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Integrated Science M3 Asexual Reproduction in animals

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Asexual Reproduction in animals

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Integrated Science M3 Asexual Reproduction in animals

  1. 1. Module 3  Unit 7  Lesson 2 Integrated Science BEGINBEGIN
  2. 2. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION  The picture on the cover shows cells in various stages of Mitosis. You should recall that mitosis is the cell division involved in asexual reproduction. It is the cell division that enables growth and development of an organism.  Many invertebrate groups and some species of vertebrates are able to reproduce asexually employing various methods.  Let’s explore some of the methods! 2
  3. 3. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Having completed this lesson, students should be able to:  define asexual reproduction.  outline methods of asexual reproduction in various animals.  describe the commercial benefits of asexual reproduction in animals. 3
  4. 4. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Click open the following link: http://www.neok12.com/vocabulary/Cell-Division-01.htm Play the Vocabulary Game to see how many terms that relate to Mitotic cell division you really understand . 4
  5. 5. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION  Reproduction, growth and development are characteristics of living things that are important for the continuation of each species. Organisms reproduce either by sexual or asexual methods.  Asexual reproduction is the ‘opposite’ of sexual reproduction , so -- - there is no meiosis, no gamete and no fertilization! Asexual reproduction is the formation of offspring without the use of gametes; it involves mitosis and only one parent. 5
  6. 6. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Methods include: FISSIONFISSIONFISSIONFISSION BUDDINGBUDDINGBUDDINGBUDDING REGENERATIONREGENERATIONREGENERATIONREGENERATION FRAGMENTATIONFRAGMENTATIONFRAGMENTATIONFRAGMENTATION GEMMULESGEMMULESGEMMULESGEMMULES PARTHENOGENESISPARTHENOGENESISCLONINGCLONING 6
  7. 7. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION  Binary fission – many protists, and other unicells reproduce asexually. The mature organism simply divides to form two or more new organisms.  Click and watch:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fUxPL8cySwY  http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&feature=endscre 7
  8. 8. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Look at how Amoeba divides by binary fission, to form new organisms. Click link and watch video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fUxPL8cySwY 8
  9. 9. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Bacteria also reproduce asexually by Binary fission . Bacteria typically have one chromosome whose DNA (Shown in green) is replicated forming two copies of the chromosome. Cytokinesis then separates the bacterium into two new daughter cells. 9
  10. 10. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Budding – the offspring grows off the parent’s body. When it is mature enough, it pinches off, detaches and develops into a new organisms, e.g., Hydra (fresh water animal). View the process at the following links: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=489CSop00sY&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a5oHMjGqjyo&NR=1&feature=endscreen 10
  11. 11. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Gemmules – are “resistant structures… that can withstand adverse conditions such as drying or cold and later develop into new individuals.” Their formation involves a process of internal budding, in which the parent releases a special mass of cells - plus food – all covered by hard tissue. They can develop into a new organism when habitat conditions are good, e.g. Sponges which are sessile produce gemmules. http://tinyurl.com/bm59vdj 11
  12. 12. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Fragmentation - animals can grow/produce new tissue and even limbs that are lost, so the animal is whole again e.g. members of the starfish group. When a Planaria, a non-parasitic flatworm, is cut/broken into distinct fragments/pieces, each piece can re-grow missing parts then develop into a whole offspring. So …from one – you can get many! 12
  13. 13. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Regeneration - Pieces of a sponge are able to regenerate into whole new sponges. This is because sponges do not have organs and tissues – just layers of different cells which can independently reproduce new cells. 13 Lizards are also able to regenerate missing parts to re- establish the entire animal, as shown in the diagram on the left.
  14. 14. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Parthenogenesis – this process involves the development of an unfertilized egg into individual organisms. Ants and bees can reproduce this way. Worker ants are sterile, wingless females that look after the hive. But, when necessary they can produce eggs without mating and these eggs develop into drones. Read the extract on the next slide. 14
  15. 15. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION “Parthenogenesis is a form of asexual reproduction where growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization. Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in:  some invertebrate animal species (including nematodes, water fleas, some scorpions, aphids, some bees, some Phasmida, and parasitic wasps) and  a few vertebrates (such as some fish,amphibians, reptiles, and very rarely birds. This type of reproduction has been induced artificially in a few species including fish and amphibians. Parthenogenetic offspring usually have the diploid chromosome number.” Source : Modified from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthenogenesis 15
  16. 16. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Click and read ‘Wingless female giving Birth’ at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~pjbryant/biodiv/hemipt/OleanderAphid.h 16 Nymph aphids, surrounding the mother aphid, were produced by parthenogenesis and are born alive Nymph aphids, surrounding the mother aphid, were produced by parthenogenesis and are born alive Aphid giving birth to live youngAphid giving birth to live youngAphid giving birth to live youngAphid giving birth to live young
  17. 17. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Click and watch video at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/01/5/quicktime/l_015_01_56.html The asexual, all-female whiptail species (centre), which reproduces via parthenogenesis, is shown flanked by two sexual species having males, which hybridized naturally to form the (central) species” 17 The Komodo Dragon is able to reproduce naturally by parthenogenesis.
  18. 18. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Cloning is the term for the processes in which an identical genetic replica of another cell, tissue or organism is created. The product is called a clone. The term ‘reproductive cloning’ is used when the technological process gives rise to an organism e.g. animal. 18
  19. 19. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Click and look at the diagram on cloning that was used to produce a sheep, at > http://bruceleeeowe.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/cloning.gif 19
  20. 20. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION 1. Time and energy are not wasted in finding a mate. 2. Because there can be continuous reproduction, large numbers can be quickly produced in a fairly short time. 3. Favourable environmental conditions can be exploited. 4. If parent is of genetic ‘good quality’, the offspring will also be of ‘good quality’ (i.e. have good traits). 20
  21. 21. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Can you deduce some disadvantages? Give it a try! Type your answer in the box below. 21 1. Because of lack of genetic variation offspring may find it difficult to survive in a changing environment. 2. If a parent is of ‘poor quality’, the offspring will also be of ‘poor quality’. 3. Offspring colonize the same area as the parent, so competition and over- crowding  death can easily result. CHECKCHECK
  22. 22. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Use word(s) from the list to complete the table below. 22 Method of asexual reproduction Characteristic Example of animal that use this method Planaria gemmules Parent releases special mass of cells which grow and develop into new offspring aphids, ants Offspring grows from parent’s body then detaches LIST: Fragmentation, Hydra, unfertilized egg develops into new organism, sponges, budding, parent breaks into distinct pieces, parthenogenesis. CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERCLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWER
  23. 23. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Method of asexual reproduction Characteristic Example of animal that uses this process fragmentation Parent breaks into distinct pieces Planaria gemmules Parent releases a special mass of cells which grow and develop into new offspring sponges parthenogenesis Unfertilized eggs develop into new organisms Aphid, bees, ants budding Offspring grows from parent’s body before detaching Hydra 23
  24. 24. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION  Are you ready to test yourself?  There are three multiple choice (M.C.) items that you are required to do.  For each item, click on the letter of the correct response and then click the button ‘NEXT QUESTION’ to continue.  Click the BEGIN QUIZ button to proceed 24 BEGIN QUIZ!BEGIN QUIZ!
  25. 25. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION What is the name given to the process by which bacteria reproduce asexually? 25 A. cytokinesisA. cytokinesis D. fragmentationD. fragmentation C. replicationC. replication B. binary fissionB. binary fission FEEDBACKFEEDBACKFEEDBACKFEEDBACK
  26. 26. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Question: What is the name given to the process by which bacteria reproduce asexually? Feedback: Binary fission, the simplest form of asexual reproduction and is carried out by bacteria. 26 NEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTION
  27. 27. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Which of the following is not a method of asexual reproduction in animals? 27 A. ParthenogenesisA. Parthenogenesis D. Binary fissionD. Binary fission B. RegenerationB. Regeneration C. BiotechnologyC. Biotechnology FEEDBACKFEEDBACKFEEDBACKFEEDBACK
  28. 28. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Question: Which of the following is not a method of asexual reproduction? Feedback Biotechnology is the practice of using plants, animals and micro-organisms such as bacteria, as well as biological processes - such as the ripening of fruit or the bacteria that break down compost - to some benefit.” “ A general description of biotechnology is using living things to create products or to do tasks for human beings.” Source of text > http://education.technyou.edu.au/view/87/what-biotechnology 28 NEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTION
  29. 29. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION The new cells resulting from asexual reproduction are 29 C. Like the parent cell but are haploid.C. Like the parent cell but are haploid. D. Different from the each other.D. Different from the each other. B. Different from each other and the mother cell.B. Different from each other and the mother cell. A. Genetically identical to each other and the parent cell.A. Genetically identical to each other and the parent cell. FEEDBACKFEEDBACKFEEDBACKFEEDBACK
  30. 30. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Question: The new cells resulting from asexual reproduction are Feedback The correct answer is A. Genetically identical to each other and the parent cell. So if the parent cell had a diploid chromosome number of 12, each new cell also has the diploid chromosome number of twelve – NOT the haploid number as would happen when cells are produced by meiosis. So the new asexually produced offspring do not show any genetic variation from the parent cell and is in fact a clone. 30 NEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTIONNEXT QUESTION
  31. 31. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Click open this website and try the six M.C. Items there >> http://regentsprep.org/regents/core/questions/question.cfm? Course=BIOL&TopicCode=4a&QNum=1&Wrong=0 Make sure you read the explanations for the correct answers by going to this website! http://regentsprep.org/regents/core/questions/questions.cfm? Course=biol&TopicCode=4a 31
  32. 32. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Click and read the questions and answers at these sites:  http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_five_animals_that_rep roduce_asexually  http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_does_asexual_reproductio n_allow_animals_to_do 32
  33. 33. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION  You have reached the end of the Review and Quiz.  If you wish to review any section of this lesson, go to the first slide and click on the subtopic.  If you have completed the lesson, click the Close (X) button. 33
  34. 34. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Asexual reproduction in animals Asexual reproduction in animals Recalling some terms Recalling some terms Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction Advantages & Disadvantages of asexual reproduction REVIEW & QUIZ REVIEW & QUIZINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wilson1900Fig2.jpg This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to Australia, the European Union and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 70 years.  http://www.malebolge.net16.net/science10/amoeba_fission.gif  http://tinyurl.com/bm59vdj  http://tinyurl.com/crfku6w  http://biology.about.com/od/genetics/ss/Asexual- Reproduction.htm (asexual reproduction in animals)  http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Porifera.aspx  http://tinyurl.com/crfku6w  http://www.biosulf.org/1/images/newt-regeneration.jpg  http://regentsprep.org/regents/core/questions/questions.cfm? Course=biol&TopicCode=4a  http://www.mypathway.ca/creditrecovery/SNC1P/U2_L2.pdf 34

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