Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Integrated Science M3 Pollination

1,522 views

Published on

Pollination

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Integrated Science M3 Pollination

  1. 1. Module 3  Unit 7  Lesson 5 Integrated Science
  2. 2. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ  Just as in animals, in plants, the male gamete is produced in a separate organ than where the female gamete is produced. Animals can move about and get to each other. Plants can’t. Plants are stationary!  So, since they must carry on sexual reproduction in order to continue their species, plants have evolved various mechanisms for pollinators to assist their gametes to meet. That process is called pollination. 2
  3. 3. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ Having completed this lesson, you should be able to: define pollination and distinguish between cross and self pollination. outline the usefulness of the each type of pollination. describe agents of pollination and identify characteristics of flowers that facilitate the various pollinators. describe the steps involved in pollination that end in fertilization. 3
  4. 4. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ  Watch these videos from:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=endscreen&v=0mchJw5Dz7g&NR (Hummingbird)  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YS1KCDVxcZg&feature=related (Bee inside flower)  If you stand in the garden or wherever there are plants with flowers on them, those are scenes that you surely will see over and over again.  What’s happening? If you said that the insects are gathering food, nectar for the humming bird and nectar and pollen for the bee, then you are quite right.  But is that all that’s happening? Definitely not! 4
  5. 5. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ Pollination is also taking place as the various animals go from flower to flower. Watch this next video carefully, starting at 0.10s: http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=7CdoBCEEpz4&feature=en Did you notice that the bee has collected large balls of pollen on its hind legs? Go back to look at the bee on the cover slide. Did you observe that it’s covered with pollen! As a bee goes from one flower to the next, crawling over stigmas and anthers laden with pollen, what is the likely result? Of course! Pollen will be transferred from one flower to another! 5
  6. 6. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ 1. Click open the link http://sciencewithme.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/pollination_1.jpg 2. Look carefully at the illustration. Follow the bee along the arrow from flower to flower. 3. Based on what you understand and also saw in videos on the previous slides, type your definition of pollination in the box below. You must be in Slide Show view to type and edit text in the box. Click the CHECK button for feedback. 6 FEEDBACK Click link below, listen and watch. At 2.30 – 2.37, listen carefully to the definition of pollination that is clearly stated! http://www.neok12.com/php/watch.php?v=zX7451415e7d475104585f02&t=Pollination Replay it if necessary. Was your definition accurate?
  7. 7. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ Cross pollination Self pollination 7 Click open ‘Pollination and Fertilisation’ - a short power point set by Hina Hashmi at > http://www.worldofteaching.com/reproductionpowerpoints.html Click to diagrams like these. Read and compare.
  8. 8. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ  Self pollination is useful when not many of the same species are in a location. With self pollination, fertilization is ensured.  Cross pollination is useful to increase genetic variation and so increase the likelihood of survival if environmental conditions change. Conversely, if there are no similar species of plants within range with which cross pollination can occur, there is the risk of that species dying out within a specific area if the plant is not able to also reproduce by asexual methods. 8
  9. 9. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ  The pollen contains the male gamete so it must be brought to meet the female gamete. This occurs by the process of pollination. During pollination, pollen from the anther is transferred to the stigma of a flower of the same species.  How is the pollen transferred? There are various pollinators or agents of pollination that enable the transfer. 9
  10. 10. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ  No doubt you know the terms ‘horticulture’ and ‘horticulturist’.  But, have you ever heard of floriculture? Can you figure out what it is? The word practically tells its meaning!  Read this: “Floriculture, or flower farming, is a discipline of horticulture concerned with the cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants for gardens and for floristry, comprising the floral industry. The development, via plant breeding, of new varieties is a major occupation of floriculturists.”  If you like flowers, understand processes such as pollination, you might like to embrace floriculture as a career!  Interested? Read more at the website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floriculture 10
  11. 11. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ  Agents of pollination do not consciously transfer pollen; they assist almost incidentally or even accidentally in the transfer, e.g., it is during the hunt for nectar that pollen sticks to the body of a bee and gets rubbed off onto the stigma of the same or another flower.  However, some flowers seem specifically designed to attract specific agents of pollination, and pollination cannot occur without the visit of these animal pollinators. 11 These are pollen grains from insect pollinated flowers seen under an electron microscope. Note that they are rough so will stick very easily to hairy insects.
  12. 12. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ Watch these videos.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MQiszdkOwuU&feature=endscreen&N  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ge3EM8AERV0 Question 1: List the agents of pollination seen. Question 2: What attracts these animals to the flowers? Type your responses in the box provided on the slides that follow. You must be in Slide Show view to type and edit text in the box. Click the CHECK button for feedback. 12
  13. 13. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ Question 2: List the agents of pollination seen. 13 FEEDBACK The biotic agents of pollination seen in the video are: humming birds, flies, butterflies, bees, bats.
  14. 14. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ Question 3: What attracts these animals to the flowers? 14 Feedback  The purpose of the flower is to enable pollination so that male and female sex cells can meet in fertilization and ultimately produce fruit with seeds. Biotic or animal pollinators are attracted to flowers to get something that they want. That something is usually food! Food is in the form of pollen grains and nectar.  But, it could also be the attraction of what appears to be a mate.  So, different flowers have various characteristics and structures that will attract birds, insects such as bees, butterflies, moths, beetles and even flies, and also other animals that are active at nights such as bats.  Even humans are not immune! Later, you will see how and why humans act as agents of pollination for the vanilla flower. In the slides of the next subtopic, learn about the special characteristics that some flowers have to attract various pollinators and so ensure pollination.
  15. 15. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ Various insects and birds are attracted to specific colours, to lines and markings and also to various odours. Flowers have a wide variety of large, brightly- coloured petals and bracts, also lines, markings, shapes and even various smells. Why? For the sole purpose of attracting various biotic pollinators! Look at this variety! 15 Bees on Palm flowers What do you think these bees are doing here on these Palm tree flowers?
  16. 16. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ  When flowers are small, several are usually clustered to form a ‘showy’ inflorescence.  You no doubt know what mango fruits look like. But have you ever looked at the flowers from which they are formed? Each flower is quite small and not brightly coloured at all, so to facilitate the visit by pollinators, flowers are produced in large bunches so that when the tree blossoms there is a spectacular show of inflorescences on the tips of branches all over the tree. 16
  17. 17. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ  Look at this video from > http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mJtjOjkY-1Qe  So…. next time your mango tree blossoms, just pause, admire and give thanks for the showy inflorescences! They give you the mangoes that you love so much!  Look around to observe other plants with large clusters of small flowers e .g. ackee, guinep. 17
  18. 18. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ 18
  19. 19. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ Some flowers use mimicry! A Bee Orchid mimics a female bee in colour, shape and scent to attract male bees as pollinators , who move from flower to flower in search of the mate. In the process, they act as pollinators. 19
  20. 20. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ 1. Do you like vanilla ice cream? Well, the vanilla flavouring comes from vanilla beans - the fruits of the Vanilla orchid. Its natural pollinator is a bee found only in Mexico. But here’s a problem - if left alone, it would never be pollinated because of the structure of the flowers. So, growers of vanilla plants become the pollinators , carrying out pollination by hand. 2. Look at the picture of the unusual vanilla flower. In it, a membrane separates the stigma from the anther to prevent self pollination. Click: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:VanillaFlowerLongitudinalSection-en.png 3. Then watch these short videos at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7DV7TS3XB94&feature=endscreen&NR=1 and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SgOl6HPJY3U 20
  21. 21. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ 1. Click and look at the flies laying eggs in a carrion flower at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ShvLCTVVzjs 2. Look at another carrion flower found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Titan-arum1web.jpg 3. These carrion flowers pictured at the websites have an odour like rotting meat! So naturally they attract flies who love to lay their eggs in decomposing material on which the larvae will later feed. As the flies crawl over the flowers, what do you suppose happens? Yes! They act as pollinators, transferring pollen from anthers to stigmas and also from one flower to another. 4. Scroll through this website to see additional pictures of other carrion flowers found at http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ww0602.htm#carrion 21
  22. 22. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ 1. Click on link to open, scroll down to the heading ‘Pollination’, read and examine the photos of flowers to see how they facilitate specific agents of pollination, at > http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio303/coevolution.htm 2. As you go around your home/school environment, try to become more alert to see which animals are visiting which flowers. Note, for example, the colour and any special structures to see if you can find any pattern of visit by various groups of pollinators. 3. Why not plan and set up an investigation to determine if bees/ butterflies are more attracted to one colour than any two others? Or to sugar solution plus colour. Talk with your teacher about whether it can be used for SBA. 4. Get two classmates to work with you by setting up the same investigation at their home. Observe over 2 – 3 weeks. Compare results. Did you find any patterns? 22
  23. 23. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ Questions 3 and 4. An investigation to determine if bees/ butterflies are more attracted to one colour than any two others choosing among red, yellow and blue. 1.Did you use the primary colours red, yellow and blue and make a prediction about which will have most insects and humming bird visitors ? You need to be very specific in your prediction about which animals, flower colour duration etc. And record observations systematically over the investigation period. 2.Did you think about placing a sugar solution in a transparent container on top of different coloued papers, and checking the visiting pollinators? If so, what happened? 3.Make sure you write detailed reports which you could accompany with photographs using your cell phone or else with diagrams. 23
  24. 24. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ As you’d imagine, the physical features of a flower would be dependent on the agent/s of pollination. Wind pollinated flowers for example, produce a lot of small, light weighted pollen grains, and their stamens and feathery stigmas hang loosely outside the flower. Click and look at the stamens dangling loosely out of the florets at http://tinyurl.com/d2vz6mz Click and read slides 4 – 6 in the Power point slides at http://www.worldofteaching.com/reproductionpowerpoints.html 24
  25. 25. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ 1. Grass inflorescences are not brightly coloured. Why? 2. In Normal View, enlarge this slide to 200% - 400%. (Click View  Zoom  200%). What other feature/s do you observe in these grass inflorescences that is/are related to the answer you’ve given? Click the next button to type your response to each question and read feedback. 25
  26. 26. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ FEEDBACK  Grass is generally wind pollinated so there is no need for the flowers to be showy as they do not need to attract pollinators. The flowers can therefore be pale, green, yellowish or straw-coloured.  The stamens dangle loosely out of the florets so the can be blown about in the wind and thus stand a better chances of coming into contact with loose pollen that is also being blown about. The stigmas are feathery (not shown clearly in these diagrams!!) which makes them better able to trap the loose pollen being blown around. 26
  27. 27. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ  Flowers are the means by which plants ‘have sex’ in order to reproduce their species!  They develop beautiful parts to attract the pollinators that will help their sex cells to meet. So, where are their sex cells produced? You already learned it … in the anthers and the ovary. It is in these floral parts that meiosis occurs, resulting in the formation of pollen grains in which two sperm nuclei will develop and in the ovule, a set of nuclei forms, one of which is the ovum or egg. 27
  28. 28. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ Now, click open this website: http://leavingbio.net/the%20structure%20and %20functions%20of%20flowers.htm Scroll down to start reading at the section on ‘Formation of Sex Cells’. Look at the diagrams that show where the pollen grains and the ovules are produced in flowers as a result of meiosis then mitosis. Note their structure and the presence of male and female sex cells inside a pollen grain and inside an ovule, respectively. Read the section on ‘Pollination’. 28
  29. 29. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ  In the diagrams at the website mentioned on the previous slide, you saw that an ovule has three sets of nuclei, but only one of which is the female gamete or egg.  Now that the pollen has landed on the stigma, let’s see what happens. Remember that the pollen grain is NOT the male gamete. Two male gametes are formed inside each grain from the generative nucleus.  The pollen grain germinates on the stigma. One pollen tube grows from each germinating pollen grain. The pollen tube nucleus guides the growth of the tube down through the style to the ovary.  When the pollen tube reaches the micropyle of an ovule, the pollen tube nucleus disintegrates. It has completed its function of bringing the male gametes close to the female gamete so it is no longer needed. This leaves the two male gametes free to enter the ovule in which is the female gamete and other nuclei.  So … what happens in a flower after pollination? 29
  30. 30. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ  Are you ready to test yourself?  There are three multiple choice (M.C.) items that you are required to do. For each item, click on the letter of the correct response and then click the button ‘NEXT QUESTION’ to continue.  There are also some REVIEW QUESTIONS for you to answer.  Click the ‘BEGIN QUIZ!’ to start answering the questions. 30 BEGIN QUIZ!BEGIN QUIZ!
  31. 31. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ Which of the following is not an agent of pollination? 31 A. windA. wind D. butterflyD. butterfly C. beesC. bees B. fireB. fire FEEDBACKFEEDBACKFEEDBACKFEEDBACK
  32. 32. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ Which of the following is not an agent of pollination? 32 NEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTION All of the options, except fire, assist with the transfer of pollen from anther to stigma of flowers.
  33. 33. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ Which of the following would you find in insect pollinated flowers? i.conspicuous petals ii.feathery stigmas iii.small light pollen iv.nectaries 33 C. ii and iiiC. ii and iii D. i and iiiD. i and iii B. i and iiB. i and ii A. i and ivA. i and iv FEEDBACKFEEDBACKFEEDBACKFEEDBACK
  34. 34. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ Which of the following would you find in insect pollinated flowers? i.conspicuous petals ii.feathery stigmas iii.small light pollen iv.nectaries 34 NEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTION Because insects need to be attracted, insect pollinated flowers have conspicuous petals and nectaries.
  35. 35. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ Look at the diagram below. Which option best describes the sequence of flower parts involved after pollen lands on the stigma? 35 A. 1 4 5 6→ → →A. 1 4 5 6→ → → D. 3 4 5 6→ → →D. 3 4 5 6→ → → C. 2 3 4 5→ → →C. 2 3 4 5→ → → B. 3 4 5 8→ → →B. 3 4 5 8→ → → FEEDBACKFEEDBACKFEEDBACKFEEDBACK
  36. 36. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ Look at the diagram below. Which option best describes the sequence of flower parts involved after pollen lands on the stigma? 36 NEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTION 33 44 5588 After pollen lands on (3) the stigma, a pollen tube grows down (4) the style to (5) the ovary then into (8) the ovule which houses the female gamete.
  37. 37. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ 37 Pollination is the transfer of __________ from the anther to the stigma of a flower of the same ___________. Agents of pollination are those that move the _________ from the __________ to the ___________ of flowers. The _________ is the female part of the flower that might be modified to enable pollination by wind or biotic means. CHECKCHECKCHECKCHECK Read each statement and then write down words that will correctly complete each statement. Point and click on the CHECK button for feedback.
  38. 38. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ 38 1. Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a flower of the same species. 3. Agents of pollination are those that move the pollen from the anther to the stigma of flowers. 2. The stigma is the female part of the flower that might be modified to enable pollination by wind or biotic means. NEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTION
  39. 39. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ What special features of the Poinciana flower tell you that it is insect pollinated? 39 Feedback: The Poinciana flower has large, bright red-orange sepals and also petals including a large, differently coloured standard petal with guide lines, all of which would attract insects e.g. butterflies, and birds to it. The pollen is rough and sticky so will adhere to the pollinators’ body. Neither the stamens nor pistil dangle out but curve slightly so they can touch against the animal’s body as it searches the flower for food. NEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTION
  40. 40. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ Click and look at the photo at this website > http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b- online/library/webb/BOT410/GrassFlower/SorghumFlrsLab. jpg If you were asked to tell its method of pollination, what would you say and why? 40
  41. 41. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ Click and look at the photo at this website > http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b- online/library/webb/BOT410/GrassFlower/SorghumFlrsLab. jpg If you were asked to tell its method of pollination, what would you say and why? 41 Flowers Petals Stamens Pollen Stigma Do not have to be conspicuous for wind pollination, so. they are really small, modified flowers called florets arranged in spikelets. No insects need to land on them so, they are absent and represented only by small scales that are greenish, ldrab and inconspicuous. Hang loosely outside the flower to shed pollen into the wind to be blown about among flowers. Large amount of small, loose, dry and powdery grains . Feathery and hangs out of the floret to be able to catch pollen blowing in the wind.
  42. 42. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ  You have reached the end of the Power point presentation, Review and Quiz.  If you wish to review this lesson, go to the first slide and click on the relevant Subtopic.  If you have finished viewing the lesson, click the Close (X) button. 42
  43. 43. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ Slide 1 Images: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bees_Coll ecting_Pollen_cropped.jpg Microsoft ClipArt 43
  44. 44. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination?What is Pollination? Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Structures thatStructures that ensure Pollinationensure Pollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination Agents ofAgents of PollinationPollination The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers The Formation ofThe Formation of Gametes in FlowersGametes in Flowers INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION QUIZQUIZQUIZQUIZ Before you begin, see diagram below. Look for the Security Warning below the ribbon and click the Options button. In the Security Alert box, select “Enable this Content” and then OK.

×