Eachtra JournalIssue 10                                      [ISSN 2009-2237]           Archaeological Excavation Report  ...
Final Excavcation Report of two Fulachta fiadh atStagpark,N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road,Co. CorkJuly 2006Client:            ...
04E1119          Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                                                ISSUE 1...
04E1119         Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                                                        ...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road          ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237     ...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                    ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                  ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2...
04E1119         Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                  ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                   ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                    ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                     ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 200...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                   ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                       ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                   ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                     ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 200...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                     ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 200...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-22...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-22...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road            ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237   ...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road         ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237      ...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                    ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                                                        I...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road              ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 ...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road           ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237    ...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                                                         ...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                                                         ...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road   ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237        Figu...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                                                         ...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road            ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237   ...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                       ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road             ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237  ...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                        ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN ...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road        ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237       ...
04E1119        Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road                                        ISSUE 10: Eachtra...
04E1119                                                                    11.2     Appendix 2: Context Register          ...
04E1119                                                                         Context #     Grid        Fill of    Fille...
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Archaeological Report - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (Ireland)

544 views

Published on

The site occurs within an area where a cluster of Bronze Age fulachta fiadh sites have been identified.
Three burnt mounds were recorded (CO019-019, -020 and -021) within 500m of the site, while two other burnt mounds were excavated as part of this road project; Stagpark 2 (04E1121) was 800m away to the north and Mitchelstown 2 (04E1071) was 2km to the north. The intense use of this small area for the purposes of heating stones and water has produced a date range that suggests occupation on a long-term, if perhaps intermittent basis from at least the Early Bronze Age. The lower heavier wetter ground in the area was used for sites such as these. With the exception of the burnt mound at Mitchelstown 2, which was located on the northern bank of the Gradoge River, the remaining burnt mounds are not located adjacent to any known or contemporary water sources. The underlying subsoil is however a heavy clay which holds water very effectively being almost impermeable. The archaeological evidence indicates that contemporary Early Bronze Age occupation occurred on the higher drier ground, at Stagpark 1 (04E1120) 600m to the north. An extensive occupation site, dating to the Middle Bronze Age, was located on a limestone ridge on the northern bank of the Gradoge River at Mitchelstown 1 (04E1072) 2.8km to the north.

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
544
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Archaeological Report - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (Ireland)

  1. 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 10 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report 04E1119 - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork Two Fulachta fiadh
  2. 2. Final Excavcation Report of two Fulachta fiadh atStagpark,N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road,Co. CorkJuly 2006Client: Cork County Council, National Roads Office, Richmond, Glanmire, Co. CorkLicence No.: 04E1119Licensee: Bruce Sutton Contact details: The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork. Tel.: 021 470 16 16 Fax: 021 470 16 28 E-mail: info@eachtra.ie Web Site: www.eachtra.ie
  3. 3. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Table of Contents i Project details .................................................................................................... iv ii Non-Technical Summary ....................................................................................v 1 Introduction .......................................................................................................1 1.1 Site location ..................................................................................................1 1.2 Scope of the Project ......................................................................................1 1.3 Circumstances of discovery ..........................................................................1 1.4 Date and duration of excavation works .........................................................1 1.5 Size and composition of the excavation team ................................................2 2 Receiving Environment ......................................................................................2 2.1 The Natural Landscape ................................................................................2 2.2 The Human Landscape ................................................................................3 3 Research Framework ...........................................................................................7 4 Interim Findings .................................................................................................7 4.1 Excavation Methodology ..............................................................................7 4.2 Full Stratigraphic Report ..............................................................................7 4.3 Radiocarbon results .....................................................................................10 4.4 Plant remains report ....................................................................................11 5 Discussion and Interpretation ............................................................................ 11 6 Assessment of archaeological and significance .................................................... 11 7 Conclusion ......................................................................................................... 11 8 Bibliography ...................................................................................................... 12 9 Figures ...............................................................................................................14 10 Plates .................................................................................................................24 11 Appendices ........................................................................................................ 27 11.1 Appendix 1: Matrices ..................................................................................27 11.2 Appendix 2: Context Register .....................................................................30 11.3 Appendix 3: Context Register .....................................................................47 11.4 Appendix 4: Charred plant remains from Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (04E1119) 47 11.5 Appendix 5: Summary account of site archive .............................................48 11.6 Appendix 6: Dissemination Strategy............................................................49 11.7 Appendix 7: Programme Schedule Dates & Deliveries .................................49Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ iii
  4. 4. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 List of Figures Figure 1: Portion of discovery map showing route of N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. ...........................14 Figure 2: Portion of RMP sheets CO019 & CO010 showing route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. .. ..............................................................................................................................................15 Figure 3: Portion of 1st edition maps sheets 10 & 19 showing Mitchelstown Demesne and the route of the N8 Mitchelstown Road. ..................................................................................................................16 Figure 4: Route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road showing location of all archaeological sites. .......17 Figure 5: Portion of route of N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road showing location of 04E1119. ...................18 Figure 6: Plan of extent of fulachta fiadh C.3 and C.4. ........................................................................19 Figure 7: Plan of extent of mound C.4. ............................................................................................... 20 Figure 8: Post-excavation plan and sections of trough C.45 and pits C.8 and C.17...............................21 Figure 9: Plan of extent of mound C.3. ................................................................................................22 Figure 10: Post-excavation plan and sections of trough C.88 and pit C.80...........................................23 List of Plates Plate 1: View of trough C.45 and pit C.8 and C.17 from north............................................................ 24 Plate 2: View of stakeholes on northern side of pit C.17 from west....................................................... 24 Plate 3: View of trough C.45 from east. ................................................................................................25 Plate 4: View of area of mound C.3 post-excavation from south-west. ..................................................25 Plate 5: View of section of trough C.88 from east. ................................................................................26 Plate 6: View of pit C.80 and stakeholes C.118-C.122 from southeast. .................................................26Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ iv
  5. 5. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Project details Project N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road Site Name Stagpark 3 Site Type Fulachta Fiadh Licence No. 04E1119 Ministerial Order No. A012/001 Licensee Bruce Sutton Townland Stagpark Nat. Grid Ref. 180275 111397 Report Type Excavation Report Report Status Final Report Date of Submission July 2006 Distribution Ken Hanley, Project Archaeologist Cork County Council, Dept. of the En- vironment, Heritage and Local Government, National Museum of Ireland and Cork Archaeological Survey Office.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ v
  6. 6. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Non-Technical Summary This report details the results of an archaeological excavation undertaken by Eachtra Archaeological Projects of a site on the route of the proposed N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road, on behalf of Cork County Council. The proposed bypass involves the construction of 4.5km of the N8 from Cloonlough, south of Mitchelstown, to the junction of the R513 and the N8, north of Mitchelstown. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in June, July and Septem- ber 2004 under licences 04E0889-04E0892 issued by Department of the Environment Heritage and Local Government (DoEHLG). The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test sites of ar- chaeological potential identified in the EIS and geophysical surveying and to test for any previously unknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sites identified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the construction of the bypass in order to avoid delays and costs during construction works. This phase of the project was carried out from September- December 2004 and excavations were conducted by two licensed directors under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. In total five sites were excavated during this phase of works and all excavations were carried out initially under separate licences issued by DoEHLG and subsequently under Ministe- rial Order. One of these sites, Stagpark 3 is the subject of this report. It was identified in the testing in the town- land of Stagpark, at chainage 800 of the proposed road scheme and excavated under Licence Number 04E1119 and Ministerial Order Number A012/001. The site comprised two fulachta fiadh.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ vi
  7. 7. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 1 Introduction 1.1 Site location This report details the results of the archaeological excavation of a site on N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road (MRR), County Cork (National Grid Co-ordinates 180275 111397). The site is located c.1 km to the southwest of Mitchelstown and less than 1km east of the N8 (Figure 1). It is located in the townland of Stagpark, the Parish of Brigown and barony of Condons and Clangibbon. 1.2 Scope of the Project This Archaeological Services Project was carried out on behalf of Cork County Council, National Roads Design Office, Richmond, Glanmire, Co. Cork. This project was funded by the Irish Govern- ment under the National Development Plan, 2000-2006. The purpose of the Project was to conduct Archaeological Site Investigations within the lands made available for the scheme and to assess the nature and extent of any new or potential archaeological sites uncovered. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in June, July and Septem- ber 2004 under licences 04E0889-04E0892 issued by Department of the Environment Heritage and Local Government (DoEHLG). The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test sites of ar- chaeological potential identified in the EIS and geophysical surveying and to test for any previously unknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sites identified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the construction of the bypass in order to avoid delays and costs during construction works. This phase of the project was carried out from September- December 2004 and excavations were conducted by two licensed directors under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. In total five sites were excavated during this phase of works and all excavations were carried out initially under separate licences issued by DoEHLG and subsequently under Ministe- rial Order. Following completion of fieldwork a dissemination strategy was undertaken and submitted to the project archaeologist. A programme of post-excavation analysis was agreed and commenced. A lecture on the preliminary findings was given to Mitchelstown Historical Society in May 2005 by the project and senior archaeologists. It is envisaged that a second lecture will be given to Mitchelstown Historical Society during their autumn/winter programme 2006-07. 1.3 Circumstances of discovery Prehistoric archaeological material was discovered at Mitchelstown 2 during archaeological test trench- ing undertaken in June 2004 under licence 04E0890. Topsoil in the vicinity of the sites was subse- quently stripped by tracked machine using a flat bucket under the direction of the licensed director. When the limits of the site had been determined, full excavation of the site commenced under license 04E1119. 1.4 Date and duration of excavation works The excavation commenced on 13th September 2004 under licence 04E1119. The work was suspendedPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 1
  8. 8. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 on October 14th 2004 as it was necessary to apply for a Ministerial Order under the National Monu- ments Amendment Act 2004. The Ministerial Order, A012/000, was granted in November 2004 and excavation recommenced on 29th November 2004 and finished on 8th December 2004 under licence 04E1119 and Ministerial Order A012/001. 1.5 Size and composition of the excavation team The archaeological excavation team consisted of the licence holder, one supervisor, three site assistants and one general operative. 2 Receiving Environment 2.1 The Natural Landscape 2.1.1 Geology The topography of East Cork and Waterford consists of east-west orientated valleys separated by in- tervening ridges. The ridges consist of sandstones and mudstones of the Devonian Period (Old Red Sandstone) laid down 355-410 million years ago and the valleys of Carboniferous limestones laid down 290-355 million years ago. The sediments covering many of the rocks are mainly of glacial origin deposited by glacial ice or meltwater (Sleeman et al. 1995, 1). Major earth movements have resulted in the uplifting and folding of the rock units. Anticlines occur when local uplift results in a convex upward fold. Synclines occur when local uplift results in a concave upward fold (ibid. 3). The Mitchelstown Syncline is composed of a variety of Carboniferous Formations. Three of these for- mations are located in the area of the route of the N8 MRR. The Croane Formation is composed of a mixture of mudstones and cherts and is estimated to be about 300m thick (ibid. 31). The Rathronan Formation is composed of micrites, wackestones and cherts (ibid. 32). The O’Mahony’s Rock Forma- tion consists of micrites, packstones, wackestones and grainstones and is estimated to be about 100m thick. The type area is between Mitchelstown Castle and Killee House to the west (ibid.). 2.1.2 Soils and their uses The soils to the north of the Gradoge River to the west of Mitchelstown are characterised by a mix of acid brown earths, gleys and grey brown podzolics, which are derived from mixed sandstone and limestone glacial till while the underlying rock is Carboniferous limestone. The acid brown earths and gleys occur in the gently rolling valleys of Cork and Waterford mainly at altitudes of 0-75m (Gardiner 1980, 61). The soils have a wide use range and are suitable for tillage and grass production. The soils to the south of the Gradoge River are characterized by a mix of gleys and peaty gleys which are derived from glacial till of mixed sandstone-shale composition with a small admixture of limestone in places. They occur mostly at altitudes of 76m to 152m. The soils have a limited use range as they are poorly drained even on good slopes. They are best suited to grassland (ibid. 77-79) 2.1.3 Topography The route of the N8 Mitchelstown relief road (MRR) traverses the townlands of Cloonlough, StagPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 2
  9. 9. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Park and Mitchelstown on the western side of the town of Mitchelstown. The route extends from the N8 c. 1km south of Mitchelstown, crosses the N73 Mitchelstown/Mallow road, the Gradoge River Valley and traverses the ridge on the northern side of the river valley to the junction of the R513 Mitch- elstown/Ballylanders road and rejoins the N8. The northern half of the route traverses Mitchelstown Demesne, breaching the estate wall at the junction with the N73 and the R513. The southern half of the route climbs from c. 120m OD to 130m OD before descending to the banks of the Gradoge River, 80m OD and climbing northwards to the apex of the limestone ridge 110m OD. The land is for the most part under pasture and is located at an altitude of between 80-130m OD. The landscape of the Mitchelstown area is dominated by the Galtee Mountains to the north, the Bal- lyhoura Mountains to the west and the Kilworth Mountains (the foothills of the Knockmealdown Mountains) to the south. The Gradoge River is a tributary of the Funshion River. It rises south of Mitchelstown on the southern slopes of the Kilworth Mountains and drains into the Funshion to the immediate west of the route of the N8 MRR. The River Funshion drains into the River Blackwater south of Kilworth. The site of Stagpark 3 was located in low-lying pasture to the southeast and downslope of Stagpark 1 (04E1120) and 800m west of the N8. 2.2 The Human Landscape 2.2.1 Archaeological Background There is a paucity of known archaeological sites within a 2 km radius of the route of the N8 MRR. Three prehistoric sites, fulachta fiadh (CO019-019, -020,-021) are recorded in Stagpark and Ballykear- ney between 100-500m of the route corridor. The site of Mitchelstown Castle (CO019-026), the as- sociated demesne and the historic town of Mitchelstown (CO019-149) are the principle medieval and post-medieval sites in the vicinity of the route corridor (Figures 2 and 3). 2.2.2 Mesolithic 7000 BC - 4000 BC The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 7000 BC - 4000 BC). In Munster, the majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Mesolithic occupation has ‘come from the Blackwater valley in Co. Cork’ (Woodman 1989, 116). Flint scatters were recorded in the townlands of Ballynamona (CO018-099) and Wallstown (CO018-100) on the northern and southern sides of the Awbeg river respectively c. 15km to the west of the route of the N8 MRR (Power et. al. 2000, 2). 2.2.3 Neolithic 4000 BC -2500 BC The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the beginnings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became more sedentary in nature. Sub- stantial Neolithic settlement sites have been recorded at Lough Gur, Co. Limerick and Cloghers, Co. Kerry. The material culture includes the manufacture of pottery, flint and stone arrowheads, scrapers,Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 3
  10. 10. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 axes etc. The range of monuments types includes Megalithic tombs (court tombs, portal tombs, pas- sage tombs and wedge tombs), single burial graves and stone circles. There is a paucity of evidence for Neolithic settlement sites in the south-west of Ireland. Recent infrastructural development has increased the amount of Neolithic sites in County Cork. The nearest known Neolithic house was excavated on the N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy in the townland of Gor- tore. The structure was dated to the Early Neolithic cal BC 3928-3655 (UB 6769). Further evidence of the Neolithic was recorded at Fermoy and Curraghprevin (NRA N8 Rathcormac Fermoy). 2.2.4 Bronze Age 2000 BC -500 BC The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy, the mining of copper ores and manufacture of copper, bronze and gold items. The range of burial site types includes, cist graves, pit and urn burials, cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and standing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sites are known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh; over 2,000 examples have been recorded in County Cork alone. These monuments survive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt packed with heat-shattered stones and are generally situated close to a water source. In many cases, however, all that survives to the present day are black spreads with fragments of shattered stones visible in ploughed fields. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as ‘cooking places’, whereby stones were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a trough of water, the water continued to boil with the addition of hot stones and wrapped food was cooked within the hot water. The trough eventually filled with small stones, ash and charcoal that were removed and formed the basis of the familiar mound. The absence of animal remains and the scarcity of associated hearths have fuelled the debate in relation to the func- tion of the sites. Other theories on their interpretation include bathing and dyeing textiles together with the production of hot water and steam for curative purposes and sweat houses (Kelly 1989, 225). Waddell (1998, 177) suggests the semi-industrial purpose of using the boiling water for dipping hides as part of the preparation of the leather, while Dunne (pers. comm.) suggests a relationship between burnt mounds and Bronze Age funerary rites and burial practices. There are few wedge tombs or stone circles known from north or east Cork. Two of the exceptions are wedge tombs located at Labbacallee (CO027-086) and at Manning (CO027-091) both located c. 8 km south of the N8 MRR. Labbacallee is one of the largest wedge tombs in the country. The cemetery of Mitchelstowndown West contains 53 small barrows. Four of this group were selected for excavation by the Discovery Programme (Daly et. al. 1992, 44). The site of the cemetery is located 16 km to the north of the N8 MRR. Until recently Bronze Age settlement sites were a rarity in North Cork. A Bronze Age occupation site was recorded underlying the medieval ringfort Lisleagh I (CO027-158) c.3.5km to the south of the N8 MRR (Power et. al. 2000, 210). A house site was excavated at Killydonoghoe on the route of the N8 Glanmire-Watergrasshill Bypass (NRA N8 Watergrasshill). A large Bronze Age settlement site consist-Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 4
  11. 11. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 ing of four enclosures and three circular houses was excavated in 2003 at Ballybrowney on the route of the N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy (Cotter 2005, 38). A Middle Bronze Age settlement site was excavated in Mitchelstown (04E1072), a complex of Early and Late Bronze Age pits were excavated in Stagpark (04E1120) and three fulachta fiadh were excavated in Stagpark (04E1121 & 04E1119) on the route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. In addition a rare and important hoard of Early Bronze Age pottery was excavated on the banks of the Gradoge River (04E1071). 2.2.5 Iron Age 500 BC – 400 AD At present, there is little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in the Cork region. Settlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify (Woodman, 2000) while the material cul- ture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks, which are believed to have marked tribal boundaries, are one of the most visible monuments of the period. Three separate stretches of one such boundary, the Claidh Dubh, have been recorded in County Cork. The longest stretch, c. 24 km extends from the Nagle Mountains, across the Blackwater valley and into the Ballyhoura Hills. The Claidh Dubh crosses the N73 c. 12km west of the N8 MRR. Radiocarbon dating following excavation of a section of it revealed it dated to some time before 100AD (Doody 1995, 23). Three of the five hillfort sites in Cork are located in North Cork (Power et al, 2000, 205). Caherdrinny is located at the western end of the Kilworth Mountains, c. 3 km to the south of the N8 MRR and Corrin is located at the eastern end of the Nagle Mountains c. 15 km to the south of the N8 MRR. A complex of monuments in Conva townland (c. 15 km to the southwest of the N8 MRR) was identi- fied by aerial photography in the Blackwater Valley. Crop marks indicated three enclosures (CO034- 7201, -7202, -7203) and a number of large pits (CO034-7204) possibly comprising a rectangular enclosure. The site was investigated in 1992 by Martin Doody of the Discovery Programme which involved geophysical prospection, topographic survey and trial excavation. Sections were dug through the three enclosures and through four of the large pits. Metal debris was discovered and radiocarbon dates indicated that the complex dated to the Iron Age/Early Medieval period. A complex of pits, dating to the Iron Age, cal BC 346-45 (UB6719) was excavated in Stagpark (04E1120) on the route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. 2.2.6 Early Medieval 400 AD – 1000 AD The Early Medieval Period/Early Christian Period is characterised by the arrival of Christianity to Ireland. Early ecclesiastical sites are located at Brigown (CO019-030) on the southeastern side of Mitchelstown and to the west of the N8 MRR at Aghacross (CO019-002), Leabba Molagga and Mar- shalstown. The monastery of Brigown founded in the 7th century gives its name to the modern parish (Power 1996, 3).Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 5
  12. 12. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 The characteristic monument type of the period was the ringfort. Ringforts are the most numerous archaeological monument found in Ireland, with estimates of between 30 and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s (Barry, 1987). As a result of continued research these monuments have a narrow date range during the Early Christian period between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. Although there are some very elaborate examples of ringforts they often take the form of a simple earth or stone enclosure and functioned as settlements for all classes of secular society (Stout, 1997). A major research excavation of two ringfort was undertaken at Lisleagh c. 3.5km to the south of the route of the N8 MRR. Structural, domestic and industrial evidence was recorded at both sites. A number of stake and wattle round houses, and iron working were recorded in Lisleagh I. Two phases of occupation were recorded at Lisleagh I. The Lisleagh I was constructed in the early seventh century and was occupied into the ninth century AD (Monk 1995, 105-116). 2.2.7 Medieval 1000 AD – 1300 AD & Late Medieval 1300 AD -1500 AD The period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans. Mitchelstown was formerly known as Brigown / Mitchelstown (CO019-149). It was listed as a market town in 1299 and was located on the southern bank of the Gradoge River, to the east of Mitchelstown Castle (Power, D. et al. 2000, 595). The town developed under the patronage of the House of Desmond. It passed into the hands of the Earls of Kingston in the 17th century (Power 1996, 23). Mitchelstown Castle was located on a limestone ridge on the southern bank of the Gradoge River. The first settlers, the Anglo-Norman FitzGibbons, held the title of White Knights. Their territory extended from Mitchelstown to Kilmallock (Power 2000, 1) and they built a tower house on the ridge. The White Knight lineage ended in the 17th century and the estate passed through marriage into the hands of the Fenton family (ibid. 3) and ultimately to the Kingstons. The earlier castle was destroyed in the wars of 1641. A corn-drying kiln dating to the Later Medieval Period cal AD 1310-1434 (UB 6833) was excavated in Stagpark 2 (04E1121). 2.2.8 Post-Medieval 1500 AD – 1800 AD In 1776 Lord Kingsborough, the 2nd earl of Kingston, created the new town of Mitchelstown. He demolished the old town between Kingston College and the Castle. Kingston College developed into a Georgian square. The new town was centred between the two parallel main streets of George Street and Cork Street. King Square and New Market Square became the focal points of the town (ibid.). St George’s Church, built in 1801, was located at the southern end of George Street and King Square at the northern end. New Market Square was located midway and on the western side of Cork Street. The new town was built on 138 acres. Lord Kingsborough, the second earl of Kingston, built a new mansion on the site of the White Knights castle and a demesne around the mansion in the 18th century. A demesne wall was constructed around the parkland of some 1240 acres. The wall was ‘six-and-a-quarter-mile long…between eight and ten feetPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 6
  13. 13. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 in height’ (Power 1996, 24). All public roads that were located within the area of the demesne were closed and rerouted on the periphery of the wall. Entry to the demesne was gained through Mallow Gate also known as White Gate, Limerick Gate and the main entrance was at King Square. Extensive works were undertaken within the area of the demesne which resulted in ‘a quadrangle of buildings, a garden of five English acres surrounded by a wall, large conservatories and lavishly arranged gardens became part of the scene. Two artificial lakes were developed beneath the rockface on which the castle stood ’ (ibid., 24). Several hundred acres of woodland comprising of oak, ash, larch, beech and alder were planted within the demesne. In 1823 the third earl of Kingston demolished the Georgian house and built a new castle on the same site. The architects James and George Pain designed and built this neo-Gothic castellated mansion. The limestone buildings formed three sides of a courtyard (Power 1996, 42). Mitchelstown Castle was burnt by Republican forces in 1922. The stone was bought by the Cistercian Monks of Mount Melleray and reused to build a church. Few traces of the castle are visible today. At present, Dairygold occupies the site of the former castle. The 1240 acres of parkland was divided into farms, the town park and a golf course. 3 Research Framework The following issues will be addressed in this report.  The construction date or date of initial site activity and the date of abandonment.  The absolute / relative chronology of site use in terms of phases and events.  The location of known contemporaneous and comparable sites.  The extent of the viable economic catchment area in terms of sources of water, food, raw materials, transportation routes etc 4 Interim Findings 4.1 Excavation Methodology A total area of 32m N-S by 32m E-W were excavated under license 04E1119 at Stagpark 3 (figure 5) (Grid coordinates 180182, 113286). A grid was established and the ground within the grid was cleaned by hand to locate and identify all archaeological features. Each identified feature was exca- vated, planned, photographed and recorded, with every fill and cut being assigned a context number. Charcoal and soil samples were taken from appropriate fills where necessary. All artefacts were re- trieved, registered, bagged and labelled. 4.2 Full Stratigraphic Report See Appendix 1 for the full stratigraphic matrix. 4.2.1 Stratigraphic Sequencing 4.2.1.1 Bronze Age The archaeology at Stagpark 3 consisted of two separate fulachta fiadh distanced by less than 6m (Fig-Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 7
  14. 14. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 ure 6). The burnt mound C.4 located in the southeast area of the site measured 19.2m by 15.4m and was the larger of the two. It was composed of grey-black clay silt and included frequent heat-shattered sandstone. The mound was very shallow being on average 0.1m-0.2m in depth. In total 33 stakeholes, three postholes, two pits (C8 and C.17) and a rectangular trough C.45 were located beneath the burnt mound C.4 (Figure 7, plate 1). Pit C.17 measured 4.15m by 1.45m by 0.57m deep and was roughly orientated northwest-southeast. It contained four fills (C.13, C.14, C.15 and C.16) and was truncated by the pit C.8. Although C.17 was located under burnt mound material C.4, the in-filled material contained no burnt stone inclusions, suggesting it had in-filled prior to the build-up of the mound. C.8 measured 1.9m by 1.55m by 0.35m and contained three fills (C.9, C.12 and C.18) with burnt stone inclusions. Pit C.17 was surrounded by 25 stakeholes (C.11, C.49, C.53, C.51, C.33, C.34, C.41, C.63, C.60, C.141, C.39, C.103, C.102, C.37, C.31, C.101, C.100, C.27, C.25, C.29, C.35, C.58, C.62, C.65 and C.67) and three postholes (C.20, C.23 and C.71), all of which contained single fills (Figure 8, Plate 2). The majority of the stake- holes and postholes were located to the southwest and northeast of C.17, placing them along the sides of the pit. Only seven of the features (C.60, C.62, C.11, C.49, C.20, C.23 and C.67) were located at the northwestern and southeastern ends. Charcoal from the fill of stakehole C.51 was identified as hazel and/or alder. A radiocarbon date of cal BC 2122-1828 (UB-6718) was returned from charcoal from the stakehole. The stakeholes surrounding the pit did not form any discernible pattern or structure; it is likely that they formed a windbreak, spit or fire-side furniture, open to the northwest, associated with the pit. The trough C.45 was located under the northern portion of the mound C.4, c. 2.3m north of the pit C.17. It was rectangular in shape and measured 2.02m by 1.45m by 0.65m deep (Figure 8, Plate 3). It contained four fills (C.42, C.43, C.44 and C.87), the main peat fill (C.44) accumulated after the abandonment of the area. The basal fill (C.87) was the remains of a waterlogged and badly degraded piece of timber, which lay flat in the base and was possibly the remains of a lining. Eight stakeholes (C.90, C.92, C.127 C.129, C.128, C.130, C131 and C.132) were located in the corners of the trough. These all contained similar grey-black silty sand fills which suggested the timber posts had degraded in situ. The presence of the stakeholes further confirms that the trough may have been timber lined. The mound C.3 was located c. 6m to the northwest of mound C.4 (Figure 6). It measured 15.4m by 14m, making it the smaller of the two mounds. It was composed of grey-black clay silt and included frequent heat-shattered sandstone. The mound was very shallow being 0.1m-0.2m deep on average. The charcoal was identified as hazel and/or alder. A radiocarbon date of cal BC 2023-1773 (UB-6744) was returned from charcoal from the mound. The mound covered a trough, C.88 and two large pits C.80, C.110 and C.115, two small pits C.110 and C.74 and a number of stakeholes (Figure 9, plate 4). The trough C.88 measured 2.75m by 2m by 0.8m in depth. It contained six fills (C.133, C.134, C.135,Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 8
  15. 15. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C.136, C.137, C.138 and C.139) (Figure 10, Plate 5). The fills were a mix of sand and silty clays. The upper fill C.133 and fill C.136 included 50% heat-shattered stone. The basal fills were sandy. Six stakeholes (C.148, C.150, C.152, C.154, C.156, C.158) were recorded on the edge of the trough and four (C. 81, C.85, C.142, C.146) on the western perimeter. The largest of the stakeholes (C.156) mea- sured 0.13m by 0.1m by 0.24m in depth. The smallest stakehole (C.148) measured 0.07m by 0.09m by 0.02m in depth. The stakeholes within the trough were located, with the exception of C.158, to the northern section of the trough. The stakeholes on the perimeter were confined to the western edge. The stakeholes may have formed a windbreak, spit or fire-side furniture, open to the east. The pit C.80 was located c.1.9m south-west of trough C.88 (Figure 10). It was truncated by a field drain on the southeastern side. It was rectangular in plan and measured 1.3m by 1.1m by 0.3m. Four fills (C.79, C.93, C.94 and C.95) were recorded in the pit. The fills were silty and clay sands with inclusions of heat-shattered stone. The basal fill C.95 was coarse sand. Five stakeholes (C.118, C.119, C.120, C.121 and C.122) were located on the northern and western edges of the pit (Plate 6). They were located within 0.2m-0.25m of each other. They measured on average 0.06m by 0.05 and varied in depth from 0.05m-0.12m. The stakeholes may have formed a windbreak, spit or fire-side furniture, and in a manner similar to those associated with the trough C.88 the apparatus was open to the east. The pit C.115 was located 5.5m west of trough C.88. It was rectangular in plan and measured 2.6m by 1.1m by 0.35m in depth. The single clay silt fill included heat-shattered stones. The pit truncated a posthole C.117 to the west. It measured 0.35m in diameter by 0.3m in depth. An semi-circular arc of three pits (C.68, C.74 and C.110) three postholes (C.75, C.113 and C.125) and five stakeholes (C.105, C.106, C.107, C.108 and C.109) were located c. 3.6m northeast of pit C.115 and c. 2.5m northwest of trough C.88. The arc measured c. 6m and the possible entrance was to the southwest. The pits varied in size, the smaller two (C.68 and C.74) measured 0.48m by 0.4m and 0.32 by 0.31m respectively. The larger pit C.110 measured 1m by 0.5m. All of the pits were shallow being c. 0.2m in depth. The smaller postholes (C.113 and C.125) measured c. 0.18m in diameter by 0.2m in depth. The larger C.75 was cut by the pit C.74 to the east. The stakeholes measured on average 0.14m by 0.13m and varied in depth from 0.1m-0.15m. All of the features were filled with a grey-black silty clay with inclusions of pebbles and occasional charcoal. A large cut C.5 was located on the northern edge of the area of excavation. It measured 5.5m by 3m by a minimum of 1.4m in depth. The full depth of the cut could not be realised as it kept filling with rising water. It extended beyond the area of the excavation to the north. It is possible that the cut maybe a pit or the terminal of a ditch. The upper fill was a silty clay, similar to the natural sub-soil, the underlying fill was a peat deposit and the basal fill was a silty sand with inclusions of heat-shattered stone. It is possible that the feature is associated with modern drainage features.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 9
  16. 16. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 4.2.2 Stratigraphic Discussion Two fulachta fiadh were located within 5m of one another at Stagpark. The monuments survive as very low mounds of black silt with inclusions of heat-shattered stones and are generally situated close to a water source. No water source was recorded within the field and no water source is indicated on the 1st edition OS map sheet CO019. The underlying clay subsoil is impermeable and land drains were recorded in the field. Each of the two mounds overlay a trough, pits, postholes and stakeholes. No evidence of a hearth was recorded. No stratigraphic evidence was recorded to sug- gest which of the mounds and associated features predated the other or if they were in use simultane- ously. The radiocarbon dates returned for the sites would suggest that the mound C.4, in the southeast, predated the mound C.3 to the northwest. The mound C.4 overlay a pit and a rectangular trough. 25 stakeholes were located on the perimeter of the pit C.17. The stakeholes are likely to have formed a temporary structure in the vicinity of the pit. This may have been used for shelter or may have been linked to a structure associated with the pit. The trough was probably timber lined as stakeholes recorded in the corners of the rectangular trough would have formed part of the structure of a timber lining. The basal fills of the trough were sandy and may have accumulated from deposition of sand from the repeated use of heated sandstone in the trough. The mound C.3 overlay a trough, 2 large pits and a possible wooden structure. The trough was deeper than either of the large pits. A number of stakeholes were recorded on the upper side of the northern portion of the trough C.88 but there was no evidence to suggest that the trough was timber lined. Stakeholes in a similar and compatible position were recorded on the upper side of pit C.80. These stakeholes may have been linked to a similar structure associated with the trough and pit. A possible semi-circular structure was located to the northwest of the trough. The structure would have been constructed of wooden stakes with the entrance to the southwest. Alternatively the structure may have formed a shelter belt for the pit C.115 to the southwest. 4.3 Radiocarbon results Radiocarbon dates were returned from the Radiocarbon Laboratory at Queens University Belfast. The two Early Bronze Age dates returned from Queens were accelerator dates obtained from samples of charcoal. Table 1 Lab. Code Sample Mate- Context No. Yrs BP Calibrated Dates rial 2 sigma UB-6744 Charcoal 3 3561+/-38 cal BC 2023-1773 UB-6718 Charcoal 50 3599+/-38 cal BC 2122-1828Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 10
  17. 17. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 4.4 Plant remains report The plant remains were examined by A. Brewer and P. Johnston (Appendix 4). Although all the sam- ples contained charcoal no charred seeds were recovered from the site. Charred seeds are consistently absent from burnt mound deposits. 5 Discussion and Interpretation The site occurs within an area where a cluster of Bronze Age fulachta fiadh sites have been identified. Three burnt mounds were recorded (CO019-019, -020 and -021) within 500m of the site, while two other burnt mounds were excavated as part of this road project; Stagpark 2 (04E1121) was 800m away to the north and Mitchelstown 2 (04E1071) was 2km to the north. The intense use of this small area for the purposes of heating stones and water has produced a date range that suggests occupation on a long-term, if perhaps intermittent basis from at least the Early Bronze Age. The lower heavier wet- ter ground in the area was used for sites such as these. With the exception of the burnt mound at Mitchelstown 2, which was located on the northern bank of the Gradoge River, the remaining burnt mounds are not located adjacent to any known or contemporary water sources. The underlying subsoil is however a heavy clay which holds water very effectively being almost impermeable. The archaeo- logical evidence indicates that contemporary Early Bronze Age occupation occurred on the higher drier ground, at Stagpark 1 (04E1120) 600m to the north. An extensive occupation site, dating to the Middle Bronze Age, was located on a limestone ridge on the northern bank of the Gradoge River at Mitchelstown 1 (04E1072) 2.8km to the north. 6 Assessment of archaeological and significance Viewed in tandem with the archaeological evidence from all of the sites on the route of the Mitch- elstown Relief Road, the site at Stagpark 3 is of archaeological significance as it provides additional evidence of Bronze Age activity in the Mitchelstown area. 7 Conclusion The fulachta fiadh at Stagpark 3 was contemporaneous with the Early Bronze Age activity at Stagpark 1 (04E1120) and with the ritual deposition of three pottery vessels on the northern bank of the Gra- doge River at Mitchelstown 2 (04E1071).Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 11
  18. 18. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 8 Bibliography Barry, T.B. 1987 The Archaeology of Medieval Ireland, Routledge, London and New York. Cotter, E. (2005) Bronze Age Ballybrowney County Cork in Recent Archaeological Discoveries on National Road Schemes 2004 NRA. Doody, M. (1995) The Clight Dubh in Discovery Programme Reports 2 Project Results 1993. Royal Irish Academy / Discovery Programme Dublin 1995. Doody, M. (1999), ‘Ballyhoura Hills project’, Discovery Programme Reports 5, 97-110. Royal Irish Academy. Dublin. Daly, A., Grogan, E. (1992) Excavation of Four Barrows in Mitchelstowndown West, Knocklong, County Limerick. Discovery Programme Reports 1 pp44-60. Royal Irish Academy. Gardiner, M.J., Radford, T. 1980 Soil Associations of Ireland and Their Land Use Potential. An Foras Talúntais. Kelly, M. (1989) Early Ireland, An Introduction to Irish Prehistory. Cambridge University Press. Monk, M. (1995) A Tale of Two Ringforts: Lisleagh I and II in Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society Vol. 100 Power, B (1996) From the Danes to Dairygold A History of Mitchelstown. Mount Cashell Books. Power , B. 2000 White Knights, Dark Earls The Rise and Fall of an Anglo-Irish Dynasty. The Collins Press. Power, D., Lane, S., Egan, U., Byrne, E., Egan, U., Sleeman, M., with Cotter, E., Monk, J. (2000) Archaeological Inventory of County Cork Volume 4: North Cork Parts 1 and 2. The Stationery Office. Sleeman, D.G., McConnell, B. 1995 Geology of East Cork-Waterford Geological Survey of Ireland. NRA Archaeological Discoveries N8 Watergrasshill Bypass. NRA Archaeological Discoveries N8 Rathcormac Fermoy. Stout, M. (2000) The Irish Ringfort Four Courts Press Dublin. Waddell, J. (1998) The Prehistoric Archaeology of Ireland. Galway University Press. Woodman, P.C. (1989) ‘The mesolithic in Munster: a preliminary assessment’, in Bonsall, C (ed), The Mesolithic in Europe, 116-24. John Donald. Edinburgh.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 12
  19. 19. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Woodman, P.C. (2000) ‘Hammers and Shoeboxes: New Agendas for Prehistory’ in New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Papers in commemoration of Liz Anderson. Wordwell, 1-10.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 13
  20. 20. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 9 Figures Figure 1: Portion of discovery map showing route of N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 14
  21. 21. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Legend Bronze Age Medieval Post-medieval 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1 04E1071 Mitchelstown 2 04E1121 Stagpark 2 04E1120 Stagpark 1 04E1119 Spagpark 3 Figure 2: Portion of RMP sheets CO019 & CO010 showing route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 15
  22. 22. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 ell W ay nd Su Well Field Yeomens Field A Ballyarthur Field Parkanimrish Clyroe Field B Glen Field C Limekiln Field Donnellys Field D Laknock Field Sandpit Field Deer Park Garrane Warren Field New Orchard Park G ond Fishp High Field Mitchelstown Castle I Brick Field E H Milk Field Turnpike Field F J Reference Extent of Mitchelstown Demense Line of N8, Mitchelstown Relief Road A Barretts Grove B Old Pheasantry C Farm Yard D Kiltaunave Old Grave Yard E Carriganoura Wood F Whitegate Grove G Orchard Grove H Troopers Lough I Site of Church & Graveyard J Parkaphuca Figure 3: Portion of 1st edition maps sheets 10 & 19 showing Mitchelstown Demesne and the route of the N8 Mitchelstown Road.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 16
  23. 23. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Area A Area B Figure 4: Route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road showing location of all archaeological sites.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 17
  24. 24. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 5: Portion of route of N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road showing location of 04E1119.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 18
  25. 25. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 X = 180277 Y = 111401 129 130 128 92 131 45 127 90 132 39 141 103 60 31 102 37 101 8 100 27 25 63 58 41 34 17 35 33 53 71 11 51 49 20 23 X = 180277 Y = 111381 Extent of mound C.4 1m 0 5m Figure 6: Plan of extent of mound C.4.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 19
  26. 26. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 129 N 128 130 A1 92 131 A 45 127 90 132 39 103 141 102 31 60 37 B1 101 8 100 27 25 63 41 98 33 55 34 17 53 51 71 B 11 49 20 23 A A1 B B1 13 9 14 12 42 15 18 16 8 43 43 17 45 50 cm 0 1m Figure 7: Post-excavation plan and sections of trough C.45 and pits C.8 and C.17.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 20
  27. 27. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 8: Plan of extent of mound C.3.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 21
  28. 28. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 05,29 N A 85 81 152 154 150 156 148 158 88 142 146 A1 05,20 84 122 121 B1 120 80 119 118 B A A1 133 B B1 134 135 93 79 95 136 137 138 94 139 80 88 50 cm 0 1m Figure 9: Post-excavation plan and sections of trough C.88 and pit C.80.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 22
  29. 29. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 10 Plates Plate 1: View of trough C.45 and pit C.8 and C.17 from north. Plate 2: View of stakeholes on northern side of pit C.17 from west.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 23
  30. 30. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 3: View of trough C.45 from east. Plate 4: View of area of mound C.3 post- excavation from south-west.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 24
  31. 31. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 5: View of section of trough C.88 from east. Plate 6: View of pit C.80 and stakeholes C.118-C.122 from southeast.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 25
  32. 32. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Appendices 11.1 Appendix 1: Matrices 1 47 46 4 9 10 19 22 24 26 28 30 32 36 12 11 20 23 25 27 29 31 37 33 34 35 18 21 8 13 14 15 16 17 2Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 26
  33. 33. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 140 141 103 102 99 101 100 70 71 66 67 64 65 61 62 47 46 1 4 2 59 60 63 57 58 52 53 50 51 48 49 40 41 38 39Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 27
  34. 34. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 1 97 3 69 72 81 83 85 93 116 124 68 74 82 84 86 79 115 125 73 95 112 111 75 94 117 114 123 113 110 118 119 120 121 122 80 2 1 97 3 133 104 134 135 105 106 107 108 109 136 137 139 159 157 155 153 151 149 158 156 154 152 150 148 88 2 1 44 54 143 147 42 55 142 146 43 56 87 5 89 91 126 90 92 127 128 129 130 131 132 45 2Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 28
  35. 35. 04E1119 11.2 Appendix 2: Context Register Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Phase Basic description Artefacts 1 All All Topsoil 4 Loose brown silty clay topsoil with occasional stone inclusions 0.35m deep 2 All All Natural 1 Firm light grey/white clayey silt with orange mottling and frequent stone inclusions 3 NW corner Number given to material from smaller 2 Loose dark grey/black clayey silt of site northwestern burnt mound. Shal- with frequent heat shattered stone low nature of the mound compared inclusions. 15.4m x 14m to trough size would indicate that the mound was originally more substantial 4 E side of site Number given to material from the 2 Loose black clayey silt with frequentPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ larger southeastern burnt mound. Shal- inclusions of heat shattered stone. Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road low nature of the mound compared 19.2m x 15.4m to trough size would indicate that the mound was originally more substantial 5 5E25N 54,55,56 2 56 Large pit in edge of excavation. The ? Sub-circular pit 5.5m x 3m x 1.4m upper fills appeared to be modern but with gradual break of slope top and the lower ones were of rich black burnt concave and convex sides mound material. Wet conditions and rising water level meant that feature could not be fully excavated. No finds recovered and unsure as to date of pit 6 Cancelled context 7 Cancelled context 8 20E9N 9,12,18 13 21 Pit containing heat shattered stone 2 Sub-circular pit 1.9m x 1.55m x that cuts through earlier pit C.17. Was 0.35m deep with sharp break of located under the mound, suggesting slope top, steep sides, sharp break of two phases of site use. slope base and flat base. 9 20E9N 8 12 4 Fill of later pit cut C.8. Contains heat 2 Loose black clayey silt with frequent shattered stone inclusions of charcoal and heat shat- tered stone. 10 20E9N 11 11 4 Stakehole fill, no stake present so 2 Firm dark brownish grey sandy clay removed prior to infilling with frequent charcoal inclusions29 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  36. 36. 04E1119 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Phase Basic description Artefacts 11 20E9N 10 2 10 One of a number of stake and post 2 Circular stakehole 0.08m x 0.07m holes surrounding intercutting pits C. with sharp break of slope top, 8 and C.17 straight/concave sides, gradual break of slope base and rounded base 12 20E9N 8 18 9 Re-deposited natural fill of pit C.8 2 Moderately compact orange/brown sandy clay with moderate small stone inclusions 1.1m x 0.85m x 0.25m deep 13 20E9N 17 14 8 Truncated fill of C.17 2 Soft mid grey silty clay with oc- casional charcoal fleck inclusions. 0.81m x 0.71m x 0.16m deep 14 20E9N 17 15 13 Truncated fill of C.17 2 Compact yellowish orange clay with occasional small stone inclusions.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 0.84m x 0.72m x 0.24m deep Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 15 20E9N 17 16 14 Truncated fill of C.17 2 Soft dark grey clayey silt with oc- casional small stone and charcoal inclusions. 0.93m x 0.84m x 0.14m deep 16 20E9N 17 17 16 Truncated fill of C.17 2 Soft yellowish orange sandy clay with occasional pebble inclusions. 0.3m x 0.09m deep 17 20E9N 13, 14, 15, 16 2 16 Cut of large domestic pit, or possible 2 Sub-rectangular in shape, 4.15m earlier phase trough. Infilled prior to x 1.45m x 0.57m deep with sharp the build up of mound material as no break of slope top, vertical sides, heat shattered stone is present in the sharp break of slope base and flat fill. base 18 20E9N 8 21 9 Fill of later pit cut C.8. 2 Loose black clayey silt with frequent charcoal and small to medium stone inclusions 1.75m x 1.1m x 0.32m deep 19 20E9N 20 20 4 Charcoal rich posthole fill 2 Firm dark grey/black sandy silt with moderate stone and frequent charcoal inclusions30 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237

×