Eachtra JournalIssue 11                                         [ISSN 2009-2237]            Archaeological Excavation Repo...
EACHTRAArchaeological Projects                          Archaeological Excavation Report                          Clashnev...
Archaeological Excavation Report                                           Clashnevin 1                                   ...
© Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2011  The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork        Set in 12pt Garamond          Printed in Ir...
Table of Contents       Summary�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������...
List of Figures     Figure	1:	   Portion	 of	 map	 of	 Ireland	 showing	 the	 route	 of	 the	 N7	 Castletown	 to	 Nenagh	 ...
Clashnevin 1-e3586                                  http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/Sum...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                           arChaeologiCal exCavation report              Acknowl...
Clashnevin 1-e3586                                  http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/1  ...
2                                      182550                                                  198900                     ...
Clashnevin 1-e3586                                  http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/Dru...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                               arChaeologiCal exCavation report              4  ...
190400                                                               196200                                               ...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                               arChaeologiCal exCavation report                 ...
Clashnevin 1-e3586                                           http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipp...
8                                                            192402                                                       ...
Clashnevin 1-e3586                                  http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/The...
192097                                                 192467                                    19283710     179119      ...
192445                                                                   192500                                           ...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                                 arChaeologiCal exCavation report              P...
192483                                                   192493                                                           ...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                             arChaeologiCal exCavation report              Plate...
Clashnevin 1     South facing facing of C.25, C.24 and C.55                                                               ...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                               arChaeologiCal exCavation report              Pla...
Clashnevin 1-e3586                                          http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tippe...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                       arChaeologiCal exCavation report              Plate	7:	 M...
Clashnevin 1-e3586                                         http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipper...
192427               19243220                                                                                             ...
Clashnevin 1        East facing section of C.19 and C.20        Slot trench 2                                             ...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                                  arChaeologiCal exCavation report              ...
Clashnevin 1-e3586                                     http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                               arChaeologiCal exCavation report               Co...
Clashnevin 1-e3586                                     http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                                arChaeologiCal exCavation report              8 ...
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
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Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)

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The excavation of the site at Clashnevin comprised a burnt mound which overlay a well, a trough and a small group of pits. The well was 7 m in diameter and over 2.5 m in depth.
It was fed by a spring at the base. The trough was located on the western side of the well.
A medieval date was returned from one of the basal fills of the well. The remains of a second burnt mound were located 40 m to the west. It comprised a trough and two pits.
A Middle Bronze Age date was returned from a fill of the trough. A small quantity of plant remains and animal bone was recovered primarily from the fills of the well and a pit at the western end of the site. Three ditches were located to the north of the mound of burnt material. The ditches correspond to a field boundary marked on the 1st ed. OS map sheet TN21.

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Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)

  1. 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 11 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report E3586 - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary Burnt Mound and Well
  2. 2. EACHTRAArchaeological Projects Archaeological Excavation Report Clashnevin 1 Co Tipperary Burnt Mound and Well Date: December 2011 Client: Laois County Council and National Roads Authority Project: N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1) E No: E3586Excavation Director: Jo Moran Written by: Jacinta Kiely and Jo Moran
  3. 3. Archaeological Excavation Report Clashnevin 1 Co Tipperary Excavation Director Jo Moran Written By Jacinta Kiely and Jo Moran EACHTRA Archaeological Projects CORK GALWAY The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork Unit 10, Kilkerrin Park, Liosbain Industrial Estate, Galwaytel: 021 4701616 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: info@eachtra.ie tel: 091 763673 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: galway@eachtra.ie
  4. 4. © Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2011 The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork Set in 12pt Garamond Printed in Ireland
  5. 5. Table of Contents Summary���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������iii Acknowledgements�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� iv1 Scope of the project �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Route location��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Receiving environment ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 34 Archaeological and historical background ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 45 Site Location and Topography �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 76 Excavation methodology ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 97 Excavation results �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Fulachtfiadh/burntmound����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Well�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������12 Trough�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������16 Pits���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������17 Featuresatthewesternendofthesite���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������19 Modernagriculturalactivity���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������22 Lithics��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������24 Plantremains����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������24 � Animalbone����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������24 Modernfinds���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������24 Charcoal���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������25 Radiocarbondates�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������258 Discussion �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 269 References ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������30Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Index �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 32Appendix 2 Site Matrix ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 33Appendix 3 Groups and Subgroups ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������38Appendix 4 Analysis of the plant remains ������������������������������������������������������������������������54Appendix 5 Bone report ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������60Appendix 6 Finds Register ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 63 i
  6. 6. List of Figures Figure 1: Portion of map of Ireland showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1)� ����������������������������������������������������������� 2 Figure 2: Discovery series OS map showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1) and the location of all excavation sites� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map TN21 showing the location of Clashnevin 1� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 8 Figure 4: Location and extent of Clashnevin 1 E3586 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh ����������������10 Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of Clashnevin 1 E3586� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11 � Figure 6: Post-excavation plan of well C�25 and trough C�24� �������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Figure 7: Section of trough C�24 and well C�25� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 Figure 8: Post-excavation of pits C�140 and C�228� �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������20 Figure 9: Section of pit C�140 and stake-holes C�175, C�177, C�187, C�179 and ditches C�19 and C�20� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������21 Figure 10: Prehistoric sites on and in the environs of N7 Castletown to Nenagh� ��������������������������������28 List of Plates Plate 1: Aerial view of Clashnevin 1 to left and Clashnevin 2 to right of photograph�� �������������������� 7 Plate 2: View of mound of burtn material from south-east� �������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Plate 3: Mid excavation of well C�25 from south-west� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 14 Plate 4: View of well C�25 from south� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 14 Plate 5: View of well C�25 full of water from east� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16 Plate 6: Mid excavation of trough C�24 from south� Note well C�25 to right� ������������������������������������ 17 � Plate 7: Mid-excavation of pit C�50 from south� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 Plate 8: Mid-excavation of pit C�74 from west� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 Plate 9: View of pit C�53� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 19 Plate 10: Mid-excavation of trough C�140 from south� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������23 Plate 11: Mid-excavation of well C�228 from north� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������23 List of Tables Table 1: Dimensions of pits associated with well C�25 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16 Table 2: Dimensions of pits associated with burnt mound ����������������������������������������������������������������������� 19 Table 3: Dimensions of pits in the western part of the site �����������������������������������������������������������������������22 Table 4: Dimensions of ditches and drains ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������24 Table 5: Radiocarbon dates �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������25 Table 6: Radiocarbon dates from the burnt mound sites on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1) �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������27ii
  7. 7. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/SummaryThe excavation of the site at Clashnevin comprised a burnt mound which overlay a well, atrough and a small group of pits. The well was 7 m in diameter and over 2.5 m in depth.It was fed by a spring at the base. The trough was located on the western side of the well.A medieval date was returned from one of the basal fills of the well. The remains of asecond burnt mound were located 40 m to the west. It comprised a trough and two pits.A Middle Bronze Age date was returned from a fill of the trough. A small quantity ofplant remains and animal bone was recovered primarily from the fills of the well and apit at the western end of the site. Three ditches were located to the north of the moundof burnt material. The ditches correspond to a field boundary marked on the 1st ed. OSmap sheet TN21.Road project name N7 Castletown to NenaghSite name Clashnevin 1E no. E3586Site director Jo MoranTownland ClashnevinParish BallymackeyCounty TipperaryBarony Upper OrmondOS Map Sheet No. TN21National Grid Reference 192462 178888Elevation 87 m O.D. iii
  8. 8. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Acknowledgements The project was commissioned by Laois County Council and was funded by the Na- tional Roads Authority under the National Development Plan (2000-2006). The project archaeologist was Niall Roycroft. Kildare County Council supervised the archaeological contract with RE staff of Pat Dowling and Colum Fagan. Kildare County Council Senior Executive Engineer was Joseph Kelly and Kildare County Council Senior Engineer was John Coppinger. The senior archaeologist was John Tierney and the post-excavation man- ager was Jacinta Kiely. Illustrations are by Maurizio Toscano, photographs by John Sun- derland and Eagle Photography and aerial photography by StudioLab. Specialist analysis was carried out by Mary Dillon, Penny Johnston, Margaret McCarthy, Farina Sternke and the 14 Chrono Centre at Queen’s University Belfast.iv
  9. 9. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/1 Scope of the projectEachtra Archaeological Projects were commissioned by Laois County Council and theNational Roads Authority to undertake archaeological works along 17.1 km (Contact1) of the 35km N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) national roadscheme (EIS approved in November 2005). The scheme runs from the eastern junctionof the present N7 Nenagh Bypass, North Tipperary a tie in to the M7/M8 Portlaoise-Castletown scheme to the south of Borris-in-Ossory in County Laois. The scheme is ap-proximately 191 hectares. Contract 1 comprises the western half of the scheme and runsfrom Clashnevin to Castleroan passing along the Tipperary North and Offaly countyborder regions. The Ministers Direction Number is A38. It was funded by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan 2000-2006. The total archaeological cost was administered by the National Roads Authoritythrough Laois County Council as part of the Authority’s commitment to protecting ourcultural heritage. The purpose of the archaeological services project was to conduct ar-chaeological site investigations within the lands made available for the scheme and toassess the nature and extent of any new potential archaeological sites uncovered. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in 2007under licence E3371, E3372 and E3375-8 issued by Department of the Environment Her-itage and Local Government (DoEHLG) in consultation with the National Museumof Ireland. The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test for any previouslyunknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing and to test sites of archaeo-logical potential identified in the EIS. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sitesidentified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the constructionof the road. This phase of the project was carried out from June 2007 to February 2008and excavations were conducted under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. A totalof 27 sites were excavated during this phase of works under separate licences issued byDoEHLG. A post-excavation assessment and strategy document was prepared in Phase 3 of theproject to present a management strategy for dealing with post-excavation work aris-ing from archaeological works along the route of the new N7 Castletown to Nenagh. Itincluded a proposal for post-excavation and archiving work and a budget for the works.2 Route locationThe route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh road is located in Counties North Tipperaryand Offaly (OF) (Figure 1). The project (Contract 1) involves the construction of c. 17.5km of the N7 from Clashnevin east of Nenagh to Castleroan south-east of Dunkerrin. Itpasses through the townlands of Clashnevin, Derrybane, Newtown, Lissanisky, Killeisk,Garavally, Derrycarney, Garrynafanna, Gortnadrumman, Kilgorteen, Falleen, Knock-ane, Clash, Park, Rosdremid (OF), Clynoe (OF), Cullenwaine, Moneygall, Greenhills, 1
  10. 10. 2 182550 198900 215250 193300 193300 ! ( Nenagh issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 Derg (Lough) 182950 182950 172600 172600 0 5 10 182550 198900 Kilometres 215250 ± Figure 1: Portion of map of Ireland showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1)� arChaeologiCal exCavation report
  11. 11. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/Drumbaun, Busherstown (OF), Drumroe (OF), Moatquarter, Loughan (OF) and Cas-tleroan (OF). The townlands are located in the parishes of Ballymackey, Cullenwaine,Castletownely, Rathnaveoge, Finglas and Dunkerrin and the baronies of Upper Ormond,Ikerrin and Clonisk, The route begins at the eastern end of the Nenagh bypass at Clashnevin c. 5 km eastof Nenagh and continues eastward on the northern side of the existing N7 in Co. Tip-perary. It crosses a number of third class roads to the north of Toomyvara and 0.7 kmeast of Clash crossroads crosses the Ollatrim River. It extends into County Offaly directlyeast of Park. From here it crosses the R490 0.6 km north of Moneygall. It extends backin County Tipperary and through the demesne of Greenhills before crossing the existingN7 at the junction of Greenhills and Drumbaun townlands. It crosses back into CountyOffaly and climbs east into Busherstown and Drumroe. It crosses the Keeloge Streaminto Moatquarter in County Tipperary and extends northeast back into County Offalythrough the townlands of Loughan and Castleroan 1.4 km southwest of Dunkerrin.3 Receiving environmentNorth Tipperary is bounded on the west by the River Shannon and Lough Derg withthe Silvermines, to the south, and small hills extending towards Devilsbit and BorrisnoeMountains to the east. The mountains are composed largely of Silurian strata and OldRed Sandstone. Copper, silver and lead deposits have been mined in the Silvermines. Thegeology of the lowlands consists of Carboniferous limestone covered by glacial drift inaddition to tracts of raised bog. The western portion of the study area is drained by the Ollatrim River which flowswestwards into the River Ballintotty which in turns drains into the River Nenagh. Theeastern portion is drained by the Keeloge Stream and other small water sources. These risein the foothills of the Silvermine Mountains and flow north. The Keeloge drains into theLittle Brosna River c. 1 km south of Shinrone, Co Offaly. The Brosna turns north anddrains into the Shannon south of Banagher. The largest population centre in the area is Nenagh. The smaller population centres,are Toomyvara, Moneygall and Dunkerrin. The soils on the route are characterised by 80% grey brown podzolics, 10% gleys, 5%brown earths and 5% basin peat. They are derived from glacial till of predominantly Car-boniferous limestone composition. These soils occur in Tipperary and Offaly and have awide use range being suitable for both tillage and pasture (Gardiner and Radford 1980,97-99). Land use along the route was a mix of grassland devoted to intensive dairying andcattle-rearing and tillage. 3
  12. 12. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report 4 Archaeological and historical background Archaeological sites of numerous periods were discovered along the route of the new road (Figure 2). The periods are referred to as follows: Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC), Neo- lithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC), Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600 BC), and Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500), early medieval period (c. AD 500 to 1100), medieval period (c. AD 1100 to 1650), post-medieval period (c. AD 1650 to the present). Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC) The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 8000 BC - 4000 BC). The majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Mesolithic occupa- tion has come from the river valleys. No evidence for the Mesolithic was recorded on the route. Neolithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC) The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the begin- nings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became more sedentary in nature. The most important Neolithic site in the vicinity was at Tullahedy recorded on the route of the Nenagh by-pass. It was a specialist chert arrow manufactur- ing site. No evidence for a Neolithic site was recorded on the route but stone tools dating to the Neolithic were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Clash E3660, Cullenwaine E3741 and Greenhills 2 and 3 E3637 and E3658. Stone tools dating to the late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Castleroan E3909, Cullenwaine E3741, Derrybane 1 E3585, Drumroe E3773, Greenhills 1 E3638 and Moatquarter E3910 Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600BC) The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy and an increase in settlement and burial sites. Copper ores were mined and copper, bronze and gold items manufactured. The range of burial site types includes cist graves, pit and urn burials, cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and stand- ing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sites are known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh. These monuments survive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt, packed with heat-shattered stones, and generally situated close to a water source. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as ‘cook- ing places’, whereby stones were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a trough of water, the water continued to boil with the addition of hot stones and wrapped food was cooked within the hot water. The trough eventually filled with small stones, ash and charcoal that were removed, forming the basis of the familiar mound.4
  13. 13. 190400 196200 202000 207800 Clashnevin 1 186400 186400 Clashnevin 1-e3586 Castleroan 1 E 3909 Busherstown 1 E 3661 Loughan 1 E 4000 Greenhills 3 E 3658 Moneygall 2 Culleenwaine 1 E 3635 E 3741 Moatquarter 1 Clynoe 2 E 3910 E 3774 181800 181800 Park 1 Drumroe 1 Garravally Kilgorteen 1 E 3659 E 3773 E 3589 E 3739 Drumbaun 2 Derrybane 2 E 3912 E 3591 Greenhills 1 Greenhills 2 E 3638 E 3637 Clashnevin 2 E 3590 Clash 1 Park 2 E 3660 E 3772 Derrycarney 1 E 3740 Clashnevin 1 Derrybane 1 Killeisk 1 E 3586 E 3585 E 3587 177200 177200 0 3 6 Kilometres ± 190400 196200 202000 207800 Figure 2: Discovery series OS map showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1) and the location of all excavation http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/5 sites�
  14. 14. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Two new fulachta fiadh or burnt mounds were recorded at Clashnevin 1 E3586, Cullenwaine E3741 and six at three separate locations in Greenhills, E3638, E3637 and E3658. Evidence of nine roundhouses or partial round structures were recorded; two at Castleroan E3909, Derrybane 2 E3591 and Drumbaun 2 E3912 and one at Clash E3660, Drumroe E3773 and Moatquarter E3910. Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500) Upto recently there was little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in Munster. Settlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify (Woodman, 2000) while the material culture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks, believed to have marked tribal boundaries, and hillforts are two of the most visible monuments of the period. Ten percent of sites excavated on NRA road schemes in recent years have produced Iron Age dates. The dates have led to the identification of 30 new Iron Age sites in Munster from road schemes in counties Cork, Limerick and Tipperary (McLaughlin 2008, 51). These include a ditched enclosure in Ballywilliam and a wooden trackway in Annaholty Bog excavated on the route of the N7 Nenagh-Limerick (Taylor 2008, 54). Evidence of domestic activity dating to the Late Bronze Age / Early Iron Age was re- corded at Clashnevin 2. Early medieval period (c. AD 400 to 1100) The early medieval period is characterised by the arrival of Christianity to Ireland. The characteristic monument type of the period is the ringfort. Ringforts are the most nu- merous archaeological monument found in Ireland, with estimates of between 30,000 and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s (Barry 1987). As a result of continued research, the construction of these monuments has a narrow date range during the early medieval period between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. Although there are some very elaborate examples of ringforts, they often take the form of a simple earth or stone enclosure functioning as settlements for all classes of secu- lar society (Stout 1997). North Tipperary is rich in early ecclesiastical sites and the remains of these religious centres are at the core of some of the towns and villages. Roscrea, for example, was chosen by St Cronan as a location for his monastery in the seventh century as it was located at the crossroads on the Slighe Dála, an important roadway in early medieval times (NIAH 2006, 4-8). A possible early medieval enclosure and associated road way was recorded at Killeisk E3587. A denuded ringfort (OF046-013) was excavated at Clynoe 2 E3774. High and later medieval periods (c. AD 1100 to 1650) This period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans and the building of tow- er houses. The Anglo-Normans obtained charters in the thirteenth century for the towns6
  15. 15. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/ Clashnevin 1 (E3586) 0 30 60 Meters ±Plate 1: Aerial view of Clashnevin 1 to left and Clashnevin 2 to right of photograph��of Nenagh, Roscrea, Thurles and Templemore and established markets. Nenagh grewrapidly in the aftermath of the granting of the lands of Munster to Theobald fitzWalter in1185 (ibid. 8). Moated sites represent the remains of isolated, semi-defended homesteadsin rural areas. They were build mainly in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth cen-turies in counties, such as Wexford, Kilkenny, Tipperary, mid-Cork and Limerick, thatwere colonised by English settlers (O’Conor 1998, 58). The Archaeological Inventory forNorth Tipperary lists 39 moated sites (2002, 298). A newly recorded moated site was excavated at Busherstown E3661.Post-medieval period (c. 1650 to the present).The post-medieval period is characterised by mills, limekilns, workhouses, country hous-es and associated demesnes, vernacular buildings and field systems (Figure 3). A smalldemesne associated with a county house was recorded at Greenhills.5 Site Location and TopographyClashnevin I was located 5 km east of Nenagh and c. 100 m north of the eastern end ofthe Nenagh bypass (Plate 1). It was the westernmost of the sites on the route. Clashnevin2 was located 100 m to the east and Derrybane I was located 175 m further east. The sitewas located centrally in a large flat field, c. 87m OD. The surrounding land is in pastureand most of the field boundaries in the vicinity have been removed by the landowner. 7
  16. 16. 8 192402 193402 BALLINREE NEWTOWN 179468 179468 LISSANISKY issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 CLASHNEVIN Derrybane 2 Clashnevin 1 Clashnevin 1 RATHFALLA Derrybane 1 DERRYBANE 178818 178818 BALLINTOTTY KNOCKAHUNNA SHANBALLY BALLYNALICK 0 300 600 ¥ Meters 192402 193402 Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map TN21 showing the location of Clashnevin 1� arChaeologiCal exCavation report
  17. 17. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/There are no water courses in the immediate area. A modern field drain was located 600m to the east, the water within flows to the northwest.6 Excavation methodologyThe site was mechanically stripped of topsoil under strict archaeological supervision.Stripping was done with a tracked machine with a flat toothless bucket. Topsoil strippingcommenced in the areas of identified archaeology and continued radially outward untilthe limit of the road take was reached or until the limit of the archaeological remains wasfully defined. A grid was set up in the excavation area(s) and all archaeological featureswere sufficiently cleaned, recorded and excavated so as to enable an accurate and mean-ingful record of the site to be preserved. The excavation, environmental sampling, sitephotographs, site drawings, find care and retrieval, on-site recording and site archive wasas per the Procedures for Archaeological works as attached to the licence method state-ments for excavation licences. The site was excavated from 9 June 2007 to the 11 August 2007. Only areas withinthe LMA (lands made available) were resolved. The full extent of the area of excavationmeasured 3590 m sq (Figure 4). The full record of excavated contexts is recorded in the context register (Appendix 1)and the stratigraphic matrix (Appendix 2). Detailed stratigraphic descriptions are foundin the groups and sub-groups text (Appendix 3). The context register and site photographsmaybe viewed in the EAPOD (Eachtra Archaeological Projects office database) in theaccompanying CD.7 Excavation resultsThe excavation of the site at Clashnevin comprised a burnt mound which overlay a well, atrough and a small group of pits. The well was 7 m in diameter and over 2.5 m in depth.It was fed by a spring at the base. The trough was located on the western side of the well.A medieval date was returned from one of the basal fills of the well. The remains of asecond burnt mound were located 40 m to the west. It comprised a trough, small pit anda possible well. A Middle Bronze Age date was returned from a fill of the trough. Threeditches were located parallel and to the north of the eastern mound of burnt material.The ditches correspond to a field boundary marked on the 1st ed. OS map sheet TN21.Fulacht fiadh/burnt moundA large spread of burnt mound material (C.3) was recorded in the northeast quadrant ofthe site. The mound measured 17 m in diameter by 0.32 m in depth (Figure 5, Plate 2). Asecond small layer of burnt mound material was recorded to the south-east. The two lay- 9
  18. 18. 192097 192467 19283710 179119 179119 DERRYBANE 120 0 issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 11 0 0 CLASHNEVIN 100 0 900 178889 178889 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 BALLINTOTTY 100 178659 178659 KNOCKAHUNNA Clashnevin 1 (E3586) 0 100 200 BA L LYN AL I CK Metres ± 192097 192467 192837 Figure 4: Location and extent of Clashnevin 1 E3586 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh arChaeologiCal exCavation report
  19. 19. 192445 192500 ± Clashnevin 1-e3586 119 109 19 178912 178912 47 117 20 53 103 77 49 Well 141 50 Trough 24 Mound material 25 5 7 75 152 74 228 O ) 87 m O.D. 18 212 140 229 104 178880 178880 0 20 m 192445 192500 Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of Clashnevin 1 E3586� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/11
  20. 20. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Plate 2: View of mound of burtn material from south-east� ers were part of the same mound of burnt material originally. The mound was truncated by ploughing in the recent past. Well The well (C.25) was 7 m in diameter and was excavated to a depth of 2.5 m (Figure 6, Plates 3 and 4). The well was fed by a spring at the base. When the well was fully exca- vated the spring filled the well in a few hours (Plate 5). The well was sub-circular in plan and broad U-shape in profile. In total 29 fills (C.56, C.57, C.67, C.68, C.69, C.70, C.71, C.72, C.73, C.84, C.87, C.88, C.89, C.90, C.91, C.92, C.110, C.121, C.134, C.136, C.201, C.213, C.214, C.215, C.216, C.217, C.218, C.219 and C.227) were recorded in the area of the well (Figure 7). A further ten fills were recorded in the pits that cut the sides of the well and the fills within the well. The fills were primarily silts and clays, deposited dur- ing episodes of silting and deposition in the well. Animal bone was recovered from 13 of the fills (C.56, C.57, C.68, C.69, C.70, C.71, C.84, C.91, C.135, C.136, C.201, C.213 and C.218) from the well. The identified species included cattle, sheep/goat, pig, horse and red deer. Organic material, leaves, shells and wood was recovered from the fills at the base of the well (C.213, C.218 and C.227). A medieval date of cal AD 982-1040 (UB-12363) was returned from alder charcoal from one of the basal fills. Several small cuts (C.55, C.103, C.141, C.150, C.156, C.189, C.210, C.222 and C.246) were recorded within the area of the well. The western slope of the well was cut by three pits (C.103, C.156 and C.246) and a post-hole (C.189). Pit (C.55) was located on the up-12
  21. 21. 192483 192493 ± 20 Clashnevin 1-e3586 103 55 18 77 49 141 156 Well 178903 178903 50 210 203 7 Trough 24 25 Mound material 5 178897 178897 75 74 80 0 5m 192483 192493 Figure 6: Post-excavation plan of well C�25 and trough C�24� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/13
  22. 22. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Plate 3: Mid excavation of well C�25 from south-west� Plate 4: View of well C�25 from south� 14
  23. 23. Clashnevin 1 South facing facing of C.25, C.24 and C.55 C.98 C.68 C.85 C.57 C.93 C.94 C.69 C.25 C.95 Clashnevin 1-e3586 C.70 C.96 C.24 C.72 C.71 C.92 C. 21 4 C.110 C.90 C.44 C.88 C.45 C.56 C.55 C.89 C.67 C.84 C.68 C.87 C.70 C.57 C.71 C.91 C.201 C.217 C.69 C.92 Bone C.25 C.214 C.215 C.216 C.213 C.219 C.218 Wood C.227 0 1m Figure 7: Section of trough C�24 and well C�25� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/15
  24. 24. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Plate 5: View of well C�25 full of water from east� per eastern edge of the well. Two pits (C.150 and C.222) cut the fills of the well: the pit (C.150) cut three well-fills (C.67, C.84 and C.87) and pit (C.222), to the north-east, cut the well-fill (C.136). The most substantial of the pits was pit C.103 on the upper western side of the well. It measured 1.8 m by 1.25 by 0.8 m in depth. It had cut pit C.246. A possible posthole C.189 was located in the base of pit C.246. Pit C.210 was located to the west of trough C.24. The majority of the pits were located on the north-western side of the well close to the trough C.24. The slope on this side of the well was gentler which may indicate that access to the well was via the north-west. It is possible that the more substantial of the pits e.g. C.103 may have been used as boiling pits. Context Length (m) Width (m) Depth (m) Location 55 0.84 0.4 0.2 NE edge 103 1.8 1.25 0.8 NW edge 141 1.12 0.8 0.11 E edge 150 0.27 0.34 0.13 Cut fills 156 0.56 0.42 0.21 NW edge 210 0.84 0.74 0.45 W side 222 1.2 0.94 0.55 NE side 246 NW edge Table 1: Dimensions of pits associated with well C�2516
  25. 25. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/Plate 6: Mid excavation of trough C�24 from south� Note well C�25 to right�TroughThe trough (C.24) was located immediately west of the well. It remained dry for the du-ration of the excavation and was probably originally filled from the well. It was rectangu-lar in plan and measured 2.5 m by 1.5 m by 0.5 m deep (Plate 6). The base of the troughcut gravel subsoil and there was no evidence of stone or timber lining. The eastern end ofthe trough cut a small pit (C.203).PitsThree pits (C.49, C.50 and C.74) underlay the mound of burnt material. The fills of thethree pits were derived from burnt mound material (Plate 7). Pits C.49 and C.50 werelocated parallel to one another and adjacent to the trough C.24. The base of the pits wasirregular. They may not have functioned as boiling pits. Pit C.74 was located over 4.5 m tothe south of the trough. Two post-holes (C.75 and C.80) were situated on the north-east-ern side of pit C.74 (Plate 8). They were in close proximity to one another and to the pit. Three other pits (C.5, C.53 and C.104) were not covered by the layers of burnt moundmaterial and were located to the east and south of the mound respectively. Pits C.5 andC.104 were small and shallow and Pit C.104 was filled with burnt mound material. PitC.53 (Plate 9) was very regular in plan and may have been a boiling pit associated withthe activities at the burnt mound. 17
  26. 26. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Plate 7: Mid-excavation of pit C�50 from south� Plate 8: Mid-excavation of pit C�74 from west�18
  27. 27. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/Plate 9: View of pit C�53� Context Length (m) Width (m) Depth (m) Location 5 1 0.7 0.18 External to mound 49 1.15 0.61 0.12 Underlay mound 50 1.12 0.82 0.38 Underlay mound 53 1.1 1 0.3 External to mound 74 1.2 0.9 0.32 Underlay mound 104 0.34 0.3 0.1 External to mound 203 0.7 0.4 0.21 Edge of trough C24Table 2: Dimensions of pits associated with burnt moundFeatures at the western end of the siteThree pits (C.140, C.228 and C.229) and a group of 13 stake-holes were located c. 40 mto the west of the area of the well (Figure 8). All the stake-holes were associated with pitC.140. No mound of burnt material was recorded at the western end of the site. Pit C.140 was the easternmost of the three pits (Plate 10). It measured 2.5 m by 2 mby 0.4 m in depth and was filled with burnt mound material. A middle Bronze Age dateof cal BC 1262-1110 1103-1072 1068-1056 (UB -12362) was returned from one of the fillsof the pit. The pit had cut the eastern edge of an earlier pit C.152. Pit C.152 measuredc. 1.5 m in diameter. Seven stake-holes (C.177-180, C.187-188 and C.190) cut the baseof the pit and another 11 stake-holes (C.173-176, C.181-C.185, C.192 and C.194) werelocated on the northern and eastern edge of the pit (Figure 9). The ground between the 19
  28. 28. 192427 19243220 194 192 173 182 181 183 184 175 174 152 177 185 187 176 179 178 228 188 178892 178892 180 issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 190 140 229 178889 178889 0 ± 3m 192427 192432 Figure 8: Post-excavation of pits C�140 and C�228� arChaeologiCal exCavation report
  29. 29. Clashnevin 1 East facing section of C.19 and C.20 Slot trench 2 C.3 C.25 C.27 C.40 C.41 C.25 C.38 C.37 Clashnevin 1-e3586 C.36 C.29 C.39 C.30 C.31 C.33 C.32 C.20 C.19 Clashnevin 1 East facing profile of C.175, C.177, C.187, C.179 and C.140 C.140 C.140 C.175 C.187 C.177 C.179 10 cm 0 50 cm Figure 9: Section of pit C�140 and stake-holes C�175, C�177, C�187, C�179 and ditches C�19 and C�20� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/21
  30. 30. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report stakeholes on the northern and eastern side of the pit sloped towards the eastern side of the pit. Four of the stake-holes (C.178, C.188, C.190 and C.180) cut part of the base of the pit and could have held a timber lining in place. The remainder of the stake-holes may have formed a rectangular structure measuring 1.5 m east-west by 0.8 m north-south. Or the stake-holes on the northern edge (C.175, C.174, C.183, C.181, C.182 and C.184) may have formed a screen 1.5 m in length, with the other three stake-holes (C.194, C.192 and C.173) to the rear measuring 1 m in length. A Middle Bronze Age date cal BC 1262-1110 1103-1072 1068-1056 (UB-12362) was returned from hazel charcoal from one of the fills of the trough. The small shallow pit C.229 was located 2.5 m west of pit C.240 and on the eastern edge of the large pit C.228. Pit C.228 measured 5.5 m in diameter by at least 1.55 m in depth (Plate 11). The base of the pit was not excavated. It was truncated by a modern field drain C.230. A total of 12 silty clays and sandy fills were recorded in the pit. The fills were devoid of any inclusions, with the exception of small amounts of charcoal. Some frag- ments of wood and animal bone were recorded in the basal fills. Context Length (m) Width (m) Depth (m) 140 2.5 2 0.4 152 1.5 1.5 0.4 228 5.9 5.6 1.55 229 1 0.9 0.13 Table 3: Dimensions of pits in the western part of the site Modern agricultural activity Three ditches (C.19, C.20 and C.109) were located parallel and to the north of the mound of burnt material. The ditches were orientated east/west and extended beyond the LMA to the northwest and northeast (Plates 12 and 13). A fourth ditch C.7 was located to the east of the mound. This ditch was cut by C.19 and extended beyond the LMA to the south. The ditches correspond to field boundaries marked on the 1st ed. OS map sheet TN021 (Figure 3). In particular to the south-eastern corner of one field boundary and the north-eastern corner of the field boundary in the adjoining field to the south. The three parallel ditches (C.109, C.19 and C.20) represent three phases of the south-eastern corner of one of the field boundaries. The ditches truncated the northern edge of the mound of burnt material and the well. Animal bone and a small assemblage of charred cereals were recovered from the fills of the middle and northernmost ditches C.19 and C.109. Modern pottery and glass was recovered from the fills of ditches C.7 and C.19.22
  31. 31. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/Plate 10: Mid-excavation of trough C�140 from south�Plate 11: Mid-excavation of well C�228 from north� 23
  32. 32. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Context Length (m) Width (m) Depth (m) Orientation 7 37.5 1.96 1.1 NS 18 40 0.28 0.28 NS 19 5.9 5.6 1.55 EW 20 17.5 1.52 0.5 EW 47 7.88 1.23 0.27 NNW/SSE 109 22 1.05 0.58 EW 119 4 1.24 0.47 NNE/SSW 212 21.5 1.15 0.22 NNW/SSE 230 31.5 1.43 0.47 NNW/SSE Table 4: Dimensions of ditches and drains The National Ploughing Championships were held at the site in the 1950’s. At least some of the plough furrows recorded in the area to date to this period. Field drains and water pipes were recorded in the area of the site. Lithics The lithics were examined by Farina Sternke. All the chert fragments were identified as natural. Plant remains The plant remains were examined by Penny Johnston (Appendix 4). A small assemblage of plant remains was recovered a fill from the ditch (C.19) and from six of the fills of the well (C.25) and two of the fills of the trough (C.24). Most of the cereal grains from Clashnevin 1 were identified as oat and barley, with oat the predominant type recovered. As oat grains are not common in prehistoric deposits it is likely that most of the plant remains from the site were not associated with the burnt mound, but with the later use of the site in the medieval and modern periods. Animal bone The animal bone was examined by Margaret McCarthy (Appendix 5). The faunal samples from the Bronze Age and medieval periods are quite small and little economic informa- tion can be obtained from the results aside from documenting the occurrence of certain species. Animal bones were recovered from a layer of heat-shattered stone C.3 and from various fills of a large pit C.228 that was used to contain food waste. The sample from the pit C.228 is dominated by large and medium mammal remains and the only identified species are cattle and sheep/goat. The well (C.25) contained 60 animal bones and these were found in small amounts in thirteen separate fills. Identified species include cattle, sheep/goat, pig, horse and red deer. The well was used for the disposal of primary butch- ery debris as well as food waste from the table. A number of later modern ditches represented the final phase of activity and the bulk of the animal bones from the site were recovered from these features, in particular ditch24
  33. 33. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/C.19. The faunal sample is dominated by the remains of cattle with all other species in-cluding horse, sheep/goat, pig, red deer and rabbit being recovered in considerably smallernumbers.Modern findsThe modern finds were examined by Sara Camples (Appendix 6). Modern glass, potteryand metal were recovered from the fills of ditches C.7 and C.19 and from the layer C.3 ofburnt mound material.CharcoalThe charcoal was identified for radiocarbon dating by Mary Dillon. Hazel and alder char-coal was identified from the fills of pit C.140 and the well C.25.Radiocarbon datesRadiocarbon analysis was carried out by the 14 Chrono Centre in Queen’s UniversityBelfast. Dates were calibrated using Calib Rev5.0.2 (©1986-2005 M.Stuiver P.J. Re-imer) and in conjunction with Stuiver Reimer 1993 and Reimer et al. 2004. Lab Context Material Un-calibrated δ 13 C 1 sigma 2 sigma calibration code date calibration UB- 151 Hazel charcoal 2949 +/-24 -26.2 BC 1251-1243 BC 1262-1110 1103- 12362 from pit C.140 1213-1125 1072 1068-1056 UB- 213 Alder charcoal 1014+/-22 -28.1 AD 995-1007 AD 982-1040 12363 from well C.25 1011-1026Table 5: Radiocarbon dates 25
  34. 34. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report 8 Discussion A fulacht fiadh / burnt mound was recorded on low level ground in Clashnevin. The lay- ers of burnt mound material overlay a trough, pits and a well. Many theories speculate as to the actual use of burnt mound/fulacht fiadh sites (e.g. O’Kelly 1954; Ó Drisceoil 1988). We recognise the sites archaeologically by the remains of charcoal and heat shattered stones but as Ó Néill (2004) points out, these are the remains of a technology (the use of hot stones known as ‘pyrolithic technology’), rather than specific indications of the aims of the process. The large trough and smaller pits indicate that there was extensive use of hot stone technology at this site and that it was probably used for heating water. Burnt mounds are the most common Bronze Age sites found in Ireland. Estimates suggest that at least 4,500 examples are known. The characteristic site-type is found in low-lying and damp ground and consists of a mound of charcoal-rich black sediment that is packed with heat shattered stones and forms a horse-shoe shape around a pit or trough that filled with water. In many cases all that survives to the present day are black charcoal rich deposits with fragments of shattered stones visible in ploughed fields. These sites are associated with the process of roasting stones to heat water. The remains of these ‘pyrolithic technologies’ (terminology follows Ó Néill 2004) produce the tell-tale deposits rich in charcoal and heat-affected stone. Debate continues about their use, as hot water is required for many processes including cooking, brewing, washing, dyeing and, most recently it has been argued that some burnt mounds were primarily used to boil and cure meat for long term storage (Roycroft 2006). Traditionally these sites have been interpreted as ancient cooking places, where large stones were heated in fires and then added to the water filled trough the extreme heat of the stones eventually heating the water in the trough until it reached boiling point. Experimental cooking at reconstructed sites such as Ballyvourney (O’Kelly 1954) has demonstrated that meat wrapped in straw and placed into a boiling trough can be cooked quite effectively. The perceived lack of any animal bones from these excavated sites has been used as an argument against this theory. More recently however there is a growing corpus of sites which have produced animal bone (Tourunen 2008) including, though the amounts are small, all of the burnt mounds sites on the N7 (Contract 1). The traditional perception of the burnt mound site is that they are isolated features on the landscape situated on marginal ground away from settlement. Recent studies how- ever are requiring a re-evaluation of this perception. It can be regarded as certain that the settlement sites and associated burnt mounds are only one part of a wider prehistoric landscape which also includes lithic production and metalworking sites as well as burial sites (Sternke 2009). Each of the six sites excavated on the N7 was located with a 1km ra- dius of a Bronze Age settlement site, Clashnevin within 1 km east of Derrybane 2 E3591, the site at Park E3772 was one of complex of burnt mound sites in the vicinity of Park 1 E3659 and the three sites at Greenhills (E3638, E3637, and E3658) within 1 km east of Drumbaun E3912.26

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