Funtional clasification


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Funtional clasification

  1. 1. Functional Classificationof MaterialsPresented ByGulfam Hussain
  2. 2. The matter from which we can made useful things iscalled material e.g steel used in daily life.Materials Science or Materials Engineering is aninterdisciplinary field involving the characterization ofthe physical and chemical properties of solid materialsfor the purpose of using, changing, or enhancinginherent properties to create or improve endproducts.Material & Materials Science?
  3. 3. Classification of MaterialsComposition baseMetals and AlloysCeramicsPolymers (Plastics)Composite MaterialsFunctional baseBiomedicalElectronic MaterialsMagnetic MaterialsPhotonic or Optical MaterialsSmart MaterialsStructural MaterialsAerospaceEnergy Technology andEnvironmental Technology
  4. 4.  Bones and teeth are made from a naturally formedceramic known as hydroxyapatite. Artificial organs, bone replacement parts,cardiovascularstents,orthodontic braces, are made using differentplastics, titanium alloys, and nonmagnetic stainless steels. Ultrasonic imaging systems make use of ceramics knownas PZT (lead zirconium titanate). Metallic niobium tin-based superconductors are used formagnetic resonance imaging. Example: hydroxyapatite, stainless steelsBiomedical
  5. 5. Semiconductors, such as those made from silicon, are usedto make integrated circuits for computer chips.Barium titanate (BaTiO3), tantalum oxide (Ta2O5), andmany other dielectric materials are used to make ceramiccapacitors.Superconductors are used in making powerful magnets.Copper, aluminum are used as conductors in powertransmission and in microelectronics.Example: Si, Al, CuElectronic Materials
  6. 6. Computer hard disks make use of many ceramic , metallic,and polymeric materials.Computer hard disks are made using alloys based oncobalt-platinum-tantalum-chromium (Co-Pt-Ta-Cr) alloys.Magnetic ferrites are used to make inductors andcomponents for wireless communications.Steels based on iron and silicon are used to maketransformer cores.Example: Fe, Mn Zn ferritesMagnetic Materials
  7. 7. The nuclear industry uses materials such as uranium dioxide andplutonium as fuel.Numerous other materials, such as glasses and stainless steels, areused in handling nuclear materials and managing radioactive waste.Fuel cells are used in electric cars.The oil and petroleum industry widely uses zeolites, alumina, andother materials as catalyst substrates. They use Pt, Pt/Rh and manyother metals as catalysts.Solar power is generated using materials such as amorphous silicon(a:Si:H).Example:UO2, ZrO2, LiCoO2Energy Technology andEnvironmental Technology
  8. 8. A smart material can sense and respond to an externalstimulus such as a change in temperature, the applicationof a stress, or a change in humidity or chemicalenvironment.Smart material-based system consists of sensors andactuators that read changes and initiate an action e.g leadzirconium titanate (PZT) and shape-memory alloys.Other examples of smart materials includemagnetorheological or MR fluids.Smart Materials
  9. 9. These are magnetic paints that respond to magneticfields.These materials are being used in suspension systemsof automobiles.Still other examples of smart materials and systemsare photochromic glasses and automatic dimmingmirrors.Example: PZT, polymers gel, Ni-Ti shape memory alloysSmart Materials
  10. 10. These materials are designed for carrying some type ofstress. Steels, concrete, and composites are used to makebuildings and bridges.Steels, glasses, plastics, and composites also are usedwidely to make automotives.OftenIn these applications, combinations of strength, stiffness,and toughness are needed under different conditions oftemperature and loading.Example: steel, wood, plasticStructural Materials
  11. 11. Light materials such as wood and an aluminum alloy wereused in the Wright brothers’ historic flight.These accidentally strengthened the engine even more bypicking up copper from the mold used for castingToday, NASA’s space shuttle makes use of aluminumpowder for booster rockets.Aluminum alloys, plastics, silica for space shuttle tiles, andmany other materials belong to this category.Example:SiO2, amorphous silicon, Al alloysAerospace
  12. 12. Silica is used widely for making optical fibers.More than ten million kilometers of optical fiber have been usedaround the world.Optical materials are used for making semiconductor detectors andlasers used in fiber optic communications systems.Similarly, alumina (Al2O3) and yttrium aluminum garnets (YAG) areused for making lasers.Amorphous silicon is used to make solar cells and photovoltaicmodules.Polymers are used to make liquid crystal displays (LCDs).Example: SiO2, Glasses, Al2O3Photonic or Optical Materials