Dynamic publishing: a content-centric approach to learning personalization

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Dynamic publishing: a content-centric approach to learning personalization

  1. 1. Dynamic PublishingA content-centric approach to learning personalizationSummary favor a Dynamic Publishing roadmap interoperating with potentially -any LMS orThe need for a content-centric strategy to delivery portal already in place.corporate training and learningpersonalization to address various converging Why a content-centric approach?business pressures has been emerging in Today, knowledge has the primaryrecent years. characteristic of being highly distributable,Distributed software architectures support practically anywhere both within and outsideeffective publishing and learning strategies by an organization. Continuous changes in lawsfocusing on organizational business goals and and procedures, technical productthe needs of key stakeholders in the end-to- specifications and compliance regulations -end learning and training scenario. especially in highly regulated sectors - demand rapid re-distribution of up-to-dateThis paper reviews the concept of distributed knowledge both within and betweenarchitectures and introduces the advantages organizations. This applies to all knowledge-of passing from “Static Publishing” to related processes within an organization,“Dynamic Publishing. Dynamic Publishing is an including but not limited to blended traininginnovative approach to content production and development initiatives.and distribution capable of adapting learningcontent to the user’s device, platform and A sustainable approach to continuous learningskills. The last part of the paper describes content production, distribution andhow eXact LCMS may be adopted as a central maintenance requires effective workflowLearning Content Management Solution to definition, agile project management, © eXact learning solutions 2012
  2. 2. Dynamic Publishing - A content-centric approach to eLearningtemplate-based content development, simple to new communicative and formative needsthough effective tagging and classification, resulting from globalization, among otherease of content/asset retrieval and reuse, as changes to business processes in the lastwell as highly efficient overall asset decade. It reduces costs of traditional trainingmanagement policies. and enables more effective knowledge distribution channels. It also addresses theField staff needs access to up-to-date challenges faced by distributed and dynamicmaterial on demand, while the training and organizations, such as multi-brand courselearning organization must control the catalogues, multi-language learning programsconsistency and quality of all material that and multi-device delivery channels.circulates in its complex, geographicallydispersed operations. This results in a strong Finally, a large number of content producersneed for a single-source, centralized content need to integrate content management withstrategy for every growing or emerging different delivery platforms and HR solutions.enterprise. During this transition, mixing and matching various authoring and delivery architecturesDigital information is undergoing a major and formats will be necessary.change thanks to the proliferation of newdistributive models. These models will not Content and delivery strategiesonly reform the way that information has Adopting a content-centric strategy is key forbeen distributed for the past ten years, but those organizations that rely heavily onwill also become the ideal channels for content within their learning and trainingreaching communities that require training, processes. Those may include organizationswhich is increasingly personalized and social acting in highly-regulated sectors or havingin nature. global, multi-language and geographicallyImplementing a solid content strategy is of dispersed operations.paramount importance to support blended A solid publishing strategy generates a highlearning processes. Blended learning responds LMS or LCMS? LMS LCMS Simply stated, a Learning Management System A Learning Content Management System (LCMS) is a (LMS) is a learner–centric system that focuses on content–centric system that focuses on the authoring the management of learning processes, from and management of content to be used - and possibly planning to delivery and accounting. reused - during learning processes LMSs are about learners and organizations - the LCMSs are about creating, storing, reusing, managing logistics of managing learners, learning activities, and delivering personalized learning content from a and the competency mapping of an organization. central digital repository. Users, such as These systems manage and track the relationship administrators, authors, instructors and subject matter experts, create new or upload existing between the users and learning activities, including instructional content, upload existing third party progress on different activities, as well as the content, manage revisions, collaborate in content competencies and skill-levels acquired. projects and so on. LCMSs focus on learning objects and content reuse. ~2~ © eXact lear ning solutions 2012
  3. 3. Dynamic Publishing - A content-centric approach to eLearningLorem ipsum dolor Static publishing Lorem ipsum @Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet,consectetur adipiscing elit. (manual or automatic) Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sedSuspendisse a fringilla justo. Proin do eiusmod temportempor iaculis turpis et convallis. incididunt ut labore et dolore magnaClass aptent taciti sociosqu ad aliqua.litora torquent per conubianostra, per inceptos himenaeos.Sed ut perspiciatis unde omnisiste natus error sit voluptatem Additional sources Other front-end Lorem ipsum @ LMS content server systems Digital repository Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Additional delivery Manual or Automatic portals hand-over of content Authoring tool(s) 3rd party LMS Authors Instructional Designers SMEs Learners Digital repository SCORM Tutors rendering Administrators and Tracking sequencing engine engine Reporting database Lorem ipsum Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Dynamic publishing (SCORM Player on LCMS or LMS side) Figure 1 – Static vs Dynamic publishingROI by supporting a content development, management of learning processes. It shouldrepurposing and management model for allow for interfacing modules and exchangingblending instructional content and traditional content packages in standard and sharedtraining initiatives with the more innovative formats.distance and mobile learning processes (oftenreferred to as “mLearning”). LCMS-LMS integration strategies With the growth of learning contentAll these needs triggered the evolution of production processes within online learningLearning Content Management Systems processes, cross LCMS –LMS content delivery(LCMS), which focus on content and all the models are migrating across the three levelsprocesses around it. depicted in Figure 1.LCMSs and LMSs are different, but can also be This implies a maturity model from simplecomplementary. Together, they form a handover of contents (Static Publishing) topowerful combination for a robust learning more appropriate strategies for contentplatform. linking at learning time (Dynamic Publishing).Due to the rapid uptake of SCORM standards, In a Dynamic Publishing framework, content isan ideal learning architecture should separate held in the LCMS repositories and the LMScontent production, storage and delivery sub- activates links to contents at run time, givingarchitectures from those dedicated to the direct access to single Learning Objects (also ~3~ © eXact lear ning solutions 2012
  4. 4. Dynamic Publishing - A content-centric approach to eLearningknown as learning units, modules, activities their own content strategy maturity model,or, in SCORM terms, SCOs) or to fully fledged moving from whatever content lifecycle andSCORM packages. In the latter case, workflow setup they might embrace today toresponsibility for playing content, sequencing a proper dynamic content lifecycle, acrossand tracking learners’ experiences and different levels of publishing and distributionproficiencies, as well as administering tests models of choice.resides on the content delivery side -leveraging the need for SCORM play abilities Let’s see, then, different content publishingto be directly embedded into the LCMS strategies. Assess the pros and cons, whatarchitectural space. scenarios favor one approach or another - and what the cost and effort is for each, both inThe advent of more adaptive formats such as terms of system integration work and systemSCORM 2004, Learning Design and Common resources.Cartridge (respectively adding adaptability,multi-user access, and services-oriented Static publishingintegration to learning contents and Static publishing is about producing andassessments) are accelerating dynamic storing learning content source data in thecontent strategies and trends towards content LCMS and moving a copy of final learningseparation between LMS and LCMS. packages to the LMS for delivery to end users.By implementing a distributed architecture How does “Static publishing” workoffering Dynamic Publishing of contents, with Content Packages and all resource filesindependent SCORM rendering and tracking included in each Package are moved or copiedcapabilities, digital repositories hosting (published) one at a time or in batches fromLearning Objects may expose contents to 3r d the LCMS or authoring tool to the third partyparty platforms using shared taxonomies and LMS. Compatibility is assured by the mutualclassification for easier and effective content support of a shared standard such as SCORMgathering, selection and personalization. content packaging specification. Static publishing architectures do not require anyWithin such cross-platform integration specific integration work to be done on thescenarios innovative media, location-based two systems. Static publishing integrationsand skills-based personalization approaches may be summarized as in the following steps:may be used to customize learning packagesbased on the detected media, location and • Learning content is produced, reviewedskill levels of end users. Figure 2 illustrates and signed-off in the LCMS or Authoringskills-based content personalization tool of choiceleveraging Dynamic Publishing across a digital • Once ready, learning packages arerepository, holding remediation and exported in a standard format (usuallyassessment materials, and a competency SCORM Packages or AICC course files) andmanagement and skill gap analysis platform. published (“uploaded” or “sent”) to theAn LCMS must support clients in achieving target LMS. ~4~ © eXact lear ning solutions 2012
  5. 5. Dynamic Publishing - A content-centric approach to eLearning separation between publishing and training environments. • Low-level and small-scale need for content updates and content publishing between the LCMS and LMS, where the back-end management of the content is done by a small, dedicated group. Such• Learning content is accessed by LMS users power users may prefer to apply a manual without them requiring direct access to approach to this process. the LCMS. • Low-budget projects - A more robust integration requires effort in terms ofWhen to consider “Static publishing”? analysis and development, hence impacting the budget.Static publishing is a good fit in a variety of • During a Proof of Concept phase whenscenarios including: simplicity is key. Power users can• Large-scale implementations, where familiarize themselves with the way the learning content only covers a limited two platforms work separately, before span of the learning scenario, or where considering the integrated picture. Once the technology landscape imposes a hard this is matured, the organization can more Learning Learning Job Unit Unit Course Competency Profile - Learning lesson Unit Skill plan Learning Skill Skill Package Learning Unit Skill Level Skill Level Skill Level REMEDIATION Assessment Metadata Course catalogues Skill Gaps LEARNING OBJECTIVES Figure 2 - The relevanc e of Dy namic linking for Skills-based personalization ~5~ © eXact lear ning solutions 2012
  6. 6. Dynamic Publishing - A content-centric approach to eLearning easily be guided to the next stage, authoring tools, the LCMS and the target LMS automating the process of publishing are compliant with a common interoperability updates and data synchronization. standard such as SCORM, AICC, IMS Content• Missing interaction or knowledge of the Packaging or Common Cartridge. third party LMS in place. If the customer Post publishing XML transformations (XSLT) may be works with LMS portals with limited required in case the LMS imports XML formats, technical knowledge about them or, if it is which are SCORM dialects or are different from not possible to create a liaison between what is produced by the LCMS architecture by LCMS provider and LMS provider. default.Automating the handover of packages In such cases the LCMS’s ability to automaticallyImplementing “Static publishing” does not hook post processing transformation layers to therequire any special integration works since workflow status of content is a clear added value.learning packages can be manually What architecture do I need to deploy?downloaded by the LCMS Administrator in a Manual handover:standard format (usually SCORM Packaging, No specific architecture besides the oneswhich consists in a zip file containing bothcourse structure and all needed resource necessary to run the two systems independentlyfiles), then uploaded by the LMSAdministrator to the target portal of choice. Automated handover:Nonetheless, most LCMS and LMS systems The two systems should be able toallow setting up a first level of integration communicate with each other through athat may improve (automate) the way content standard HTTP channel or web services.files are transferred from the LCMS to theLMS. Pros and Cons of Static publishing integrationsWhere such integration is in place, course Pros:packages are moved from one system to the • Thanks to the adherence of LCMSs andother through Web Services or other sort of LMSs to standards, integration isAPIs available in the two systems. Content straightforward.hand-over may be implemented according to • End users never access the LCMS, and noa “push” (LCMS to publish new packages to LMS users need to be registered in thethe LMS) or “pull” (LMS to request available LCMS.updates to the LCMS on a regular base) • Hardware sizing on the LCMS side ismodality. Mixed push-pull scenarios can alsobe envisaged, leveraging standard integrationprotocols such as AICC PENS i .What is usually available off-the-shelfand what integration work is required?Manual handover:No integration work is usually required if the ~6~ © eXact lear ning solutions 2012
  7. 7. Dynamic Publishing - A content-centric approach to eLearning usually limited to support the actual of choice and a central Learning Content publishing team; delivering content to a Management System (LCMS). large community of learners does not imply specific requirements on the LCMS Dynamic Publishing is about delivering side. learning package contents directly from theCons: LCMS without the need to migrate course• Duplicated copies of the same content contents from one system to the other. This items are located in two different may happen in two main ways: repositories. Passing the SCORM package structure to• Lack of a single central repository able to the LMS, linking back learning objects assure consistency and effectiveness to (SCOs) from the LCMS. The course player the content management processes would reside on the LMS whilst course• The two core phases of typical learning contents would be streamed live from the processes - content publishing and LCMS central repository. This way only delivery - are disconnected. course structures and navigation rules• Content publishers do not have any would be duplicated across the two control over the content being delivered. systems and the live sequencing of• Time consuming and risk-prone content managed by the LMS resident maintenance of the LMS catalogue, issues SCORM player updating packages on some LMSs, and a lack of alignment between the two Providing the overall learning content systems. package as a service directly run and• Does not really solve the problem of managed by the central LCMS. In this distributed architectures. Read below to approach, no duplication occurs (neither know why. course structure nor content files) and the learning activity is consistently providedDynamic Publishing to all front-end learning portals possiblyAs noted previously, digital knowledge has the connected to the same central LCMSprimary characteristic of being highly repository. In this case the live rendering,distributable. Dynamic Publishing is the way sequencing and tracking of contents wouldto transform this challenge into a win-win for happen on the LCMS, returning grading tocontent producers and knowledge consumers – the LMS at the end of the learninga challenge that Static Publishing cannot experience.meet. Indeed, the combination of a centralDigital Repository with an effective single- We will see in the following the implication ofsource content publishing strategy and both approaches.distributed content management processesmay overcome the limitations of traditional LMS-side SCORM Playerpublishing. In this chapter we will show how In this integration modality, learning packagesto implement a “Dynamic Publishing” are published to the LMS in the form ofinfrastructure through the integration of your “skinny packages”. Indeed, the packagesexisting Learning Portal and any LMS platform published to the LMS only include the course ~7~ © eXact lear ning solutions 2012
  8. 8. Dynamic Publishing - A content-centric approach to eLearningdescription (“Metadata”) and the course content lifecycle, specific “events” andstructure (“Organization”). “status” to the content. These may be used to drive integration and InteroperabilityThis means that content files are not included across the LCMS and LMS, pushing or pullingin the package to be imported in the LMS but the content at the right time according therather the link to the actual location of each publishing strategy of choice.Learning Object (or “SCO”) in the LCMS isprovided. This implies that the content files In particular:are kept on the LCMS and streamed to theLMS SCORM Player upon user access. Thus: • The publishing engine leveraging LCMS triggers may be developed by any system• Content rendering is done by the LMS integrator of choice - based on the• SCORM Tracking is performed and relevant workflow steps for content managed by the LMS handover.• Tracking reports are provided by the LMS • Single Sign On (SSO) may be required if• The LCMS mainly acts as a content server user authentication and authorization forThis approach requires implementing one of material access security is to be enforcedthe available solutions to the security issue on the LCMS.known as the “SCORM cross domain issue ii ” Complexity and development effort dependWhen to consider this solution? on the web services and/or APIs available onThis is the option that works best if there is both the LCMS and LMS.an existing LMS with adequate SCORM 1.2 orSCORM 2004 rendering, sequencing and What architecture do I need to deploy?tracking capabilities. A heavier load on the LCMS front end, linearly proportional to the number of concurrentWhat is available off-the-shelf and what users on the LMS, requires an appropriateintegration work is required? hardware sizing on the Content Server.Advanced Learning Content ManagementSystems usually offer, off-the-shelf, relevant Advanced LCMS platforms support aworkflow engines assigning, throughout the distributed deployment of LCMS content server and application server, so that the most appropriate performance can be achieved. LCMS side SCORM Player Using the SCORM Player on the LCMS side means that SCORM contents are exposed to LMS end users (learners) as learning experiences. Since learning packages are played through the SCORM Player provided by ~8~ © eXact lear ning solutions 2012
  9. 9. Dynamic Publishing - A content-centric approach to eLearningthe LCMS, all SCORM tracking activity also functionality. This option may also be used tohappens on the LCMS side. extend existing LMS platforms with delivery capabilities covering mobile and locationIn this case, learning packages handed over to based learning contexts.the LMS only include course descriptions(“Metadata”), which are used to populate the This integration scenario usually demands acourse catalogue on the LMS, and a unique higher integration effort between the LCMSidentifier of the learning package in the LCMS and LMS, but avoids any cross-domain, SCORM(usually in the form of a URI - Unique interpretation or interoperability issue inResource Identifier, or URL - Uniform general.Resource Locator). This is used by the LMS toidentify and launch the course in the LCMSSCORM Player upon request.It’s worth highlighting that, from a learningperspective, learners’ experience happens in(and is tracked by) the LCMS. Indeed:• SCORM Tracking happens in the LCMS• Detailed historical reports are available on the LCMSThe LMS gets the required tracking What is available off-the-shelf and whatinformation (usually at course level) from the integration work is required?LCMS every time a learning session is In addition to the requirements of the “LMS-completed, or based on parameters defined side SCORM Player” architecture describedby each organization (an LCMS may provide previously, LMS end users must be registeredseveral options related to what tracking on the LCMS and will access the LCMSinformation is exchanged between the two environment each time they play a learningsystems, its level of granularity and expiration package. This implies that:criteria). • User credentials are aligned between the two systems (a variety of methods may beWhen to consider this solution? available, supporting user alignmentThis is the option to consider when the across the LCMS and the learning portalsexisting LMS has little or no capabilities to consuming its content repository)run, sequence and track SCORM 1.2 or SCORM • Tracking data is aligned between the two2004 content packages. Also, this approach is systems (also in this case aggregation levelsuggested when the same catalogue courses and expiration policies may be defined asare supposed to be delivered through more per client requirements)than one LMS and a consistent userexperience is requested for learners. In such The best approach to data alignment stronglyscenarios, an adequate LCMS backup provides depends on the global deployment strategy ofembedded rendering, tracking and reporting the client organization, relying on the use of ~9~ © eXact lear ning solutions 2012
  10. 10. Dynamic Publishing - A content-centric approach to eLearningthe learning and testing information (most of channels, including any LMS of choice,which captured by SCORM tracking standard) with single sign-on and platform-to-in the organization (those may be used to platform interoperability for accessing andfeed the corporate HR or ERP system, or delivering the content to end users.exported to other talent and performance Should you be updating the content often,management tools). traditional handover of content would require constant and repeated contentWhat architecture do I need to deploy? regeneration, duplication, download andSetting up the architecture required to use upload to transport content betweenthe SCORM Player provided by the LCMS is different systems. This generates heavymore challenging than the “LMS-side SCORM maintainance cycles and maintainancePlayer” approach described previously. overload. Dynamic Publishing doesn’tHowever, it is more powerful. It may allow physically move the content but, rather,implementing “smart” adaptive learning paths provides “smart” links to it.across multiple learning packages anddifferent delivery devices. There is also the 2. Efficient management of storage spaceoption of setting up more extensive and and bandwidth consumption. Dynamicdetailed tracking reports. The combination of Publishing uses “links” to assign content.proper sequencing and navigation rules (as Should you deliver the same learningdefined according to the SCORM 2004 content to multiple classrooms acrossstandard), tracking of user performances, different LMSs, you could end up with aassessments and achievement of learning proliferation of course copies. Linkingobjectives allows designing adaptive learning enables you to have just one copy for eachexperiences that fit the actual needs of every piece of content and uses virtual “links”learner in every phase of her or his to assign it many times to classes andeducational experience. curricula. This produces a saving in disk space, congestion and infrastructureTen main benefits of Dynamic resources.Publishing 3. Flexible re-packaging and re-sequencingDynamic Publishing has many benefits for of contents. Dynamic Publishing enablescontent-centric learning processes, for authors and instructional designers toorganisations having the possibility to put an create personalized playlists of content byLCMS-LMS interconnection in place. using “links” rather than physicial copies of the content. This enables very fast,Dynamic Publishing offers the following ten “drag & drop” composition of newmajor benefits: learning content “play lists” including1. Effective maintenance of content “links” to more granular objects. In updates. Dynamic Publishing uses “links” essence, new sequences of content made to contents coming from one single on-the-fly to accommodate personalized content store to be delivered live and learning paths may be refactored easily transparently into third party delivery and rapidly by each instructional designer ~ 10 ~ © eXact lear ning solutions 2012
  11. 11. Dynamic Publishing - A content-centric approach to eLearning without the need to physically duplicate, using standard web services and protocols. replicate and reload content into the This enables paying or allied subscribers to delivery platform. harvest metadata, request content and, eventually, launch them using the digital4. LMS platform independency. Dynamic repository’s rendering and tracking Publishing protects content investments services. by taking the content “out” from any delivery platform it might be locked into. 7. Innovative business modelling. Points 4, Should you want to change to a new LMS 5 and 6 above underpin the possibility of platform and/or should your LMS platform new generation business models where go out of the market or change model, content catalogues may be delivered to you already have the content separately. third party networks - either on a In this case, migration can be much easier subscription basis or via an alliance - even as simple as opening the content agreement, with no need for additional store to a third party platform. platforms.5. Wider re-usability of contents. Dynamic 8. Innovative Skills personalization Publishing, coupled with stand-alone solutions. One specific option enabled by SCORM players and tracking engines (there Dynamic Publishing is skills-based are many on the market), enables personalization empowered by advanced contents to be accessible even without an LCMS and Skills & Competency underlying LMS. Should you want content Management platforms integration (see to be delivered and tracked without any Table 2 of this document). In this case, formal curriculum delivery process, you Skills and Competencies may share similar may expose dynamically linked learning classification taxonomies as those contents directly to non-LMS platforms classifying assessments and remediation such as ERP, CRM or B2B, B2C or B2E contents in the content repository. By (Business to Employee) solutions. In many enabling single sign-on across to the cases, dynamically linked content - systems, remediation packages may be resident in central LCMS repository and created automatically on the basis of the delivered through a certified SCORM skill gaps detected by the competency Player capable of SCORM content delivery management system. Then learners and and a robust SCORM tracking and reporting trainees can be enrolled into skills engine - may be launched from third party remediation learning paths, allowing their dedicated systems optimized to the skills to be re-assessed after the specific client performance support and personalized content delivery takes place. talent development infrastructure. 9. Innovative Media personalization6. Open accessibility of contents. Dynamic solutions. Dynamic Publishing enables Publishing coupled with an appropriate media based personalization through digital repository solution may be exposed integration of the LCMS with Mobile, to third party networks and marketplaces Location-based or Offline asynchronous ~ 11 ~ © eXact lear ning solutions 2012
  12. 12. Dynamic Publishing - A content-centric approach to eLearning Static Dynamic LMS LCMS Manual Autom. Player Player Content is stored in one single repository   Avoids c ontent duplic ation   Supports easy maintenanc e and immediate update of   c ourse c ontents Supports easy update of c ourse struc ture and navigation  rules SCORM Trac king and performanc e reporting is  c entralized on LCMS side Allow s for c entralized trac king of SCORM 2004 learning  objec tives Allow s for delivery of SCORM c ontent through portals other than LMS (w eb portal, Intranet, CRM, ERP,  eCommerc e portal) May not require integration betw een LCMS and LMS   Does not require end user ac c ess to LCMS portal    Does not require end user lic ense on the LCMS   Allow s simultaneous delivery of the same c ontents   through different front-end delivery portals Ensures c onsistency of user experience thanks to c ommon SCORM Player tools in online, offline and  mobile learning sc enarios Requires implementing a solution for SCORM Cross-  domain issue delivery platforms. In this case, content 10. Overall Content Lifecycle Strategy may be created with the LCMS authoring optimization. All the points above are key capabilities and classified according to for content-centric learning processes specific media, geographic locations where scarce resources are dedicated to and/or delivery contexts. At run time, the content authoring, maintenance and content may be assigned to learners by updating. A back-end infrastructure based third party LMSs or portals, though on extensive use of XML technology, a physically delivered, rendered and tracked Learning Objects philosophy and by the back-end LCMS integrated via interoperability standards, and integrated dynamic linking. This enables the delivery at level 3, has a high ROI in terms of both process to be independent of the specific the content life cycle and strategy media and functionality limitations of the optimization in the mid-term. selected LMS. ~ 12 ~ © eXact lear ning solutions 2012
  13. 13. Dynamic Publishing - A content-centric approach to eLearningUsing eXact LCMS to implement your Additionally, thanks to its set of “eXactmaturity model towards Dynamic Player” apps, the eXact LCMS empowersPublishing Dynamic Publishing integration with any 3r d party LMS or learning portal of choice - eveneXact LCMS is the state-of-the-art LCMS those not up-to-the date with the renderingplatform from eXact learning solutions which of latest standards, such as SCORM 2004 oris installed in more than 100 large DITA.Organizations. It covers the whole learningcontent authoring, review and approval eXact Player apps are available for deliveringprocess, from the beginning of concept SCORM content on online, offline and/ordefinition, storyboarding, development and mobile blended delivery scenarios, on anyreviewing, to the delivery of SCORM -based device of the iPhone, iPad and/or Androidlearning experiences (SCORM tracked learning series.packages) in multiple formats (e.g. HTML, Static and Dynamic Publishing integrationsFlash) and scenarios (e.g. ILT, Online andMobile learning). (both “push” and “pull”) have been implemented for many commercial and openToday, eXact LCMS enterprise architecture is source Learning Management Systems (LMS)one the most powerful solutions supporting and Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) tothe trend towards Dynamic Publishing within date, including Plateau™ - nowlarge publishing, training and learning SuccessFactors™, SumTotal™, Saba™,organizations. Cornerstone On Demand™, e2train™, Blackboard™, Sakai™, and Moodle™.eXact LCMS optionally supports both “static”and “dynamic” publishing integration For additional information on the full eXactstrategies thanks to advanced off-the-shelf LCMS modules and capabilities please visitweb services, configurable workflow and a www.exact-learning.com.dynamic linking engine that can be used totrigger both LMS driven requests (pull) orLCMS centered publication triggers (push) atthe end of a successful content productionprocess (typically linked to sign-offprocedures). ~ 13 ~ © eXact lear ning solutions 2012
  14. 14. Dynamic Publishing - A content-centric approach to eLearningi A specification from AICC, named PackageExchange Specification (PENS) is an example of astandard handover protocol adopted to notify theavailability of new content packages to importfrom an LCMS to an LMS. However, nostandardized way for passing tracking informationacross systems has yet been addressed orreleased.ii The SCORM cross domain issue arises when thebrowser hosting the RTE cannot handle requestsfrom two different domains). There are a varietyof ways in which the cross-domain issue can besolvedii. Among them it’s worth highlighting:• Deploying LMS and Content Server behind a reverse Proxy - the Browser “sees” both RTE and content files as if they were coming from the same domain• Deploying LMS tracking API’s on the LCMS (or content server)eX ac t learning solutionseXact lear ning solutions, formerly Giunti Labs, is a leading online and mobile learning content managementand digital r epository solutions provider, offering a wide range of tools and services for content eXact learning solutions - Headquartersdevelopment, management and delivery, covering: Abbazia dell’Annunziata• Content management and digital r epository platforms Via Por tobello - Baia del Silenzio• Mobile lear ning technologies 16039 Sestri Levante (GE) Italy• Consulting and pr ofessional services• Multi-language bespoke learning content production Tel +39.0185.4761The company has over fifteen years of experience and more than 100 clients worldwide. Our technological Fax +39.0185.43.347innovations allow enterprises to improve their organizational per formance, and achieve significant reductions w w w.exact-learning.comin business costs. info@ex actls.com ~ 14 ~ © eXact lear ning solutions 2012

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