“Standard Precautions combine the major features of
Universal Precautions (UP) and Body Substance Isolation
(BSI)* and are based on the principle that all blood,
body fluids, secretions, excretions except sweat, non
intact skin, and mucous membranes may contain
transmissible infectious agents. Standard Precautions
include a group of infection prevention practices that
apply to all patients, regardless of suspected or
confirmed infection status, in any setting in which
healthcare is delivered.”
“Blood ,Blood products and body fluids of
all persons are potential sources of infection
,independent of diagnosis or perceived risk”
Taking precautions to protect your patients
Hand hygiene : “just DO it “
Hand cleansing should be done prior to and after each
patient interaction, prior to and after each procedure
Hand washing with plain soap & water
The choice for visibly dirty hands
Little to no antimicrobial activity
Hand washing with antimicrobial soap (soap with
antiseptic agent) & water
Using an antiseptic hand rub
Waterless, typically alcohol-based solutions
Do it in the right way
Wet your hands with clean running water and apply
soap. Use warm water if it is available.
Rub hands together to make a lather and scrub all
Continue rubbing hands for 15-20 seconds. Need a
timer? Imagine singing "Happy Birthday" twice through
to a friend.
Rinse hands well under running water.
Dry your hands using a paper towel or air dryer.
Always use soap and water if your hands are visibly
When using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer:
Apply product to the palm of one hand.
Rub hands together.
Rub the product over all surfaces of hands and fingers
until hands are dry.
Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are NOT effective when
hands are visibly dirty or contaminated with blood or
fecal matter as examples. (In these instances, washing
with an antimicrobial soap & water might be indicated.)
Wearing of protective gloves ideally with double
Eye wear and mask
Apron and gown
Safe sharp instrument handling technique
Procedures involving direct contact with the blood and body
substances of any patient.
Where contact with blood and body substances might be expected
Direct or potential contact with the mucous membranes of any
Contact with the non-intact skin of any patient. (skin that is cut,
chapped, abraded, cracked, afflicted with weeping or exudative
lesions. Touching or handling any instruments, equipment, or
surfaces that have been, or may have been, in contact with blood or
health care worker has cuts, scratches, or other breaks in the skin
Sterile gloves should be used for all sterile procedures
and for activities that involve contact with areas of the
body that are normally sterile.
There should be an adequate supply of clean disposable
gloves on the standard precautions stations or in other
locations that are convenient to each patient's room.
Gloves used in patient's care should be worn only for
contact with the patient. Once used, gloves must be
discarded before leaving the patient's room.
Procedure for donning gloves
Remove all jewelry, including rings , wrist watch
Wash hands using an antimicrobial cleansing agent.
Dry hands thoroughly with a paper towel.
Remove the packet of gloves from the outer wrapper.
Place this packet on a clean, dry, flat surface.
Unfold the packet as if opening a book. Position the
packet so that the cuffed ends of the gloves are
nearest to you.
Grasp the center flaps and open. Both gloves must have
folded cuffs. Position the packaging so that it lies flat.
Use one hand to glove the other. Grasp the edge of the right
glove cuff with the fingers of the left hand, and slip the right
hand into this glove. Pull it on by holding onto the cuff, but
do not touch the outside of the glove.
Adjust both gloves so they fit properly. Make sure there are
no gaps between the fingertips and the ends of the gloves.
Inspect the gloves for nicks and tears before and during the
procedure. Obtain a new pair of sterile gloves if there is a
break in aseptic technique or if a nick or tear occurs.
Undertaking Hepatitis B vaccine for staff
Covering open wounds that are clean
Staff with infected wounds or active dermatitis
should stay off work
Masks that are designed to filter small particles spread
by air born route
Ideal ones are
1. N 95 respirators
2. HEPA respirators
Do not pass it directly between surgeons and their
Use a bowl or tray
Only one sharp instrument should be placed in the dish
at a time
When two surgeons are operating simultaneously ,
each must have their own sharps dish
Do not wrap sharp objects and needles in linen
obscuring the vision as far as possible
Used needles and sharps should be disposed into
approved sharps container as soon as practicable
Mostly occurs in patient rooms and emergency rooms
Occurs mostly at the time of recapping and also during
disposal and handling dirty linens
20% occurs before use , 10% after disposal and 70%
after use and before disposal
Around 2% chance that blood is contaminated by HIV
Chance of getting it is 0.3% (with contaminated )
Hepatitis B ranges from 1to 40%
Hepatitis C 2%
Wash the area with plenty of water and soap
Squeezing or milking the site is of little benefit
Blood of patient to be sent for serology
if patient is found to be hepatitis Positive
HBIG is used ,given as soon as possible after an
accidental inoculation for the victim
Ideally within 6 hours and preferably not later than 48
At the same time his blood is drawn for HBsAg if found
to be negative , vaccination should be started and a full
course is given
If positive no further action
Two doses 30 days apart ,short term protection for 3
HBsAg test can be repeated after 3 months
First aid care , counselling and risk assessment’
A short term provision of ART is given (28 days)
Started as soon as possible ,ie within first few hours and
not later than 72 hours
Do not give it if already positive so test HIV before
But try not to delay drug admission due to testing
If negative repeat after 3 and 6 months
Post exposure prophylaxis