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Eachtra JournalIssue 11                                         [ISSN 2009-2237]           Archaeological Excavation Repor...
EACHTRAArchaeological Projects                          Archaeological Excavation Report                          Castlero...
Archaeological Excavation Report                                              Castleroan                                  ...
© Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2011  The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork        Set in 12pt Garamond          Printed in Ir...
Table of Contents       Summary�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������...
List of Figures     Figure	1:	          The	 route	 of	 the	 N7	 Castletown	 to	 Nenagh	 overlain	 on	 the	 Ordnance	 Surv...
List of PlatesPlate	1:	    Aerial	photograph	montage	of	Castleroan�	������������������������������������������������������...
iv
Castleroan-e3909                                       http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-offaly/Summ...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                           arChaeologiCal exCavation report              Acknowl...
Castleroan-e3909                                        http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-offaly/1  ...
182550                                                 198900                      2152502    193300                      ...
Castleroan-e3909                                        http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-offaly/Dru...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                               arChaeologiCal exCavation report              4  ...
190400                                                               196200                                               ...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                               arChaeologiCal exCavation report                 ...
Castleroan-e3909                                       http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-offaly/High...
204713                                                                2057138                                             ...
Castleroan-e3909                                          http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-offaly/P...
205937                                                     206307                                                 206677  ...
Castleroan-e3909                                                 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-o...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                                                                                ...
206328                               206340                                                                               ...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                                                   arChaeologiCal exCavation rep...
Castleroan-e3909                                                 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-o...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                                                                                ...
Castleroan-e3909                                                http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-of...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                                         arChaeologiCal exCavation report       ...
Castleroan-e3909                                                   http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                                          arChaeologiCal exCavation report      ...
206328                                206336                                                                              ...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                                                arChaeologiCal exCavation report...
Castleroan-e3909                                                 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-o...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                                               arChaeologiCal exCavation report ...
Castleroan-e3909                                                    http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-c...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                                    arChaeologiCal exCavation report            ...
Castleroan-e3909                                               http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-off...
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)
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Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)

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Excavations at Castleroan 1 E3909 revealed a prehistoric settlement site, in the form of two Bronze Age houses and an associated group of post-holes, pits and stake-holes.
Structure A was defined by two rings of posts, pits and slot trenches, the inner ring was concentric with the outer. It dated to the Middle Bronze Age. The internal diameter of the house was 7 m and it enclosed an internal area of 32 m 2. The external diameter was 9.5m and it enclosed an area of 65 m 2. The entrance faced east and measured 2 m. Structure B was located 6 m to the south of Structure A and was dated to the Late Bronze Age.
The structure was defined by two incomplete rings of posts. The inner ring comprised six posts and two substantial slot trenches formed the entrance. The entrance was 1.5 m in width and faced north-east. The outer ring was concentric with the inner and was also incomplete. It was defined by a ring of nine posts. The diameter of the house was estimated at 7 m. The interior of the structure enclosed an area of 30 m 2 and the entire structure enclosed an area of 40 m 2.
A small lithic assemblage recorded at the site was dated to the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age (Beaker period) and three sherds of Beaker pottery were recorded. Two Iron Age dates were returned from a pit within Structure A and from a pit located to the north-east of Structure A.

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Archaeological Report - Castleroan, Co. Offaly (Ireland)

  1. 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 11 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report E3909 - Castleroan, Co. Offaly Bronze Age houses and Iron Age pits
  2. 2. EACHTRAArchaeological Projects Archaeological Excavation Report Castleroan Co. Offaly Bronze Age houses and Iron Age pits. Date: July 2011 Client: Laois County Council and National Roads Authority Project: N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1) E No: E3909Excavation Director: John Tierney Written by: Jacinta Kiely, John Tierney and Ewelina Chrobak
  3. 3. Archaeological Excavation Report Castleroan Co. Offaly Excavation Director John Tierney Written By Jacinta Kiely, John Tierney and Ewelina Chrobak EACHTRA Archaeological Projects CORK GALWAY The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork Unit 10, Kilkerrin Park, Liosbain Industrial Estate, Galwaytel: 021 4701616 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: info@eachtra.ie tel: 091 763673 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: galway@eachtra.ie
  4. 4. © Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2011 The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork Set in 12pt Garamond Printed in Ireland
  5. 5. Table of Contents Summary��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� v Acknowledgements�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� vi1 Scope of the project �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Route location��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Receiving environment ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 34 Archaeological and historical background ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 Mesolithic(c�8000to4000BC)���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 Neolithic(c�4000to2000BC)������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 4 � BronzeAge(c�2000to600BC)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 IronAge(c�500BCtoAD500)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6 Earlymedievalperiod(c�AD400to1100)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6 Highandlatermedievalperiods(c�AD1100to1650)���������������������������������������������������������������� 7 Post-medievalperiod(c�1650tothepresent)��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 75 Site location and Topography ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 96 Excavation methodology ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 97 Excavation results ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 118 Discussion �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 33 LateNeolithic/EarlyBronzeAge������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������33 BronzeAge���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������33 IronAge����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������369 References �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 37Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Index �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 39Appendix 2 Site Matrix �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������40Appendix 3 Groups and Subgroups ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������44Appendix 4 Lithics Finds Report ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������68Appendix 5 Pottery report ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 71Appendix 6 Plant Remains Analysis ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 75 i
  6. 6. List of Figures Figure 1: The route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 � Figure 2: The route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map with all the excavation sites marked� ����������������������������������������������������� 5 Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map TN21 showing the location of Castleroan� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 8 Figure 4: Location and extent of Castleroan E3909 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh� �������������������10 Figure 5: Post excavation plan of Castleroan� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Figure 6: Plan of Structure A at Castleroan� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 13 Figure 7: Section plans of pits and postholes C�170, C�151, C�168, C�280, C�191 and C�65 associated with Structure A at Castleroan� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 14 Figure 8: Post-excavation plan of Structure A and B at Castleroan� ��������������������������������������������������������� 16 Figure 9: Plan of Structure B at Castleroan� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������21 Figure 10: Section plans of postholes C�397, C�354, C�394 and C�227 associated with Structure B at Castleroan� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������22 Figure 11: Section plans of external pits C�8 and C�280 and post-holes C�175 and C�285 at Castleroan� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������24 Figure 12: Post-excavation plans of nine of the Bronze Age houses on the N7� ������������������������������������35ii
  7. 7. List of PlatesPlate 1: Aerial photograph montage of Castleroan� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9Plate 2: Aerial view of the area of excavation at Castleroan from south� �������������������������������������������� 11Plate 3: Aerial view of Structures A and B at Castleroan from south� ��������������������������������������������������� 15 �Plate 4: Slot trench C�351 in Structure A at Castleroan� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17Plate 5: Pits C�270 and C�363 in interior of Stucture A at Castleroan� ��������������������������������������������������� 18 �Plate 6: Pit C170 in the interior of Structure A at Castleroan� ������������������������������������������������������������������� 19Plate 7: Posthole C�401 in the interior of Structure A at Castleroan� ����������������������������������������������������� 19Plate 8: Pit C�8 located to the east of Structure A at Castleroan� ������������������������������������������������������������20Plate 9: Posthole C�394 which formed part of the inner ring of Structure B� �������������������������������������23Plate 10: Mid-excavation of pit C�238 in Structure B� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������25Plate 11: View of 11 stakeholes in the vicinity of post C�81 in Structure B� �������������������������������������������25Plate 12: Area of entrance in Structure B from south-west� �����������������������������������������������������������������������26 �Plate 13: Southern side of entrance in Structure B from west� ������������������������������������������������������������������26Plate 14: View of posthole C�402� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������27Plate 15: Pit C�29� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������28Plate 16: Slot trench C�490� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������29Plate 17: Postholes 175 and C�326� �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������30Plate 18: Beaker barbed-and-tanged arrowhead E3909:390:1 from Castleroan� ��������������������������������30Plate 19: Rhyolite gaming piece E3909:150:1 from Castleroan� ����������������������������������������������������������������� 31List of TablesTable 1 Dimensions of the post-holes forming the inner ring of Structure A ����������������������������������� 15Table 2 Dimensions of the post-holes, pits and slot trench forming the outer ring of Structure A �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17Table 3 Dimensions of the post-holes forming the inner ring of Structure B������������������������������������23Table 4 Dimensions of the entrance slot trenches and context numbers of associated post-holes� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������27Table 5 Dimensions of the post-holes forming the outer ring of Structure B �����������������������������������27Table 6 Dimensions of the post-holes in slot trench C�490 ����������������������������������������������������������������������29Table 7 Radiocarbon dates �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������32 iii
  8. 8. iv
  9. 9. Castleroan-e3909 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-offaly/SummaryExcavations at Castleroan 1 E3909 revealed a prehistoric settlement site, in the formof two Bronze Age houses and an associated group of post-holes, pits and stake-holes.Structure A was defined by two rings of posts, pits and slot trenches, the inner ring wasconcentric with the outer. It dated to the Middle Bronze Age. The internal diameter of thehouse was 7 m and it enclosed an internal area of 32 m2. The external diameter was 9.5mand it enclosed an area of 65 m2. The entrance faced east and measured 2 m. StructureB was located 6 m to the south of Structure A and was dated to the Late Bronze Age.The structure was defined by two incomplete rings of posts. The inner ring comprised sixposts and two substantial slot trenches formed the entrance. The entrance was 1.5 m inwidth and faced north-east. The outer ring was concentric with the inner and was also in-complete. It was defined by a ring of nine posts. The diameter of the house was estimatedat 7 m. The interior of the structure enclosed an area of 30 m2 and the entire structureenclosed an area of 40 m2. A small lithic assemblage recorded at the site was dated to the Late Neolithic/EarlyBronze Age (Beaker period) and three sherds of Beaker pottery were recorded. Two IronAge dates were returned from a pit within Structure A and from a pit located to the north-east of Structure A.Road project name N7 Castletown to NenaghSite name Castleroan 1E no. E3909Site director John TierneyTownland CastleroanParish DunkerrinCounty OffalyBarony ClonliskOS Map Sheet No. OF 47National Grid Reference 206324 / 182969Elevation 160 m OD v
  10. 10. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Acknowledgements The project was commissioned by Laois County Council and was funded by the Na- tional Roads Authority under the National Development Plan (2000-2006). The project archaeologist was Niall Roycroft. Kildare County Council supervised the archaeological contract with RE staff of Pat Dowling and Colum Fagan. Kildare County Council Senior Executive Engineer was Joseph Kelly and Kildare County Council Senior Engineer was John Coppinger. The senior archaeologist was John Tierney and the post-excavation man- ager was Jacinta Kiely. Illustrations are by Maurizio Toscano, photographs by John Sun- derland and Eagle Photography and aerial photography by StudioLab. Specialist analysis was carried out by Mary Dillon, Penny Johnston, Helen Roche and Eoin Grogan, Farina Sternke and the 14 Chrono Centre at Queen’s University Belfast.vi
  11. 11. Castleroan-e3909 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-offaly/1 Scope of the projectEachtra Archaeological Projects were commissioned by Laois County Council and theNational Roads Authority to undertake archaeological works along 17.1 km (Contact1) of the 35km N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) national roadscheme (EIS approved in November 2005). The scheme runs from the eastern junctionof the present N7 Nenagh Bypass, North Tipperary a tie in to the M7/M8 Portlaoise-Castletown scheme to the south of Borris-in-Ossory in County Laois. The scheme is ap-proximately 191 hectares. Contract 1 comprises the western half of the scheme and runsfrom Clashnevin to Castleroan passing along the Tipperary North and Offaly countyborder regions. The Ministers Direction Number is A38. It was funded by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan 2000-2006. The total archaeological cost was administered by the National Roads Authoritythrough Laois County Council as part of the Authority’s commitment to protecting ourcultural heritage. The purpose of the archaeological services project was to conduct ar-chaeological site investigations within the lands made available for the scheme and toassess the nature and extent of any new potential archaeological sites uncovered. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in 2007under licence E3371, E3372 and E3375-8 issued by Department of the Environment Her-itage and Local Government (DoEHLG) in consultation with the National Museumof Ireland. The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test for any previouslyunknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing and to test sites of archaeo-logical potential identified in the EIS. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sitesidentified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the constructionof the road. This phase of the project was carried out from June 2007 to February 2008and excavations were conducted under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. A totalof 27 sites were excavated during this phase of works under separate licences issued byDoEHLG. A post-excavation assessment and strategy document was prepared in Phase 3 of theproject to present a management strategy for dealing with post-excavation work aris-ing from archaeological works along the route of the new N7 Castletown to Nenagh. Itincluded a proposal for post-excavation and archiving work and a budget for the works.2 Route locationThe route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh road is located in Counties North Tipperaryand Offaly (OF) (Figure 1). The project (Contract 1) involves the construction of c. 17.5km of the N7 from Clashnevin east of Nenagh to Castleroan south-east of Dunkerrin. Itpasses through the townlands of Clashnevin, Derrybane, Newtown, Lissanisky, Killeisk,Garavally, Derrycarney, Garrynafanna, Gortnadrumman, Kilgorteen, Falleen, Knock-ane, Clash, Park, Rosdremid (OF), Clynoe (OF), Cullenwaine, Moneygall, Greenhills, 1
  12. 12. 182550 198900 2152502 193300 193300 ! ( Nenagh issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 Derg (Lough) 182950 182950 172600 172600 0 5 10 182550 198900 Kilometres 215250 ± Figure 1: The route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map� arChaeologiCal exCavation report
  13. 13. Castleroan-e3909 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-offaly/Drumbaun, Busherstown (OF), Drumroe (OF), Moatquarter, Loughan (OF) and Cas-tleroan (OF). The townlands are located in the parishes of Ballymackey, Cullenwaine,Castletownely, Rathnaveoge, Finglas and Dunkerrin and the baronies of Upper Ormond,Ikerrin and Clonisk, The route begins at the eastern end of the Nenagh bypass at Clashnevin c. 5 km eastof Nenagh and continues eastward on the northern side of the existing N7 in Co. Tip-perary. It crosses a number of third class roads to the north of Toomyvara and 0.7 kmeast of Clash crossroads crosses the Ollatrim River. It extends into County Offaly directlyeast of Park. From here it crosses the R490 0.6 km north of Moneygall. It extends backin County Tipperary and through the demesne of Greenhills before crossing the existingN7 at the junction of Greenhills and Drumbaun townlands. It crosses back into CountyOffaly and climbs east into Busherstown and Drumroe. It crosses the Keeloge Streaminto Moatquarter in County Tipperary and extends northeast back into County Offalythrough the townlands of Loughan and Castleroan 1.4 km southwest of Dunkerrin.3 Receiving environmentNorth Tipperary is bounded on the west by the River Shannon and Lough Derg withthe Silvermines, to the south, and small hills extending towards Devilsbit and BorrisnoeMountains to the east. The mountains are composed largely of Silurian strata and OldRed Sandstone. Copper, silver and lead deposits have been mined in the Silvermines. Thegeology of the lowlands consists of Carboniferous limestone covered by glacial drift inaddition to tracts of raised bog. The western portion of the study area is drained by the Ollatrim River which flowswestwards into the River Ballintotty which in turns drains into the River Nenagh. Theeastern portion is drained by the Keeloge Stream and other small water sources. These risein the foothills of the Silvermine Mountains and flow north. The Keeloge drains into theLittle Brosna River c. 1 km south of Shinrone, Co Offaly. The Brosna turns north anddrains into the Shannon south of Banagher. The largest population centre in the area is Nenagh. The smaller population centres,are Toomyvara, Moneygall and Dunkerrin. The soils on the route are characterised by 80% grey brown podzolics, 10% gleys, 5%brown earths and 5% basis peat. They are derived from glacial till of predominantly Car-boniferous limestone composition. These soils occur in Tipperary and Offaly and have awide use range being suitable for both tillage and pasture (Gardiner and Radford 1980,97-99). Land use along the route was a mix of grassland devoted to intensive dairying andcattle-rearing and tillage. 3
  14. 14. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report 4 Archaeological and historical background Archaeological sites of numerous periods were discovered along the route of the new road (Figure 2). The periods are referred to as follows: Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC), Neo- lithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC), Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600 BC), and Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500), early medieval period (c. AD 500 to 1100), medieval period (c. AD 1100 to 1650), post-medieval period (c. AD 1650 to the present). Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC) The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 8000 BC - 4000 BC). The majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Mesolithic occupa- tion has come from the river valleys. No evidence for the Mesolithic was recorded on the route. Neolithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC) The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the begin- nings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became more sedentary in nature. The most important Neolithic site in the vicinity was at Tullahedy recorded on the route of the Nenagh by-pass. It was a specialist chert arrow manufactur- ing site. No evidence for a Neolithic site was recorded on the route but stone tools dating to the Neolithic were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Clash E3660, Cullenwaine E3741 and Greenhills 2 and 3 E3637 and E3658. Stone tools dating to the late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Castleroan E3909, Cullenwaine E3741, Derrybane 1 E3585, Drumroe E3773, Greenhills 1 E3638 and Moatquarter E3910. Neo- lithic pottery was recorded at Cullenwaine E3741 and Drumbaun E3912. Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600BC) The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy and an increase in settlement and burial sites. Copper ores were mined and copper, bronze and gold items manufactured. The range of burial site types includes cist graves, pit and urn burials, cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and stand- ing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sites are known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh. These monuments survive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt, packed with heat-shattered stones, and generally situated close to a water source. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as ‘cook- ing places’, whereby stones were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a trough of water, the water continued to boil with the addition of hot stones and wrapped food was cooked within the hot water. The trough eventually filled with small stones, ash and charcoal that were removed, forming the basis of the familiar mound.4
  15. 15. 190400 196200 202000 207800 Castleroan 1 Castleroan-e3909 186400 186400 Castleroan 1 E 3909 Busherstown 1 E 3661 Loughan 1 E 4000 Greenhills 3 E 3658 Culleenwaine 1 Moneygall 2 E 3741 E 3635 Moatquarter 1 Clynoe 2 E 3910 E 3774 181800 181800 Park 1 Drumroe 1 Garravally Kilgorteen 1 E 3659 E 3773 E 3589 E 3739 Drumbaun 2 Derrybane 2 E 3912 E 3591 Greenhills 1 Greenhills 2 E 3638 E 3637 Clashnevin 2 E 3590 Clash 1 Park 2 E 3660 E 3772 Derrycarney 1 E 3740 Clashnevin 1 Derrybane 1 Killeisk 1 E 3586 E 3585 E 3587 177200 177200 0 3 6 Kilometres ± 190400 196200 202000 207800 Figure 2: The route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map with all the excavation sites marked� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-offaly/5
  16. 16. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Two new fulachta fiadh or burnt mounds were recorded at Clashnevin 1 E3586, Cullenwaine E3741 and six at three separate locations in Greenhills, E3638, E3637 and E3658. Evidence of nine roundhouses or partial round structures were recorded; two at Castleroan E3909, Derrybane 2 E3591 and Drumbaun 2 E3912 and one at Clash E3660, Drumroe E3773 and Moatquarter E3910. Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500) Upto recently there was little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in Munster. Settlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify (Woodman, 2000) while the material culture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks, believed to have marked tribal boundaries, and hillforts are two of the most visible monuments of the period. Ten percent of sites excavated on NRA road schemes in recent years have produced Iron Age dates. The dates have led to the identification of 30 new Iron Age sites in Munster from road schemes in counties Cork, Limerick and Tipperary (McLaughlin 2008, 51). These include a ditched enclosure in Ballywilliam and a wooden trackway in Annaholty Bog excavated on the route of the N7 Nenagh-Limerick (Taylor 2008, 54). Three Iron Age dates were returned from pits in Castleroan E3909 and Drumroe E3773 on the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1). Early medieval period (c. AD 400 to 1100) The early medieval period is characterised by the arrival of Christianity to Ireland. The characteristic monument type of the period is the ringfort. Ringforts are the most nu- merous archaeological monument found in Ireland, with estimates of between 30,000 and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s (Barry 1987). As a result of continued research, the construction of these monuments has a narrow date range during the early medieval period between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. Although there are some very elaborate examples of ringforts, they often take the form of a simple earth or stone enclosure functioning as settlements for all classes of secu- lar society (Stout 1997). North Tipperary is rich in early ecclesiastical sites and the remains of these religious centres are at the core of some of the towns and villages. Roscrea, for example, was chosen by St Cronan as a location for his monastery in the seventh century as it was located at the crossroads on the Slighe Dála, an important roadway in early medieval times (NIAH 2006, 4-8). Early medieval activity was recorded at five sites on the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1). A series of corn-drying kilns were recorded at Busherstown E3661. A denuded ringfort (OF046-013) was excavated at Clynoe 2 E3774. An area of iron- working and associated pits was recorded at Drumbaun E3912. Iron working activity, corn-drying kilns and settlement activity was recorded at Park 1 E3659. A group of pits and associated ditch were recorded at Drumroe E3773.6
  17. 17. Castleroan-e3909 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-offaly/High and later medieval periods (c. AD 1100 to 1650)This period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans and the building of tow-er houses. The Anglo-Normans obtained charters in the thirteenth century for the townsof Nenagh, Roscrea, Thurles and Templemore and established markets. Nenagh grewrapidly in the aftermath of the granting of the lands of Munster to Theobald fitzWalter in1185 (ibid. 8). Moated sites represent the remains of isolated, semi-defended homesteadsin rural areas. They were build mainly in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth cen-turies in counties, such as Wexford, Kilkenny, Tipperary, mid-Cork and Limerick, thatwere colonised by English settlers (O’Conor 1998, 58). The Archaeological Inventory forNorth Tipperary lists 39 moated sites (2002, 298). A medieval enclosure and associated field systems were recorded at Killeisk E3587. Anewly recorded moated site was excavated at Busherstown E3661. A series of ditches andsettlement activity was recorded at Park 1 E3659.Post-medieval period (c. 1650 to the present).The post-medieval period is characterised by mills, limekilns, workhouses, country hous-es and associated demesnes, vernacular buildings and field systems (Figure 3). A smalldemesne associated with a county house was recorded at Greenhills. 7
  18. 18. 204713 2057138 Castleroan LOUGHAN ea m Loughan S tr 182716 182716 e lo g K ee CASTLEROAN issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 Moatquarter BUSHERSTOWN 182066 182066 MOATQUARTER Busherstown Drumbaun 2 DRUMROE 0 300 600 DRUMBAUN Drumroe ¥ Meters 204713 205713 Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map TN21 showing the location of Castleroan� arChaeologiCal exCavation report
  19. 19. Castleroan-e3909 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-offaly/Plate 1: Aerial photograph montage of Castleroan� Castleroan 1 (E3909) 0 25 50 Meters ±5 Site location and TopographyThe site at Castleroan was located near the summit of a low hill at 160 m OD (Plate 1and 2). The surrounding land was in pasture. An Early Bronze Age site was recorded atLoughan E4000 350 m to the south-west.6 Excavation methodologyThe site was mechanically stripped of topsoil under strict archaeological supervision.Stripping was done with a tracked machine with a flat toothless bucket. Topsoil strippingcommenced in the areas of identified archaeology and continued radially outward untilthe limit of the road take was reached or until the limit of the archaeological remainswas fully defined. A grid was set up in the excavation area(s) and all archaeological fea-tures were sufficiently cleaned, recorded and excavated so as to enable an accurate andmeaningful record of the site to be preserved. The excavation, environmental sampling,site photographs, site drawings, find care and retrieval, on-site recording and site archivewas undertaken as per the Procedures for Archaeological works as attached to the licencemethod statements for excavation licences. The site was excavated from the week of the 19 January 2008 to the week of the 16February 2008. Only areas within the LMA (lands made available) were resolved. (Figure4). The full record of excavated contexts is recorded in the context register and the strati-graphic matrix (Appendix 1). Detailed stratigraphic descriptions are found in the groups 9
  20. 20. 205937 206307 206677 1610 40 0 16 30 0 183216 183216 16 20 0 CASTLEROAN 16 10 0 LOUGHAN issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 16 00 0 15 90 0 182986 182986 15 80 0 15 70 0 15 60 0 182756 182756 M O AT Q U A R T E R Castleroan 1 (E3909) 15 50 0 100 200 0 Metres ± 205937 206307 206677 Figure 4: Location and extent of Castleroan E3909 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh� arChaeologiCal exCavation report
  21. 21. Castleroan-e3909 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-offaly/Plate 2: Aerial view of the area of excavation at Castleroan from south�and sub-groups text (Appendix 2). The context register maybe viewed in the EAPOD(Eachtra Archaeological Projects office database) in the accompanying CD.7 Excavation resultsBronze AgeTwo structures dating to the Middle and Later Bronze Age and a group of associated pits,post-holes and slot trenches located to the north and east were excavated at Castleroan(Figure 5, plate 3). Structure B was located 6 m to the south of Structure A.Structure AStructure A was defined by two rings of posts, pits and slot trenches, the inner ring wasconcentric with the outer. The internal diameter of the house was 7 m and it enclosed aninternal area of 32 m2. The external diameter was 9.5m and it enclosed an area of 65 m2.The entrance faced east and measured 2 m in width (Figure 6). The inner circuit comprised nine post-holes (Figure 7). The interval between the post-holes was fairly regular, being on average 2.2 m. A stake-hole C.322 was located besidethe post C.125. The entrance was located between postholes C.359 and C.168. Post-holeC.168 was smaller than the other three features that formed the entrance. 11
  22. 22. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report 206336 206357 ± 472183015 183015 375 293 280 262 486 87 4 338 132 Structure A 470 339 180 484 155 102 429 74 164 O 54 175 8 ) 152 138 160 m O.D. 285 126 48 32 98 100 88 71 29 7 Structure B 238 50 468 433 431182980 182980 490 460 408 405 0 10 m 206336 206357 Figure 5: Post excavation plan of Castleroan� 12
  23. 23. 206328 206340 ± Castleroan-e3909 Structure A 183002 183002 Hearth 182997 182997 0 5 m 206328 206340 Figure 6: Plan of Structure A at Castleroan� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-offaly/13
  24. 24. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation reportN7CN N7CNCastleroan 1 Castleroan 1N facing section of C.170 NE facing section of C.151Structure A Structure A C.169 C.150 C.170 C.151 N7CN N7CN Castleroan 1 Castleroan 1 E facing section of C.168 N facing section of C.286 Structure A Structure A C.284 C.167 C.168 C.286 N7CN N7CN Castleroan 1 Castleroan 1 E facing section of C.191 W facing section of C.65 Structure A Structure A C.52 C.186 C.191 C.69 C.65 0 500 mmFigure 7: Section plans of pits and postholes C�170, C�151, C�168, C�280, C�191 and C�65 associated with Structure A at Castleroan�14
  25. 25. Castleroan-e3909 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-offaly/Plate 3: Aerial view of Structures A and B at Castleroan from south� Context Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) 125 0.25 x 0.2 x 0.13 151 0.33 x 0.33 x 0.2 155 0.3 x 0.3 x 0.13 165 0.2 x 0.2 x 0.15 168 0.2 x 0.2 x 0.15 184 0.34 x 0.34 x 0.08 188 0.35 x 0.3 x 0.13 335 0.16 x 0.15 x 0.15 359 0.6 x 0.5 x 0.16Table 1 Dimensions of the post-holes forming the inner ring of Structure ASix postholes (C.65, C.67, C.82, C.286, C.361 and C.439), five pits (C.4, C.126, C.146,C.180 and C.191) and one slot trench (C.351) constituted the outer circuit of the house(Figure 8). The interval between the features was very irregular. With the exception of thecut features that were located side by side, for examples pits C.180 and C.191 in the area ofthe entrance, the interval between each of the features was generally more than 2 m andwas up to 5 m at the rear of the house. There was a greater concentration of cut featuresat the front half of the house and thence a greater distance between the posts at the rear.A Middle Bronze date of cal BC 1249–1016 (UB–15035) was returned from the fill of pitC.191. 15
  26. 26. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report 206330 206340 444 4 78 87 110 338 ± 65 449 470 44 339 450 132 151 335 85 103 422 465 286 401 180 322 125 415 191 63 342 168 270 363183000 183000 Hearth 41 425 386 193 155 20 263 395 189 Structure A 258 215 361 319 329 223 374 429 218 220 279 439 228 359 384 164 197 192 188 225 351 170 54 165 8 184 455 138 175 104 436 82 67 146 285 111 126 453 32 48 326 448 428 438 371 98 379 12 367 345 309 317 442 316 402 100 354 88 336 265 255 320 81 257 55 71 392 243 267 397 288 246 242 29 352 250 283 419 417 7 350 27 418 420 23 25 394 377 421 368 413 414 412 462 Structure B 410 411182985 182985 156 Hearth 238 50 305 301 299 227 297 328 211 445 291 195 199 236 254 433 232 490 209 230 207 431 205 251 203 0 5 m 201 456 458 206330 206340 Figure 8: Post-excavation plan of Structure A and B at Castleroan� 16
  27. 27. Castleroan-e3909 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-offaly/Plate 4: Slot trench C�351 in Structure A at Castleroan� Context Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) Feature 4 0.42 x 0.3 x 0.29 Pit 65 0.32 x 0.29 x 0.32 Post 67 0.32 x 0.3 x 0.15 Post 82 0.4 x 0.4 x 0.22 Post 126 0.7 x 0.45 x 0.16 Pit 146 0.54 x 0.36 x 0.09 Pit 180 0.71 x 0.6 x 0.2 Pit 191 0.59 x 0.54 x 0.21 Pit 286 0.24 x 0.19 x 0.22 Post 351 2.16 x 0.5 x 0.2 Slot trench 361 0.62 x 0.56 x 0.19 Post 439 0.18 x 0.13 x 0.17 PostTable 2 Dimensions of the post-holes, pits and slot trench forming the outer ring of Structure AThe pits were slightly different in plan, being wider, shallower and the bases were morerounded, to the post-holes. It is quite likely that many of them, particularly the smallerones, were the base of post-holes rather than actual storage pits. A chert flake and debitage(E3909:121:1-3) were recovered from pit C.126.A slot trench C.351 spanned the area between the entrance posts on the southern side ofthe entrance (Plate 4). It measured 2.16 m by 0.5 m by 0.2 m in depth. A flint barbed-and-tanged arrowhead (E3909:390:1) was recovered from the fill of the slot trench. One 17
  28. 28. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Plate 5: Pits C�270 and C�363 in interior of Stucture A at Castleroan� possible pit C.444 and three stake-holes C.44, C.104, and C.465 were located between the two rings of posts. The interior A hearth C.20, eight pits (C.85, C.170, C.189, C.197, C.270, C.319, C.363 and C.386), six post-holes (C.41, C.63, C.103, C.279, C.401 and C.415), 14 stake-holes (C.44, C.192, C.215, C.218, C.220, C.223, C.225, C.228, C.258, C.263, C.329, C.342, C.422, and C.425) and two slot trenches (C.193 and C.374) were located in the interior of Structure A. The hearth C.20 measured 0.7 m in by 0.56 m by 0.2 m in depth. Flecks of unidentifi- able burnt bone were recorded in the fill. Two of the pits (C.270 and C.363) were similar in size to one another (Plate 5). They were located to the east of the hearth. The fills of the pits included a high concentration of small stones. Similar amounts of stones were recorded in the large pit C.189, which was square in plan. Two stake-holes C.215 and C.223 cut the base of pit C.189. The other four pits in the interior were smaller and more insubstantial in size (Plate 6). Three of the post-holes (C.63, C.279 and C.401) were located 1.6m apart, forming three sides of a square and could have functioned as support posts for a roof (Plate 7). The slot trench C.193 could have functioned as the south-eastern corner. One of the other posts C.41 was located adjacent to the hearth. Six of the stake-holes (C.225, C.228, C.218, C.220, C.329 and C.258) formed a screen or internal division measuring 2.6 m in length. Three more of the stake-holes (C.263, C.425 and C.342) may have formed an additional section of the screen, slightly stepped back from main alignment. An Iron Age date of cal BC 165––cal AD 2 (UB–15037) was returned from the fill of pit C.363. Exterior of Structure A Four pits (C.8, C.87, C.138 and C.429), a posthole and three stake-holes were located close to the entrance of Structure A. The fill of pit C.8 included charcoal and a concentra-18
  29. 29. Castleroan-e3909 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-offaly/Plate 6: Pit C170 in the interior of Structure A at Castleroan�Plate 7: Posthole C�401 in the interior of Structure A at Castleroan� 19
  30. 30. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Plate 8: Pit C�8 located to the east of Structure A at Castleroan� tion of small stones similar to the fill of hearth C.238 associated with Structure B (Plate 8) and to some of the pits in the interior of Structure A. A further seven pits (C.74, C.152, C.280, C.338, C.375, C.470, and C.486), two post- holes (C.339 and C.484) and two stake-holes (C.102 and C.262) were located c. 8 m to the north-east of Structure A (see Figure 11). Several of the pits were located in a line, which extended over a length of 22 m, in a north-west/south-east alignment across the site. Structure B Structure B was located 6 m to the south of Structure A. The structure was defined by two incomplete rings of posts (Figure 9). No trace of the rear (western and south-western sec- tions) of the structure survived. The inner ring comprised six posts (C.81, C.328, C.352, C.394, C.397, and C.445) (Plate 9) and two substantial slot trenches C.491 and C.492, which supported seven and six posts respectively, formed the entrance. The entrance was 1.5 m in width and faced north-east. The outer ring was concentric with the inner and was also incomplete. It was defined by a ring of nine posts (C.55, C.156, C.227, C.254, C.336, C.354, C.392, C.414 and C.417). The diameter of the house was estimated at 7 m. The interior of the structure enclosed an area of 30 m2 and the entire structure enclosed an area of 40 m2. Five post-holes, including C.421 in the slot trench C.492, formed the northern circuit of the inner ring of posts (Figure 10). A group of 11 stake-holes (C.242, C.243, C.246,20
  31. 31. 206328 206336 ± Castleroan-e3909 182990 182990 Structure B 182984 182984 Hearth 0 5 m 206328 206336 Figure 9: Plan of Structure B at Castleroan� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-offaly/21
  32. 32. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report N7CN N7CN Castleroan 1 Castleroan 1 NE facing section of C.387 NE facing section of C.354 Structure B Structure B C.385 C.344 C.354 C.397 N7CN N7CN Castleroan 1 Castleroan 1 SW facing section of C.394 NW facing section of C.227 Structure B Structure B C.387 C.217 C.393 C.227 C.394 0 500 mmFigure 10: Section plans of postholes C�397, C�354, C�394 and C�227 associated with Structure B at Castleroan� 22
  33. 33. Castleroan-e3909 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-offaly/Plate 9: Posthole C�394 which formed part of the inner ring of Structure B�C.250, C.255, C.257, C.265, C.267, C.283, C.288 and C.320) were located in the vicinityof post C.81 (Plate 10). Three post-holes, including C.410 in the slot trench C.491, formedthe south-eastern circuit. A pit C.238, cut by four stake-holes (C.297, C.299, C.301 andC.305) was located between post-hole C.328 and C.410. It measured 0.92 m by 0.74 mand 0.16 m in depth. The fill of the pit included charcoal and a high concentration ofsmall stones (Plate 11). It may have functioned as a hearth. A similar fill was recorded inthe pit C.8 which was located to the east of Structure A. Context Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) 81 0.26 x 0.23 x 0.16 328 0.2 x 0.2 x 0.2 352 0.4 x 0.3 x 0.24 394 0.26 x 0.2 x 0.22 397 0.35 x 0.24 x 0.32 445 0.25 x 0.2 x 0.13Table 3 Dimensions of the post-holes forming the inner ring of Structure B Flint debitage (E3909:340:1) was recovered from the fill of the post C.328. The substantial entrance comprised two parallel L-shaped slot trenches (Plate 12). Theslot trench C.491, formed the southern extent of the entrance (Plate 13). Seven postholeswere recorded in the trench. The postholes measured on average 0.33 m by 0.30 m by 23
  34. 34. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report N7CN Castleroan 1 E facing section of C.280 External feature C.278 C.302 C.308 C.280 N7CN Castleroan 1 SW facing section of C.8 External feature C.3 C.34 Natural C.8 N7CN N7CN Castleroan 1 Castleroan 1 SE facing section of C.175 E facing section of C.285 External feature External feature C.177 C.173 C.275 C.178 C.175 C.285 0 500 mmFigure 11: Section plans of external pits C�8 and C�280 and post-holes C�175 and C�285 at Castleroan� 24
  35. 35. Castleroan-e3909 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-offaly/Plate 10: Mid-excavation of pit C�238 in Structure B�Plate 11: View of 11 stakeholes in the vicinity of post C�81 in Structure B� 25
  36. 36. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Plate 12: Area of entrance in Structure B from south-west� Plate 13: Southern side of entrance in Structure B from west�26
  37. 37. Castleroan-e3909 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3909-castleroan-co-offaly/Plate 14: View of posthole C�402� 0.23m in depth. The slot trench C.492, formed the northern extent of the entrance. Thepostholes measured on average 0.30 m by 0.24 m by 0.23 m in depth.Slot trench Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) Postholes491 1.4 x 0.43 x 0.26 0.64 x 0.37 x 0.24 156, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, 415492 1.46 x 0.4 x 0.25 0.74 x 0.45 x 0.2 55, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421Table 4 Dimensions of the entrance slot trenches and context numbers of associated post-holes� Five post-holes, including C.55 and C.417 in the slot trench C.492, formed the north-ern circuit of the outer ring of posts. Two additional post-holes (C.316 and C.402) mayhave formed additional support or replacement posts in association with the outer ring(Plate 14). Four post-holes, including C.156 and C.414 in the slot trench C.491, formedthe south-eastern circuit. Context Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) 227 0.22 x 0.18 x 0.17 254 0.15 x 0.14 x 0.26 336 0.24 x 0.22 x 0.29 354 0.28 x 0.28 x 0.18 392 0.6 x 0.4 x 0.2Table 5 Dimensions of the post-holes forming the outer ring of Structure B 27

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