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  1. 1. Gulfam Hussain +923336275670
  2. 2. Has a charge of +2 Is referred to by two names  Glucinium – from the Greek word sweet  Beryllium – named after the material beryl in which it is most commonly found.  Pure beryllium only occurs naturally in small amounts, more commonly found as a compound.  Most common ore of beryllium is beryl (Be3(Al2(SiO3))  Found in the earths crust, 2 to 10 ppm (parts per million). This means it is relatively common metal.  
  3. 3.  State at room temperature - solid  Steel greyish-white surface  Density – 1.85 g.cmˉ³  Non-magnetic  Melting point - 1287°C  Boiling point - 2469°C  Heat capacity – 16.443 J-mol ˉ ¹.K ˉ ¹  Excellent thermal conductor  Many of its salts display a sweet taste
  4. 4. When left exposed beryllium will quickly react with oxygen to form beryllium oxide. This BeO from the reaction coats the metal with a layer which prevents further oxidization.  Reacts with acids to form water and hydrogen gas  Does however, resist attack by nitric acid.  Solubility of beryllium and its salts vary   Beryllium chloride, fluoride, nitrate, phosphate and sulfate are all soluble BeCl2, BeF2, Be(NO3)2, Be3(PO4)2 and BeSO4.  Other beryllium compounds are either insoluble or slightly soluble  Has one naturally occurring isotope and six other radioactive isotopes. These isotopes have no commercial use. ▪ Radioactive isotopes are ones that break apart and give off some form of radiation. These isotopes are produced when very small particles are fired at the atoms.
  5. 5.       Extensively used in X-ray machines. Thin sheets filter out visible light and only allow xrays to be detected. Nuclear industry as a neutron reflector and moderator in nuclear reactors. Also used in nuclear weapons as a shell to surround the plutonium. Used in defense and airspace industries. These include high-speed aircraft, missile space vehicles and communication satellites. Liquid fueled rockets have nozzles of pure beryllium. In telecommunication, tools of beryllium are used to tune highly magnetic klystrons. Hardening agent in alloys.  Most commonly beryllium-copper alloys. Three quarters of beryllium produced goes towards this process. This material has high electrical/thermal conductivity, high strength/hardness, non-magnetic and good corrosion/fatigue resistance. Used in spot-welding electrodes, springs, non-sparking tools and electrical contacts.  Beralcast (alloy of beryllium and aluminium) used in helicopters and guidance systems as it is 3 times as stiff yet 25% lighter than aluminium.
  6. 6. Widely used in jewelry.  Two popular gemstones, emeralds and aquamarines, are in fact beryl that have impurities in them. Traces of chromium result in a brilliant green, and iron as an impurity results in beautiful blues.  Can also be found as a tie tack or clip.  Used to be used in florescent lighting tubes (use was discontinued due to health risks to workers)  Used for mirrors and lenses in the James Webb Space Telescope and Spitzer Space Telescope, as the mirrors will have to face temperatures of -240 °C. The beryllium doesn’t contract and deform as much as glass when presented with these temperatures.  James Webb Space Telescope
  7. 7.        Nuclear spin 3/2Large scattering cross-section for high energy neutrons 6 barns (defined as 10−28 m2 ) Works as neutron reflector and neutron moderator 9Be undergoes (n,2n) neutron reaction to produce 8Be which breaks into alpha particles It is a neutron multiplier, releasing more neutrons than it absorbs Beryllium also releases neutrons under bombardment by gamma rays
  8. 8. as reflector material in nuclear weapons  Surrounds spherical plutonium pit  Is surrounded by high explosives  Beryllium liner acts as 1.Reflector 2.Tamper 3.Generator 
  9. 9. A medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons  Turning them into thermal neutrons  Capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction  Use of beryllium is limited because: 1.It is expensive 2.toxic 
  10. 10.  Powder metallurgy” techniques are used manufacturing different designs of “beryllium” These techniques include  HIP  CIP
  11. 11. EXTRUSION is a conventional approach to the creation of thick-walled  beryllium tubes &  shapes.  Extrusion provides consistent mechanical properties, dimensions and tolerances.   Sections are made to dimensions that are well within commercial tolerances, and mechanical properties are superior to those of hot-pressed block in the direction of metal flow.  Directional properties are produced in varying degrees as a function of crystallographic orientation.