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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
Security Challenges & Prevention for
Schools
網絡安全挑戰與防衛
Jan 2020
All Rights Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
2
Agenda
• About HKIRC
• Company Mission
• Security Challenges & Prevention
• Phishing attack
• Ransomware
• Data Breaches
• Security Measures
• Conclusion
All Rights Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
3
About HKIRC
• Non-profit member-based organisation
• Set up in December 2001
• Endorsed by the Government of the HKSAR
• Oversee the administration and assignment of the country
code top level Internet domain names ending with .hk
and ..香港.
All Rights Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
4
Company Mission
Mission
• Providing, and supervising the provision of .hk and .香港 Internet
domain names registration, resolution and related services in an
uninterrupted, effective, customer-centric and sustainable
manner.
• Promotes Hong Kong as an inclusive, secure, innovative and
international city for the Internet and encourages the use of
Internet and the related technologies.
All Rights Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
5
Cyber Security Schools Audit 2019 in UK
• LGfL (London Grid for Learning) & NCSC (National Cyber Security
Centre, part of GCHQ) carried out a joint audit of cyber security
in schools across the UK
• The audit was open from 15 March – 20 April 2019
• 432 schools took part
• Findings were discussed vastly in media
• Issues highlighted in the report may also applicable in schools in
HK
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
6
Highlight of Findings
83% of schools experienced different levels of cyber-incidents
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
7
Highlight of Findings (Cont’)
• 98 and 99 percent of schools, respectively, had antivirus and
firewall protections
• 85 percent of schools had a cyber security policy or plan, but
only 45 percent included core IT services in risk register & only 41
percent had a business continuity plan
• Only around a third of schools (35 percent) train non-IT staff in
cybersecurity
• Less than half of schools (49 percent) were confident that they
are adequately prepared in the event of a cyberattack
• A focus on support for non-IT staff is a clear need, 92 percent of
schools welcome more cybersecurity awareness training for staff
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
Common Attack in Schools
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
Phishing Attack
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
Recent Phishing Attacks
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
Recent Phishing Attacks (Cont’)
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
Recent Phishing Attacks (Cont’)
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
Recent Phishing Attacks (Cont’)
All Rights Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
Recent Phishing Attacks (Cont’)
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
Recent Phishing Attacks (Cont’)
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
Ransom E-mails
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
• Do not open suspicious links in E-mail & Web browser
• Do not key-in user name and passwords from forms
open by E-mails
• Make sure system patches and anti-virus software
are up-to-date
• Enable Two Factor Authentication (2FA) function
wherever it is provided
Tackling Phishing Attack
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
All Rights Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
Ransomware
All Right Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
All Rights Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
19
Ransomware
Cybercriminals
Email with
malicious
attachment
Open the email and
execute the attachment
Bitcoin blackmail
Ransomware is a serious security threat that limits victims to
access their files or system functions. It has “data-kidnapping”
capabilities.
Cybercriminals tend to threaten victims to pay ransom (bitcoin)
in order to regain access to their files or systems.
2016 Locky, Zepto, CryptXXX
2017 WannaCry, NotPetya
2018 GandCrab, SamSam
2019 LockerGoga, etc.
All Rights Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
Ransomware Evolution
Crypto Ransomware
• 2013 CryptoLocker (PC)
• 2014 BitCrypt (PC)
• 2014 CyptoDefense (PC)
• 2014 Synolocker (NAS)
• 2014 Simplocker (Mobile)
• 2014 CryptoGraphic
Locker
• 2015 CyptoWall, TeslaCrypt,
CTB-Locker
• 2016 Locky, Zepto,
CryptXXX
• 2017 WannaCry, NotPetya
• 2018 GandCrab, SamSam
• 2019 LockerGoga, etc.
Expect to continue …
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
Newest Trend of Ransomware
Cryptojacking - secret use of your
computing device to mine
cryptocurrency.
CPU Surged During Cryptojacking
All Rights Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
• Do not pay cyber criminals ransom
• Do not open suspicious links in E-mail & Web browser
• Make sure system patches and anti-virus software
are up-to-date
• Protect your data – backup your data regularly and
put them offline
Suggestions to Defense Against Ransomware
All Rights Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
All Rights Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
Data Breaches
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
24
Data Breaches Cases Surged since 2018…
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
25
Data Breaches Cases Surged since 2018…
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
26
And Even in 2019…
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Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
Data Breaches are result of:
• Poor IT operational practices (e.g. late decommission of
servers)
• Application vulnerabilities
• Advanced Persistent Threat (APT)
• Deficiency in outsourcing management
• Etc.
Organizations need to have a holistic security strategy –
combining people, process and technology to reduce
exposure to current & future attacks
Why Data Breaches?
All Rights Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
All Rights Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
Security Measures
All Right Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
All Rights Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
Security Measures
• Security Measures can be classified into 3
categories: Technology, Process and People
Policy
People
Process
Technology
All Rights Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
Information Security Protection via Technology
Well planned security architecture needed:
• Anti-malware
• Firewall
• Network Access Control
• Encryption
• Patches update
• A lot more…
All Rights Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
Information Security Protection via Process
Well planned processes and procedures needed:
• IT and Security Policy
• Information Classification
• Risk Assessment
• A lot more…
All Rights Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
Information Security Protection via People
People is the weakest link in cybersecurity, need more
emphasis:
• Minimum Privilege and Accountability
• Password Management
• Security Awareness – avoid phishing & social engineering
• A lot more…
All Rights Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
Conclusion
• Everyone relies on the cyber world to conduct business
nowadays
• However, the cyber world is full of cybersecurity
challenges
• We discussed some security challenges here:
• Phishing Attack
• Ransomware
• Data Breaches
• To deal with these challenges, we need a holistic security strategy
combining people, process and technology.
• Among these 3 aspects, people is the weakest link. More
awareness effort needed.
All Rights Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
34
Free In-Depth Website Security Scan
• In-Depth Website Security Scan now open for application
• All .hk users and HK SMEs can apply for the free service
• HKIRC will provide:
• Remote black-box vulnerability scan for web server
• Organized report for identified issues & mitigation actions
• A consultation session for briefing report
• Referral to appropriate solution vendors if needed
• Application form: https://www.hkirc.hk/upload/blog/6/self/5df2ebec9c9e7.pdf
• Any inquiry, please call HKIRC hotline 2319 2030 or E-mail to sme-security-scan@hkirc.hk
All Rights Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
35
In-depth Webscan for SME
HKIRC .hk website
Vulnerability scan
Security scan report
Attack
All Rights Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
36
Sample Report
All Rights Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
37
Q & A
All Right Reserved.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited

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06 網絡安全挑戰與防衛

  • 1. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited Security Challenges & Prevention for Schools 網絡安全挑戰與防衛 Jan 2020
  • 2. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited 2 Agenda • About HKIRC • Company Mission • Security Challenges & Prevention • Phishing attack • Ransomware • Data Breaches • Security Measures • Conclusion
  • 3. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited 3 About HKIRC • Non-profit member-based organisation • Set up in December 2001 • Endorsed by the Government of the HKSAR • Oversee the administration and assignment of the country code top level Internet domain names ending with .hk and ..香港.
  • 4. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited 4 Company Mission Mission • Providing, and supervising the provision of .hk and .香港 Internet domain names registration, resolution and related services in an uninterrupted, effective, customer-centric and sustainable manner. • Promotes Hong Kong as an inclusive, secure, innovative and international city for the Internet and encourages the use of Internet and the related technologies.
  • 5. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited 5 Cyber Security Schools Audit 2019 in UK • LGfL (London Grid for Learning) & NCSC (National Cyber Security Centre, part of GCHQ) carried out a joint audit of cyber security in schools across the UK • The audit was open from 15 March – 20 April 2019 • 432 schools took part • Findings were discussed vastly in media • Issues highlighted in the report may also applicable in schools in HK
  • 6. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited 6 Highlight of Findings 83% of schools experienced different levels of cyber-incidents
  • 7. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited 7 Highlight of Findings (Cont’) • 98 and 99 percent of schools, respectively, had antivirus and firewall protections • 85 percent of schools had a cyber security policy or plan, but only 45 percent included core IT services in risk register & only 41 percent had a business continuity plan • Only around a third of schools (35 percent) train non-IT staff in cybersecurity • Less than half of schools (49 percent) were confident that they are adequately prepared in the event of a cyberattack • A focus on support for non-IT staff is a clear need, 92 percent of schools welcome more cybersecurity awareness training for staff
  • 8. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited Common Attack in Schools All Right Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
  • 9. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited Phishing Attack All Right Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
  • 10. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited Recent Phishing Attacks
  • 11. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited Recent Phishing Attacks (Cont’)
  • 12. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited Recent Phishing Attacks (Cont’)
  • 13. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited Recent Phishing Attacks (Cont’)
  • 14. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited Recent Phishing Attacks (Cont’)
  • 15. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited Recent Phishing Attacks (Cont’)
  • 16. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited Ransom E-mails
  • 17. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited • Do not open suspicious links in E-mail & Web browser • Do not key-in user name and passwords from forms open by E-mails • Make sure system patches and anti-virus software are up-to-date • Enable Two Factor Authentication (2FA) function wherever it is provided Tackling Phishing Attack
  • 18. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited Ransomware All Right Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
  • 19. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited 19 Ransomware Cybercriminals Email with malicious attachment Open the email and execute the attachment Bitcoin blackmail Ransomware is a serious security threat that limits victims to access their files or system functions. It has “data-kidnapping” capabilities. Cybercriminals tend to threaten victims to pay ransom (bitcoin) in order to regain access to their files or systems. 2016 Locky, Zepto, CryptXXX 2017 WannaCry, NotPetya 2018 GandCrab, SamSam 2019 LockerGoga, etc.
  • 20. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited Ransomware Evolution Crypto Ransomware • 2013 CryptoLocker (PC) • 2014 BitCrypt (PC) • 2014 CyptoDefense (PC) • 2014 Synolocker (NAS) • 2014 Simplocker (Mobile) • 2014 CryptoGraphic Locker • 2015 CyptoWall, TeslaCrypt, CTB-Locker • 2016 Locky, Zepto, CryptXXX • 2017 WannaCry, NotPetya • 2018 GandCrab, SamSam • 2019 LockerGoga, etc. Expect to continue …
  • 21. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited Newest Trend of Ransomware Cryptojacking - secret use of your computing device to mine cryptocurrency. CPU Surged During Cryptojacking
  • 22. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited • Do not pay cyber criminals ransom • Do not open suspicious links in E-mail & Web browser • Make sure system patches and anti-virus software are up-to-date • Protect your data – backup your data regularly and put them offline Suggestions to Defense Against Ransomware
  • 23. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited Data Breaches All Right Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
  • 24. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited 24 Data Breaches Cases Surged since 2018…
  • 25. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited 25 Data Breaches Cases Surged since 2018…
  • 26. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited 26 And Even in 2019…
  • 27. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited Data Breaches are result of: • Poor IT operational practices (e.g. late decommission of servers) • Application vulnerabilities • Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) • Deficiency in outsourcing management • Etc. Organizations need to have a holistic security strategy – combining people, process and technology to reduce exposure to current & future attacks Why Data Breaches?
  • 28. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited Security Measures All Right Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited
  • 29. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited Security Measures • Security Measures can be classified into 3 categories: Technology, Process and People Policy People Process Technology
  • 30. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited Information Security Protection via Technology Well planned security architecture needed: • Anti-malware • Firewall • Network Access Control • Encryption • Patches update • A lot more…
  • 31. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited Information Security Protection via Process Well planned processes and procedures needed: • IT and Security Policy • Information Classification • Risk Assessment • A lot more…
  • 32. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited Information Security Protection via People People is the weakest link in cybersecurity, need more emphasis: • Minimum Privilege and Accountability • Password Management • Security Awareness – avoid phishing & social engineering • A lot more…
  • 33. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited Conclusion • Everyone relies on the cyber world to conduct business nowadays • However, the cyber world is full of cybersecurity challenges • We discussed some security challenges here: • Phishing Attack • Ransomware • Data Breaches • To deal with these challenges, we need a holistic security strategy combining people, process and technology. • Among these 3 aspects, people is the weakest link. More awareness effort needed.
  • 34. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited 34 Free In-Depth Website Security Scan • In-Depth Website Security Scan now open for application • All .hk users and HK SMEs can apply for the free service • HKIRC will provide: • Remote black-box vulnerability scan for web server • Organized report for identified issues & mitigation actions • A consultation session for briefing report • Referral to appropriate solution vendors if needed • Application form: https://www.hkirc.hk/upload/blog/6/self/5df2ebec9c9e7.pdf • Any inquiry, please call HKIRC hotline 2319 2030 or E-mail to sme-security-scan@hkirc.hk
  • 35. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited 35 In-depth Webscan for SME HKIRC .hk website Vulnerability scan Security scan report Attack
  • 36. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited 36 Sample Report
  • 37. All Rights Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited 37 Q & A All Right Reserved. Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited