a demesne wall (see Fig. 3). The wall was ‘six-and-a-quarter-mile long…between eight and ten feet in height’ (Power 1996, 24). All public roads that were located within the area of the demesne were closed and rerout- ed along the periphery of the wall. Entry to the demesne was gained through White Gate, Killacluig Gate and Limerick Gate, and the main entrance was at King Square in the town. Extensive works were undertaken within the area of the demesne which resulted in ‘a quad- rangle of buildings, a garden of five English acres surrounded by a wall, large conservatories and lavishly arranged gardens became part of the scene. Two artificial lakes were developed beneath the rockface on which the castle stood’ (ibid., 24). Several hundred acres of wood-Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 9
  15. 15. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 land comprising of oak, ash, larch, beech and alder were planted within the demesne. In the early nineteenth century the third earl of Kingston demolished the Georgian house and had a magnificent neo-Gothic castellated mansion built in its place, designed by the well- known architects James and George Pain. The limestone buildings formed three sides of a courtyard and contained 80 stately rooms linked by a gallery 100 feet long, 22 feet wide and with a Gothic ceiling 33 feet high (Power 2000, 74). This building survived until it was burnt by Republican forces in 1922. The stone was bought by the Cistercian monks of Mount Melleray who used it to build a church. Subsequently the site of the castle and part of the demesne was purchased by Mitchelstown Co-op Creameries (later Dairygold Co-op), whose food production enterprises occupy the Castle site today. The remainder of the demesne was divided into farms, the town park and a golf course. 3 Original Research Framework The following issues will be addressed in this excavation report.  The construction date or date of initial site activity and the date of abandonment.  The absolute / relative chronology of site use in terms of phases and events.  The location of known contemporaneous and comparable sites.  The extent of the viable economic catchment area in terms of sources of water, food, raw materials, transportation routes etcPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 10
  16. 16. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 4 Excavation Results 4.1 Excavation Methodology Two separate areas were excavated at Mitchelstown 1, Area A, measuring 31m x 26m and Area B, 170m to the southwest, measuring c. 10m x 8. Area A was the main area of archaeo- logical activity, while Area B comprised a single pit (Figs. 4, 5 and 7). Both areas were stripped of topsoil under archaeological supervision using a mechanical dig- ger fitted with a grading bucket. Spoil was moved by dumper and was stored on archaeologi- cally sterile areas within the limits of the site. All potential archaeological features exposed within the cutting were carefully cleaned and recorded (by plan, photographs, levels, feature sheets etc.) and excavated by hand. Each feature (cut feature, fill, layer, deposit, spread, built feature etc.) was assigned a Context number. All Contexts were numbered sequentially from 1 to infinity within each site; i.e. C12 represents feature 12. Where appropriate, soil samples and charcoal samples were taken in an effort to obtain a date and function for the various features. All finds were numbered according to the requirements of the National Museum of Ireland from 1 to infinity according to licence number and feature number; i.e. 04E1072:12:4 represents find number 4 within feature number 12 in Mitchelstown 1, which was excavated under licence number 04E1072. 4.2 Stratigraphic Report After removal of topsoil in Area A it was immediately apparent that a large number of ar- chaeological features were present, mainly postholes and stakeholes, forming at least two structures. The site was ultimately found to comprise of three circular houses, House A, House B and House C (Figs. 5, 6 and 8, Pls. 1, 2 ). House C was stratigraphically the earliest of the three, and was cut at its northern end by House A and at its southern end by House B. House A House A was a D-shaped structure measuring 9.8m N-S x 9.1.m E-W. The entrance was c. 1m wide and located in the centre of the eastern side, the straight façade of the ‘D’ plan.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 11
  17. 17. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 The house was constructed of a series of nine postholes (C127, C45, C53, C37, C23, C31, C40, C63, and C135) forming a semi-circle. These would have held the main supporting posts for the structure. These postholes were, on average, 0.4m in diameter and 0.4m deep and were set 1.7m apart. A slot trench (C25 and its fill, C2) located 1.1m outside the postholes would have held the wall of the house, probably a post-and-wattle structure. This slot trench was generally 0.2m-0.25m wide and 0.1m-0.2m deep (Pl. 3), becoming shallower towards the west, and disappearing completely around the western side (it may have been present here originally and been removed by machinery of by modern agricultural work). On the eastern, straight facade, the slot trench was deeper and more substantial, particularly on either side of the entrance, suggesting the external wall on this side supported the roof, since no internal supporting posts were present on this side. House A appears to have been divided internally by a partition wall running north/south be- tween C127 and C135, the two postholes forming the termini of the semi-circular setting of postholes which formed the structural basis of the house. A shallow trench, C28, extending between those postholes and located 2.5m inside the entrance was most likely the foundation trench for this partition (Fig. 6). It was flanked on its eastern side by two further postholes, C140 and C200, which probably held supporting posts for this partition wall. To the east of the partition, immediately inside the entrance, another depression, C42, may represent the location of another entrance feature, possibly a wooden threshold. This depression measured 2.4m x 0.35m x 0.08m deep. It fill, C4, was a fine, crumbly black silt, possibly resulting from decayed wood. Two stakeholes (C412, C413) located on opposite sides of C42, may have held stakes or pegs which held the threshold in place. A small area of burnt clay (C74) near the centre of House A may mark the location of the hearth. House B House B was located 1.8m south of House A. Like House A it was a D-shaped structure, with its entrance facing east and located centrally on the straight façade of the ‘D’ plan. At 11m x 11m it was slightly larger than House A. The principal structural feature of the house was the semi-circle of postholes, C532, C432, C434, C405, C389, C404, C376, C399 and C378, with a probable tenth posthole between 404 and 376 in the southwest quadrant destroyed by a later field boundary ditch, C461. As with House A these postholes would have held the main roof supports, while the wall of the house, probably of stake-and-wattle construction, would have stood in the slot trench, C564, which was found outside the ring of postholes. In the case of House B the slot trench was found only around the northern half of the house. ItPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 12
  18. 18. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 is unclear if it ever existed around the western side, but around the southern side it may have been destroyed by the construction of the later field boundary ditches C400 and C461. There was no evidence of any internal division within House B, nor was there any evidence of an internal hearth. A substantial hearth, C362, located between the structural postholes and the wall of House B is presumed to belong to House C, if not to a phase of activity pre- dating the houses. House C House C was stratigraphically earlier than both House A and House B. With its D-shaped plan it was almost identical to them in layout, with the exception that there was no evidence for an outer slot trench, though it is possible that such a slot trench did exist but was destroyed by the later activity involving the construction of Houses A and B. Again, the main structural element of the house was a semi-circular ring of postholes (C572, C173, C75, C86, C569, C571, C512, C379, C426, C493, and C574). The surviving evidence indicated it measured 10m x 10m, but it may have been slightly larger if, like the others, it had an outer slot trench which would have been located c. 1m outside the structural postholes. There is some evidence to suggest that House C had an internal division, like House A. Two pits, C250 and C502, are so symmetrically located in relation to the entrance and to the ring of structural postholes that they may be compared with postholes C140 and C200 in House A and regarded as representing an internal north/south dividing wall in the house. Both 250 and 502 are elongated pits and are quite shallow, at 0.12m-0.15m, but their shape may be the result of the uprooting of postholes during the destruction of House C to make way for Houses A and B. A substantial hearth located west of centre in House C may be assumed to have been contem- porary with it, though there is no definite evidence for this. The hearth, C362, comprised a pit measuring 1.26m x 0.72m and 0.15m deep. It’s fill, C252, comprised a thin layer of black silt on the surface, with a layer of oxidised sandy clay beneath, indicating intense burning within the pit. A posthole, C253, at the northeastern corner of the hearth may have been part of a spit structure over the hearth. Other Bronze Age features In addition to the features described above a significant number of other features was exca- vated on the site, in particular two clusters of stakeholes, Group A and Group B. Group A was a dense cluster of stakeholes occurring mainly between House A and house B, but ex- tending northwards and southwards into both houses. An area of scorched clay amongst thePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 13
  19. 19. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 stakeholes suggested this was an external cooking area and the stakeholes probably represent light temporary structures around the hearth. Since no obvious structural pattern could be observed in the stakeholes, it may be assumed that the structures were short-lived and fre- quently replaced, giving rise to the random pattern. Though it is thought unlikely that all these stakeholes were exactly contemporary with each other, it can, however, be assumed that as a group they are broadly contemporaneous. The stratigraphic evidence indicated that they were earlier than the houses. The second cluster of stakeholes, Group B, was located within House A and was confined to an area immediately east of C28, the internal partition wall. The fact that their distribution appears to respect C28 suggests they are contemporary with it and they are assumed to rep- resent some activity within the house. A number of other pits and postholes were excavated within the houses. Most of these could not with certainty be ascribed to any particular structure or period and their function re- mains unclear. Later and non-archaeological features Two parallel ditches, C440 and C461 ran east/west across the southern end of the site, cut- ting through the southern end of House B. Concentrations of stones and some modern rub- ble were noted in this area and it is likely that these ditches were part of a Post-Medieval field boundary in this area, possibly bordering a trackway leading to the gateway at the southwest corner of the field. Three geological features were also noted, C18 and C34 within House A and just outside its northeast corner, and a third immediately west of House B. The fill of these was similar to the topsoil and, in the case of C34, contained a quantity of loosely packed limestone boulders which appeared to have been dumped in the cavity. These features were geological ‘swallow- holes’, features common in limestone areas and caused by ground collapsing when the rock underneath is dissolved by acid in the water (Nevill 1974, 62). One further feature, C368, was also recorded (Fig. 7). This was an isolated pit located c. 100m southwest of the Bronze Age houses. It measured 1.15m x 1.15m x 0.3m deep with steep sides and flat base. Its function is uncertain and no other features were found in the vicinity.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 14
  20. 20. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 4.3 Artefactual evidence Few artefacts were recovered during the excavation. No Bronze Age pottery was found. Six worked lithics were found (Pl. 8), including one piece of pointed limestone and five flints (see Appendix 5 for full report). Three of the flints were found in the topsoil, one in one of the cluster of stakeholes between House A and House B, and one in C502, a pit/possible post- hole, part of the structure of House C. The flints are regarded as undiagnostic, waste products from lithic reduction. The single limestone piece appears to be a deliberately created pin- or awl-like tool. Its dating is uncertain since it was found in the topsoil. Three fragment of saddle quern were also recovered (Fig. 9, Pl. 5-7). One (04E1072:529:24) was used as a packing stone in a posthole at the south side of the entrance to House C; an- other (04E1072:387:13) was found in C381, a pit/possible posthole within House B; the third (04E1072:1:6) was found in the topsoil. Two other artefacts were recovered. These were two minute gold-coloured fragments of what appeared to be a thin metal. One was found in the fill of C373, the posthole forming the south side of the entrance to House B, the other in the fill of C536, a posthole within House B. Both items have been identified by the National Museum of Ireland as being of a modern alloy. The occurrence of modern materials within these features was surprising, but it must be noted that both were truncated by C461, a Post-Medieval/Modern ditch, so that contamina- tion of the earlier features is possible. 4.4 Environmental evidence Thirty-five soil samples retained during the excavation were submitted for analysis, which was carried out by Penny Johnston (see Appendix 4 for details). Cereal remains from the site comprised four grains of barley and three of wheat, too small an assemblage to attempt any meaningful interpretation. The remarkable feature of the plant remains from the site was the unusually large volume of seeds of the Dock family. Whereas Dock seeds are usually thought of as weeds introduced inadvertently along with cereals, the paucity of cereal grains on this site makes that explanation unlikely. It is possible that the Dock seeds were a food product, as they have been found in the stomach contents of bogPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 15
  21. 21. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 bodies. Table 1 Contextual information for environmental remains Sample No. Context No. Context Description Material recovered (Fill/Cut) Type (Quantity) House A 23 2/25 Fill of structural slot Weeds trench 42 2/25 12 3/28 Sill-beam trench for None internal partition 46 3/28 wall 20 4/42 Possible threshold Hazelnut (1), weeds (17) & cereal (2) 50 8/130 Pit, S side of house Weeds (17) & cereal (1) 7 14/20 Posthole within Weeds (1) house 27 15/45 Structural posthole, Weeds (1) N side of house 18 16/35 Pit, N side of house Weeds (66) 9 22/21 Posthole within Weed (1), Cereal (1) house 11 27/26 Structural posthole, Weeds S side of entrance 14 32/31 Structural posthole, Weeds (2), Grass (1) W side of house 28 50/53 Structural posthole, None NW side of house 31 54/55 Pit, NE corner of Weeds (22), Cereal (1) house 21 58/57 Stakehole, SW Weeds (19) corner of house 39 70/72 Posthole within Cereal (2) house House B 123 420/419 Structural posthole, None E side 100 371/373 Posthole, S side of Weeds (70), Cereals (1) entrance 103 374/376 Structural posthole, Weeds (8) S side of house 104 390/389 Structural posthole None W side of house 110 398/399 Structural posthole Weeds (1), Cereals (4), Grass (1) S side of house 119 414/415 Structural posthole, Weeds (2) N side of entrance 137 494/564 Fill of structural slot Weeds (3) trench 151 537/536 Posthole within Cereal (1) House CPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 16
  22. 22. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 158 560/564 Fill of structural slot None trench House C 45 76/75 Structural posthole, Weeds N side. 47 85/86 Structural posthole, None NW side. 80 252/362 Fill of hearth None 86 253 Posthole on edge of Weeds (1) hearth 362 120 425/426 Structural posthole, None S side of house 144 514/527 Structural posthole, Weeds (39) S side of entrance Stakeholes-Group A 77 221 Stakehole None 79 246 Stakehole None 83 258 Stakehole None Other features 121 423/522 Pit within Houses Weeds (1) B/C. Probably earlier 4.5 Dating evidence As noted above (par. 4.3) no pottery was found on the excavation, so the dating and phasing of the features was dependant on radiocarbon dating and stratigraphic evidence. Table 2 Details of radiocarbon dates Lab. Code Sample material/Context Yrs BP Calibrated Dates 1 sigma 2 sigma UB-6771 Charcoal from C3, fill of slot 3122 +/- 37 1438-1378 BC 1493- 1475 BC trench for internal partition 1337-1321 BC 1462- 1305 BC wall, House A UB-6772 Charcoal from C246, 3077 +/- 39 1407- 1313 BC 1432- 1260 BC stakehole between Houses A 1227- 1223 BC and B UB-6773 Charcoal from C252, fill of 3057 +/- 38 1392- 1292 BC 1419- 1253 BC hearth, House C 1277- 1273 BC 1240- 1213 BC UB-6774 Charcoal from C494, fill of 3087 +/- 37 1412- 1369 BC 1431- 1267 BC structural slot trench, House 1358- 1315 BC BPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 17
  23. 23. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 The radio carbon dates show that the site was occupied over a timespan of, at most, slightly less than 300 years, between 1500 and 1200 BC, with considerable overlap between the dif- ferent features. While it would, perhaps, be wrong to assign too specific a date to individual features on the basis of radiocarbon determinations which cover a broad span, the dates do suggest a chronological progression from House A to House B to House C, with the stakehole cluster broadly contemporary with Houses B and C. This phasing, however, contradicts the stratigraphic evidence, which clearly indicates that House C is the earliest of the three. Several pieces of stratigraphic evidence illustrate the relationship between the features. As can be seen in the mid-excavation plan in Fig. 6, C495, the slot trench for House B, clearly cuts C515, the trench for House C, showing that House C is the earlier of the two. Furthermore, numerous pieces of burnt clay were found in the fill of C495 around its northern side, close to C362. The latter was a hearth located near the centre of House C, and presumably belonging to it, and it is likely that material from the abandoned hearth became incorporated into C495 when House B was being built.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 18
  24. 24. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 5. Discussion & Interpretation The site at Mitchelstown comprised of three Bronze Age houses, constructed in at least two phases. Each house was c. 10m in diameter and had an entrance facing east. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal samples from the site indicated a date range of c. 1490-1260 cal BC, placing them in the Middle Bronze Age. One notable feature of the houses was the internal division present in house A as a linear north-south slot trench with a posthole at each end, marking the location of an internal partition wall separating the area inside the entrance from the remainder of the house. This types of internal division appear to segregate the space, creating a front/back dichotomy. It could also be argued that this type of arrangement divided the structure into a ‘public’ and ‘private’ area, while also controlling the path of movement through the structure (Parker Pearson and Richards 1994a, 42-47). These issues may also be related to the types of activi- ties undertaken within the structure and the associated necessity to create a front/public area and a rear/private area. These types of structures and their spatial organisation have close parallels on other Irish sites. The Mitchelstown houses are similar in style and layout to houses of the same period excavated at Ballybrowney, Co. Cork (Cotter 2005). Structures B and C at Ballybrowney were somewhat smaller than the Mitchelstown houses, at c. 6m diameter, but also consisted of slot-trenches with a circle of internal post-holes, and with entrances defined by substantial post-holes and facing east. Excavations at Knocksaggart, Co. Clare produced evidence for two circular and one possible rectangular structures in close proximity (Hanley 2002, 32-3). One, Structure B, had a porch-like entrance to the south-east, similar to Structure D at Bal- lybrowney, and both Structures B and C at Knocksaggartt were internally partitioned by walls formed by single rows of stake-holes in a roughly north-north-east/south-south-west direction. A site at Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford comprised a sub-circular enclosure (with an ap- proximate diameter of 36 m) which surrounded a round house and associated occupation remains (McQuade, 2004). The radiocarbon and pottery dates from the site indicate a period of relatively short-lived occupation at this site in the Middle Bronze Age (1500-1000 BC), in particular covering the period 1400-1133 BC. The building at Knockhouse Lower consisted of an arc of postholes and a line of stakeholes at the southeast. Doody (2000) lists eighteen excavated houses dating to the Middle Bronze Age, of which thirteen were circular and five rectilinear, and notes a large range in the structural dimen-Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 19
  25. 25. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 sions of the excavated examples. Since the publication of Doody’s work several more house sites with Middle Bronze Age dates have been excavated, e.g. Kilmurry North, Co. Wicklow (Ó Néill 2003), Cultragh, Co. Sligo (MacDonagh 2005), and Knockdomny Co. Westmeath (Hull in preparation). 6 Conclusion The site at Mitchelstown 1 was discovered during archaeological investigations along the route of the Mitchelstown Relief Road. The site comprised three houses constructed in at least two phases, one of the houses having been cut by the other two. The houses were approximately 10m in diameter and were roughly D-shaped in plan, with entrances centrally located on the straight side, facing east. One of the houses showed clear evidence of having had an inter- nal division in the form of a slot trench running between two structural postholes. The slot trench could have held a wattle wall separating the entrance area (approximately one-third of the floor area) from the remainder of the house. Little evidence was found of the material culture or economy of the inhabitants of the Mitch- elstown houses. No pottery was recovered from the site and the few lithics were undiagnostic. The number of cereal grains recovered from the soil samples was too small to allow any in- terpretation of the economy or diet of the population. A striking aspect of the environmental material however was the large number of seeds of the Dock family. These are usually con- sidered to be weed seeds brought into houses inadvertently along with cereals. However, that is unlikely here, given the paucity of cereal grains on the site, and it may be that Dock seeds were deliberately gathered as a food source. Parallels for this have been found in Britain and Denmark where Dock seeds have been found in the gut contents of bog bodies. The Mitchelstown houses have numerous parallels among the growing numbers of Middle Bronze Age houses now being discovered in recent Irish excavations and add to the expand- ing settlement pattern of the period.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 20
  26. 26. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 7 Bibliography Barry, T.B. 1987 The Archaeology of Medieval Ireland, Routledge, London and New York. Buckley, V. 1990, ‘Experiments using a reconstructed fulacht with a variety of rock types: implications for the petro-morphology of fulachta fiadh’ in Buckley, V. (Ed.) Burnt Offerings: international contributions to Burnt Mound Archaeology, pp.170-172. Dublin. Cotter, E. (2005) Bronze Age Ballybrowney County Cork in Recent Archaeological Discoveries on National Road Schemes 2004 NRA. Daly, A., Grogan, E. (1992) Excavation of Four Barrows in Mitchelstowndown West, Knocklong, County Limerick. Discovery Programme Reports 1 pp44-60. Royal Irish Academy. Doody, M. (1995), ‘Ballyhoura Hills project’, Discovery Programme Reports 2, 12-44. Royal Irish Academy. Dublin. Doody, M. (1999), ‘Ballyhoura Hills project’, Discovery Programme Reports 5, 97-110. Royal Irish Academy. Dublin. Doody, M. 2000. ‘Bronze Age houses in Ireland’, in Desmond, A., Johnson, G., McCarthy, M., Sheehan, J. and Shee Twohig, E. New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Bray, Wordwell. Hanley, K 2002 ’AR85/86, Knocksaggart’, in I Bennett (ed.) Excavations 2000 - summary accounts of archaeological excavations in Ireland, 32-3. Wordwell Ltd., Wicklow. Hull, G. (in preparation). ‘Excavation of a Bronze Age Round House at Knockdomny, Co. Westmeath’, Submitted to The Journal of Irish Archaeology. Kelly, M.J. (1989) Early Ireland An Introduction to Irish Prehistory. Cambridge University Press. MacDonagh, M. 2005. ‘Valley bottom and hilltop; 6,000 years of settlement along the route of the N4 Sligo Inner Relief Road’, pp. 9-23 in O’Sullivan, J. and Stanley, M. (eds.) Recent Archaeological Discoveries on National Road Schemes 2004. Dublin, NRA. McQuade, M. In Preparation. Archaeological Excavation of Pre-historic settlement sites at Knockhouse Lower and Carrickpherish, Co. Waterford, Submitted to Decies.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 21
  27. 27. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Monk, M. 1995 A Tale of Two Ringforts Lisleagh I and II in Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society Vol.100 p105-116. Nevill, W E 1974 Geology and Ireland. Allen Figgis, Dublin. Nicholls, K. W. (1993) ‘The development of lordship in County Cork 1300-1600’, in Buttimer, C. G. and O Flanagan, P. (ed) Cork-History and Society, 157-212. Geography Publications. Dublin. NRA Archaeological Discoveries N8 Watergrasshill Bypass. NRA Archaeological Discoveries N8 Rathcormac Fermoy. O’Brien, A. F., 1993, ‘Politics, Economy and Society : The development of Cork and the Irish south-coast region c.1170 to c.1583’, in O’Flanagan, P. and Buttimer, C. (ed) Cork-History and Society , 83-156. Geography Publications. Dublin. Ó Néill, J. 2003. ‘Kilmurry North, Co. Wicklow (01E0572)’, in Bennet, I. (ed.) Excavations 2001. Bray, Wordwell. Parker Pearson, M. and Richards, C. 1994a. ‘Architecture and Order: Spatial Representation and Archaeology’, in M Parker Pearson and C Richards (eds). Architecture and Order, Approaches to Social Space, 38-72. Routledge, London. Power, D., Lane, S., and Byrne, E., Egan, U., Sleeman, M., with Cotter, E., Monk, J. (2000), Archaeological Inventory of County Cork, Volume 4: North Cork Parts I & II. Dublin. Power B., 2000 White Knights, Dark Earls. The Collins Press. Cork. Roche, H. and Grogan, E. 2005 The N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy Bypass. The Prehistoric Pottery. Unpublished Report for ACS Ltd. Sleeman A. G. and McConnell, B (1995) Geology of East Cork-~Waterford, Geological Survey of Ireland. Smith C., 1815 (2nd ed.) The ancient and present state of the county and city of Cork. Guy and Co. Ltd. Cork. Waddell, J. (1998) The Prehistoric Archaeology of Ireland. GUP. Galway.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 22
  28. 28. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Woodman, P.C. (1989) ‘The mesolithic in Munster: a preliminary assessment’, in Bonsall, C (ed), The Mesolithic in Europe, 116-24. John Donald. Edinburgh. Woodman, P.C. (2000) ‘Hammers and Shoeboxes: New Agendas for Prehistory’ in New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Papers in commemoration of Liz Anderson. Wordwell, 1-10. 7.1 Other Sources Record of Monuments and Places (RMP), Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, 7 Ely Place Upper, Dublin 2. Topographical Files of the National Museum of Ireland, Kildare Street, Dublin 2.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 23
  29. 29. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 8 Figures Figure 1 Portion of Discovery Map showing route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 24
  30. 30. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Legend Bronze Age Medieval Post-medieval 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1 04E1071 Mitchelstown 2 04E1121 Stagpark 2 04E1120 Stagpark 1 04E1119 Spagpark 3 Figure 2 Portion of RMP sheets CO010 and CO019 showing route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 25
  31. 31. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 3 Portion of 1st edition OS maps sheets CO010 and CO019 showing Mitchelstown Demesne and the route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 26
  32. 32. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Area A Area B Figure 4 Route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road showing location of all archaeological sites.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 27
  33. 33. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 159 N 138 161 56 34 35 95,120 105,120 45 55 25 D 127 53 D1 21 129 20 38 18 140 317 37 28 60 411 315 30 318 23 74 72 413 42 A 26 95,115 A1 B 200 31 B1 577 62 69 89 C 40 47 C1 75 63 46 E E1 57 F1 173 F 135 158 572 86 130 364 335 95,110 569 250 203 565 564 206 463 566 571 253 449 532 466 434 362 533 543 432 467 527 505 502 544 477 548 464 522 405 512 479 541 579 422 438 445 509 556 95,105 379 515 573 389 556 501 447 521 574 519 383 415 402 427 381 506 498 493 488 426 575 504 491 404 557 373 461 461 461 419 536 95,100 549 376 399 553 392 378 418 422 400 Legend 482 395 House A 400 482 House B House C 1m 0 5m Figure 5 Post excavation plan of Area A.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 28
  34. 34. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 107,108 N 515 495 495 492 495 415 488 107,105 50 cm 0 50 cm Figure 6 Mid- excavation plan showing slot trench for House B (beige) cutting slot trench for House C (blue).Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 29
  35. 35. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 N A A1 C.368 A A1 # # # # # # # # # # 366# # # # 367# # # C.368 50 cm 0 1m Figure 7 Post-excavation plan and section of isolated pit C.368 in Area B.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 30
  36. 36. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 E E1 A A1 53 27 26 South Facing Section North Facing section of of cut 26 and fill 27 cut 53 B B1 F F1 32 33 31 57 South west facing section North west section of cut of cut 31 and fills 32 and 33 57 C C1 41 64 44 40 66 63 North facing section of cut 40 South facing section of cut and fills 41 and 44 63 and fills 64 and 66 50 cm 0 1m Figure 8 Cross sections through some of typical structural postholes on the site.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 31

×