Mashup: Digital media and drama conventions

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This chapter considers how some popular dramatic conventions can accommodate contemporary and emerging digital media forms. Increasingly, the media forms regarded as ‘everyday’ are based on digital technology and networks that have moved from computers in academic and government settings into a range of devices for domestic and personal use. Digital media are everywhere, “taken up by diverse populations and non-institutionalized practices, including the peer activities of youth” (Ito et al., 2008, p. vii).

As its starting point this chapter takes the widely used conventions and techniques for structuring drama outlined in the books Structuring drama work (Neelands & Goode, 2000) and Beginning drama 11-14 (Neelands, 2004). Many of the drama conventions discussed in those books make use of, or are modeled upon cultural uses of, common media forms. In some cases the digital media forms suggested here are presented simply as being a more contemporary form to substitute directly, for example making use of an email message rather than a letter or facsimile. In other cases, the media forms suggested can be considered as a means by which the drama activity itself can be conducted, for example making use of a discussion forum as the means by which participants can engage in a drama activity beyond being physically present in the same space.

As with the drama conventions, the digital media forms and possible applications here are presented as a selection of elements and ideas that individuals and practitioners can adopt and adapt in whatever ways are appropriate to them. They are presented here as a means of thinking about the possible advantages of mixing established drama forms with new technologies.

DRAFT version. This is a preprint copy of the book chapter:
Cameron, D. (2009). Mashup: Digital media and drama conventions. In M. Anderson, J. Carroll & D. Cameron (Eds.), Drama education with digital technology (pp. 52 - 66). London: Continuum.

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Mashup: Digital media and drama conventions

  1. 1. Cameron, D. (2009). Mashup: Digital media and drama conventions. In M. Anderson, J. Carroll & D. Cameron (Eds.), Drama education with digital technology (pp. 52 - 66). London: Continuum.DRAFT version. This is a preprint copy.-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Mashup: Digital media and drama conventionsDavid CameronThis chapter considers how some popular dramatic conventions canaccommodate contemporary and emerging digital media forms. Increasingly,the media forms regarded as „everyday‟ are based on digital technology andnetworks that have moved from computers in academic and governmentsettings into a range of devices for domestic and personal use. Digital mediaare everywhere, “taken up by diverse populations and non-institutionalizedpractices, including the peer activities of youth” (Ito et al., 2008, p. vii).As its starting point this chapter takes the widely used conventions andtechniques for structuring drama outlined in the books Structuring drama work(Neelands & Goode, 2000) and Beginning drama 11-14 (Neelands, 2004). Manyof the drama conventions discussed in those books make use of, or aremodeled upon cultural uses of, common media forms. In some cases thedigital media forms suggested here are presented simply as being a morecontemporary form to substitute directly, for example making use of an emailmessage rather than a letter or facsimile. In other cases, the media formssuggested can be considered as a means by which the drama activity itself canbe conducted, for example making use of a discussion forum as the means bywhich participants can engage in a drama activity beyond being physicallypresent in the same space. 1
  2. 2. As with the drama conventions, the digital media forms and possibleapplications here are presented as a selection of elements and ideas thatindividuals and practitioners can adopt and adapt in whatever ways areappropriate to them. They are presented here as a means of thinking aboutthe possible advantages of mixing established drama forms with newtechnologies.Using drama conventionsDrama facilitators, particularly those working in a school system, mustsomehow find enough time with the participants to produce meaningfuloutcomes from the drama activities. Although “it is better to spend the timedoing drama rather than preparing to do it” (ONeill & Lambert, 1982, p. 147),already limited contact time is often be soaked up by housekeeping dutiessuch as taking attendance or altering a classroom to suit the activities.Establishing the drama can itself take time, such that students often tend to bemore fully engaged only towards the end of a school period. Similarly, theimpact of the drama activity can be lessened as it crashes to a halt to thesound of the school bell, and students move on physically and mentally totheir next subject.It is therefore understandable that drama facilitators in these time-poorsituations can look to short cuts to establish the drama. One of the strategiesadopted by drama facilitators is the development of “particular conventionsthat can be quickly produced without the need for lengthy preparations orrehearsal” (Neelands, 2004, p. 51), allowing a variety of activities within asingle lesson or session.Pre-text: Using digital media to establish the drama 2
  3. 3. Pre-text is the term O‟Neill uses to characterise the nature and launchingstrategy of non-scripted collaborative dramatic enactment (2006, p.5). Thisconcept will be familiar to many drama teachers and facilitators, even if theymay use other terms to define it. Unlike drama forms that follow anestablished text (egg. script), processual and improvised drama forms areinitiated by a pre-text that launches the dramatic action and establishes theworld of the drama, the range of characters that can inhabit it, and the likelyencounters and actions that can take place within it (ONeill, 1995). Pre-textcan be based on all manner of things, including a text, but should alwaysprovide a rapid entry into the world and action of the drama.Carroll and Cameron (Carroll, 2004; Carroll & Cameron, 2003) have notedthat drama teachers and practitioners can capitalize on the pervasiveness ofdigital media forms, particularly in the world of young people, by utilizingsome of the features of this everyday technology as the basic elements for adigital pre-text. One of the applications of the blends between digital mediaforms and drama conventions outlined in this chapter is to create a digitalpre-text that is a good fit with the information, communication and mediachannels commonly used many participants, thus enhancing the ease withwhich the pre-text initiates the drama in a seamless transition via an interfaceso familiar that it seeks to “erase itself so that the user is no longer aware ofconfronting a medium, but instead stands in an immediate relationship to thecontents of the medium (Boulter & Grusin, 1999, p. 22).Fidelity: Using digital media within the dramaOne of the aims of combining new and emerging media forms with dramaconventions is simply to update the cultural references to suit contemporarydrama groups, particularly those involving younger people. This raisesquestions about what level of authenticity is required to reduce obstacles toacceptance of the drama, and to help participants rapidly suspend disbelief.The nature of many of these digital media forms is to carry with them an 3
  4. 4. element of meta-information, and there is perhaps a certain level of fidelityrequired when using these media forms to avoid participants being distractedby what they might perceive as errors. For example, if a facilitator were to usean email as a form of introducing new information to the drama activity,participants can be just as interested in the email address of the sender or whoelse has been copied the message as they are in the contents of the messageitself. The meta-data carried by many of these digital forms can conveyimportant information about the source of the information. This becomeseven more significant if a facilitator chooses to use these digital media formsas the main medium for the drama activity itself, for example using a forumor chat tools to bring together distributed participants. Participants may needto be guided about what aspects of the medium are relevant to the drama,and which are just a function of the medium in which it is taking place.Extension: Using digital media to continue the dramaAnother aspect of the possible blends of digital media forms and dramaconventions is to extend the life of the dramatic beyond the boundaries of thephysical space in which it may originally, or ultimately, be enacted. Forexample, a facilitator can engage the participants with some elements of pre-text prior to a drama session by using activities that can be conducted online.Students can engage with materials, characters, and information in variousforms. These can be real resources in the sense of research materials foundonline, or they can be fictional elements „seeded‟ into online spaces. Similarly,online and digital media forms can be used to extend the life a drama sessionbeyond the limits of the time allowed in say a school timetable. There can befollow-up activities conducted online, perhaps from home or a computerlaboratory or library, as an extra-curricular activity. To students now familiarwith the marketing and narrative uses of technology to support television andcinematic productions, there is probably nothing unusual in using digital andonline media to establish or extend a dramatic activity. 4
  5. 5. Online and mobile communications have developed into a range of what areincreasingly being labeled „rich media‟ platforms – a term that describes levelsof interactivity and engagement beyond traditional forms. These technologiesallow for information seeking, content production and delivery, identitymaintenance and communication on a range of digital devices. In particular,the mobile telephone has shifted rapidly from a telephony device towards aportable, personal media hub that enables a range of personalised andcustomised communication, entertainment, relationship management andservice functions (Cameron 2006). As part of a trend towards activeparticipation in the production and sharing of content (Jenkins 2006), youngpeople are using these platforms to engage with their culture and practiceways of being within it (Stern 2008 p113).The collaborative nature of social media forms appears to create newopportunities to develop frameworks for drama. Jenkins (2006) refers to thiscollaboration as the “collective intelligence” of digital audiences. DavidWeinberger (2007 p. 131) describes it as “the wisdom of groups, employingsocial expertise, by which the connections among people help guide what thegroup learns and knows”. This is the same impulse that allows cooperativeimprovised role-play to operate in drama. The generalised cooperative socialexpertise operating in the digital environment has the possibility to be used inhybrid drama forms. Drama appears to be particularly well placed to makeuse of the dramatic tension generated between individual and group sharedknowledge within the various intertextual forms that make up social media.These networked sites are now the places where young people learn how touse cultural symbols (Stern 2008, p.114) for their own purposes.Three basic digital media forms for dramaText-based media forms 5
  6. 6. Despite more recent developments, the online environment has been formuch of its history thus far a very text-oriented medium. Communicationforms such as email, discussion forums and chat have relied on keyboardinput. Even the first decade or so of the World Wide Web‟s popularconsumption has been dominated by its use for text-base applications. Digitalmedia forms have of course long offered a mix of media forms, and someapplications have pushed the technological boundaries of audio andgraphical representations – computer games, for example.Some common text-based digital media forms are email, forums, messageboards, discussion groups, newsgroups, instant messaging and chat.Note that although treated as a mobile media form, use of Short MessageSystem (SMS) or „texting‟ via mobile telephone can also be considered a text-based media form and many of the conventions described in this sectionapply to SMS as well.Participatory media formsOne of the terms emerging to describe the latest online applications,particularly those that allow a high degree of user-generated content, is„participatory media‟. There is particular interest in how these forms canrelate to educational settings, as by their nature they are built upontechnologies that present a low-barrier to involvement, and generally allowfor novices to engage with more experienced producers to learn and shareskills and knowledge (Jenkins, 2006). Thus participatory media seem a naturalfit with many social learning and constructivist educational approaches.Examples of participatory media forms are blogs, podcasts, vlogs, socialbookmarks, games, mashups, micro-blogs, media sharing, virtual worlds,wikis, simulations, tags, and social network services. 6
  7. 7. These forms present a range of opportunities for drama facilitators, fromusing them as modern forms to replicate in class to remain contemporarywith the forms familiar with participants, through to potential use of some ofthese forms as the channel to conduct the dramatic activity itself. Thepopularity and functionality of many of these forms lend themselves to awide range of potential uses for drama.Mobile media formsOne of the ways in which digital technology has allowed for convergence is inmobile media devices. The modern mobile telephone for example is becominga multi-purpose digital tool combining telephony and multimedia messaging,media playing, gaming, photography, videography, Web access, file sharingand mapping. The take-up of wireless and mobile technology around theworld has been rapid and widespread, and in some cases may even be themeans for overcoming the so-called digital divide between nations wellserved by communication infrastructure and those less capable of adoptingother forms of telecommunication. It is in the embedding of mobile media,particularly mobile phones, by youth cultures around the world that thegreatest opportunities exist for blending with drama conventions. At the veryleast, the mobile phone is the one digital media production and receptiondevice that most young people are likely to have in common.Examples of mobile media forms are SMS text messages, Geotagging (addinglocation data to images and other media using GPS technology), MultimediaMessaging Service (MMS), mobile blogging (moblogging), ringtones,screensavers, voice telephony, and graphic wallpapers.This chapter uses the term mobile telephone, as opposed to cell phone, as itconsiders the use of these devices as portable and personal media platformsrather than the underlying technical infrastructure. The terms are broadly 7
  8. 8. interchangeable, and are only a sample of the names given to these devices inmany languages (Goggin 2006, p. 15).Drama conventions and digital media formsThese digital forms lend themselves readily to many dramatic conventionsthat require or allow text-based communication. In many cases, they simplyprovide a contemporary medium accepted by participants, particularly ayounger generation not so familiar with telegrams, faxes, or even personalletters.Specific details about the dramatic conventions can be found in StructuringDrama Work (Neelands & Goode, 2000), or in some cases an abbreviated formis available in Beginning Drama 11-14 (Neelands, 2004). Page references forboth sources are cited with each description below.Alter-egoOne participant adopts the role of the inner voice of another participant‟scharacter in order to express how they are feeling, thus explicating to thegroup the text/sub-text relationship. (Neelands & Goode, 2000, p.47 ;Neelands, 2004, p.100).Text-based media formsThe reply message function of these digital forms, particularly the ability toproduce threaded replies in discussion group applications, allows for thealter-ego participant to add their „inner‟ commentary to the surfacecommentary provided by their partner in character. The naming conventionscome into play here, with the ability to select different names to separate themessage posts and to emphasise the roles being played by character andcharacter‟s alter-ego. In a chat or Instant Messaging space, the use of names oraliases to identify the character and their alter-ego would provide an 8
  9. 9. opportunity for a real time commentary by one participant on the other‟smessages.Participatory media formsThe annotation features of many applications can allow for an alter-ego styleexploration of a character‟s inner voice. For example, the character could„speak‟ via a blog entry, while another participant provides a sub-text usingthe comment function. The ability to append comments is also found in mediasharing sites, and may even move beyond text; for example video sharing siteYouTube allows for video comments to be linked to a video clip in addition totext comments. Sub-textual commentary can also be built up through thekeyword tags that are used to describe an online media artefact, for exampleimages in a photo-gallery. Or social bookmarks can be used to comment on acharacter by linking to online resources that can reveal more information oran alternative view. Wiki tools also allow for use of the alter-ego convention,with the sub-text revealed perhaps through edits made to a page, or via acommentary function.Mobile media formsAlthough more awkward than the other text-based forms, SMS can be used toexchange alternating messages, e.g. a statement by a character, followed by astatement from another participant as their inner voice. Alternatively, theSMS message can be used to represent the inner voice of the character,suggestive of the way in which people can use SMS to express feelings orconvey information they may feel awkward about doing in person.Collective characterA character is improvised by the group, with any participant able to speak asthe character. There is no need for conformity in the responses they make,and differences of opinion or attitude allow for group discussion about thecharacter. (Neelands, 2004, p. 101). 9
  10. 10. Text-based media formsA group can speak through these text-based communication forms either bytaking turns at the keyboard, or by sharing a common address or onlinenickname so that messages appear to come from the one character. Theapproach is probably dictated by the physical proximity of the participants.For example, an email or discussion group account can be created to identifya single character, and then the login details shared among members of thegroup who are improvising that character. Some chat and IM software allowsindividual users to share the same nickname or alias.Participatory media formsGames, simulations and virtual worlds often incorporate a stage or process ofcreating an online character to represent each participant (known as anavatar). This is particularly the case in 3D graphic spaces, where theconstruction of the avatar can involve a „paper doll‟ style process of selectingattributes such as physical appearance and clothing. The creation of personalprofiles in social networking sites is also a process similar to charactercreation, in which personal details, physical attributes and likes and dislikescan be shared with others.Mobile media formsThe ways in which a mobile phone can be personalized can be used to definea character. For example, the choice of ringtone, wallpaper and screensaverscan be used as statement of what a characters stands for, or their personalpreferences. Physical customization or accessorizing of the phone, perhapsthrough choice of cover or other embellishments can be used. The choice ofmedia content such as a music or video playlist on a portable media device, orthe images or photos stored as a gallery or slideshow, can be used to suggesta character;s personal characteristics or views. 10
  11. 11. Conflicting adviceA character is offered conflicting advice as to which course of action to take ina given situation. Other participants in character can offer the advice, perhapsas different aspects of the same character‟s internal voice. There can also bedebate between participants. (Neelands, 2004, p 101).Text-based media formsThe discussion group forms accommodate this dramatic convention wherethe ability to thread replies to an initial message would enable participants totrack responses. These online tools, such as forums, are often used in thisQuestion/Answer format as support or advice services.Participatory media formsPublication forms such as blogs or wikis allow for a question or issue to beposed, and then advice offered via comments or edits.Mobile media formsAdvice is shared through a series of SMS or MMS messages betweenparticipants and/or the facilitator.Diaries, letters, journals, messagesInformation is delivered by the facilitator to the whole group or a sub-groupto introduce new ideas, information or tension. Can be written by participantsin or out of character. (Neelands & Goode, 2000, p. 16; Neelands, 2004, p. 102).Text-based media formsAll of the text-based forms provide an opportunity for delivering newinformation to the group, perhaps as an email that has just arrived in theinbox, a new forum post, or a comment made using IM. Similarly these formscan be used by participants to reflect in or out of characters on the drama 11
  12. 12. experience. The archiving nature of the forms can allow for a cumulativeaccount of the work.Participatory media formsThere are a range of media publishing forms that can be used with thisconvention, such as blogs, micro-blogs, podcasts or video messages. Wikipages can supply information. Status or profile updates on social networkingsites can also be used as sources of information.Mobile media formsSMS or MMS messages can be substituted as information sources when usingthis convention.Gossip circleThe behaviour of characters is commented upon as rumours and gossip,which become more distorted as they spread around the circle of participants.(Neelands, 2004, p. 102).Text-based media formsThe forward message function of applications such as email would allow formaterial to be circulated from participant to participant. Discussion groupsand chat/IM can also be used, with each successive message post added to orbuilding upon the previous.Participatory media formsA gossip circle can be formed using the collaborative or annotative toolsfound with many of these media forms. For example, a blog post can becommented upon or shared across other blogs, becoming more and morecommented upon or distanced from the original source.Mobile media forms 12
  13. 13. Forwarded SMS text messages can be used to form the gossip circle.HeadlinesStatements are made in the style of newspaper headlines to focus attention ona particular aspect of the drama. (Neelands, 2004, p 102).Making maps/diagramsParticipants make maps or diagrams within the drama to reflect onexperience or to aid problem solving. (Neelands & Goode, 2000, p 19).Text-based media formsThese forms can be used to share digitized maps or diagrams (as fileattachments) or to provide a communication channel while participants workon related tasks. Online mapping and location services can include an emailfunction that allows a map to be sent to email recipients, along withdirections.Participatory media formsReal mapping data can be incorporated via mashup services such as GoogleMaps or software such as Google Earth. Participants can plot the location ofdramas using these tools, or create their own maps based on or comparedwith such services. Phot sharing sites can be used to share digitized image ormap content, and online maps can be embedded in some forms such as blogposts or wiki pages.Mobile media formsMobile devices that include GPS functionality can be used by participants toincorporate real geo-spatial data (e.g. latitude, longitude, altitude) into thedrama. Geotagging allows for geographical data to be attached to images.GPS-equipped devices can often download maps of areas to be incorporated 13
  14. 14. Objects of character (or Private property)A character is introduced or fleshed-out through consideration of carefullychosen personal belongings. The objects can be „found‟ at any point in thedrama, and can even suggest a contradictory sub-text to their behaviour.(Neelands & Goode, 2000, p 20; Neelands, 2004, p 103).Text-based media formsText messages can form the basis of the found object itself, or contain anobject in digital form as an attached file.Participatory media formsThe metaphor of personal belongings is extended to include digital artifacts inthis digital space. This can include media content, or even virtual objects leftin a game, simulation or virtual world environment. A character can alsoleave behind a set of social bookmarks, or perhaps content and personaldetails in a social networking site.Mobile media formsPrivate property left behind can include the device itself (contextually, it isquite easy to believe that someone can misplace a mobile phone) orpersonalized mobile content such as ringtones,, wallpaper, screensavers,personal greetings on voicemail.Overheard conversationsThe group overhears a „private‟ conversation, allowing for new informationor tension to be introduced. (Neelands & Goode, 2000, p. 37; Neelands, 2004,p. 103).Text-based media formsEmail is a good match here as the ability to reply-all, forward or copy anelectronic message to other recipients lends itself to this dramatic convention. 14
  15. 15. A simple mouse click can „accidentally‟ send content to unintended recipients,thus allowing participants to „eavesdrop‟ on the electronic conversation.Other dramatic opportunities can exist for participants to sneak a look oversomeone‟s shoulder at on-screen messages, to guess a password based ontheir knowledge of a character, or even to „hack‟ a character‟s electronicmessage account to spy on their communications.Participatory media formsThe nature of surveillance (deliberate and incidental) in many cultures todayis such that forms of overheard conversations such as recorded discussions,intercepted documents or security video footage are readily found and sharedonline.Mobile media formsMobile media as a digital capture device for images, sound and video arealready providing a means by which private conversations or activities can bemade public. The nature of mobile phones being used in public spaces alsoprovides a familiar situation in which a conversation – at least one half of it –can be overheard by bystanders.Soundtracking (also Soundscape)Sounds are used to accompany or describe an environment, to create a mood,or can perhaps be taken from one situation to illustrate another. Sounds canbe natural or stylized, live or pre-recorded, and can include dialogue andmusical instruments. (Neelands & Goode, 2000, p 24; Neelands & Goode,2000, p 73).Text-based media formsLimited in their application to this convention, though the ability to attachfiles means most of these forms can be used to distribute and discuss digitalsound files. 15
  16. 16. Participatory media formsMedia content sharing sites can be used to distribute and comment upondigital soundfiles. Blogs and wikis often allow for audio content to beembedded within articles. Sounds can be used within a game, simulation orvirtual world to create an atmosphere or environment. Social Networkingsites can include tools for embedding or sharing sound files, with MySpaceparticularly popular among bands and music fans because of thisfunctionality.Mobile media formsMany of the latest model mobile phones have the capacity to play sound files,either as ringtones or as a media player function. Portable media players suchas Apple‟s iPod are a popular consumer digital device, and most can beconnected to smaller speaker units to be played to a group. Software to recordand edit sound files is availably freely for most computer systems; softwarealso exists to help users create their own mobile phone ringtones. Somephones also include an audio recording feature, either as a note-taker orperhaps as part of recording video.Telephone/radio conversationsUsed to illuminate a situation or to break news or inform. May be two-wayconversations between pairs, or one-way in which the group hear only oneside. . (Neelands & Goode, 2000, p 42; Neelands, 2004, p 104).Text-based media formsOnline archives can contain text transcriptions of telephone or radioconversations. The use of video and audio chat functions within InstantMessaging applications can be adapted for this form. 16
  17. 17. Participatory media formsMedia sharing sites can be used to post audio or video recording of these„conversations‟ for distribution to participants. Podcasting – the syndicationof audio clips using similar technology to that underlying text-based blogging– can be replicated to deliver audio content, particularly archive „radio‟material.Mobile media formsThe mobile telephone simply replaces the landline analogue that a dramafacilitator can use when adopting this convention. Participants are likely toaccept that mobile phone conversations are easily overheard in manyeveryday contexts, establishing a reason within the drama to considerwhether the conversation contains private or public information.Unfinished materialsAn object provides a clue or partial information as a starting point for thedrama. (Neelands & Goode, 2000, p 28; Neelands, 2004, p. 104).Text-based media formsThe facilitator can use dramatic notions such as finding fragments offorwarded messages or unfinished message drafts, or incomplete archivesdue to accidental or deliberate deletions.Participatory media formsCollaborative publishing tools such as a wiki can be used with thisconvention, with participants invited to edit and complete an unfinishedarticle. The edit history and discussion features used by wikis to trackchanges can be brought into play here as clues to the origin of the materials.Video, audio and photographic materials can be made available onlinethrough content sharing sites, with the comment and tagging functions used 17
  18. 18. by participants to discuss the information and build upon it with their owncontributions.Mobile media formsAs with text-based media forms, mobile media content used to establish thedrama can include draft SMS or MMS messages, or media clues such asimages, video or sounds.Conclusion, and moving forwardThis chapter suggests some of the ways in which drama teachers can tap intotheir students‟ real-world experiences with digital and mobile media togenerate contemporary classroom-based drama. Making use of the means ofcultural production familiar and applicable to the participants can reduce theamount of time required to establish the drama, which is an important issuewhen working within the strictures of most educational systems.Further work is required to consider how realistic the digital media formsused or replicated need to be when working with these dramatic conventions.These digital forms often carry meta-information (e.g. Web domain names oremail addresses) that drama participants can scrutinize closely for accuracyand veracity when such forms are used in drama sessions (Carroll &Cameron, 2008). Facilitators need to be wary of this phenomenon whendesigning such resources, or at least be prepared to negotiate a level ofaccepted dramatic fidelity with participants.The use of technology such as mobile phones and social media within thedrama context also emphasises issues of privacy when using user-generated -particularly student generated - content. Teachers and facilitators using thesedigital media forms, particularly the online publishing sites, will need toconsider and develop suitable protocols and conventions for maintaining the 18
  19. 19. safety and privacy of participants, while making use of their rich potential forexciting drama sessions. The use of these media forms in drama contexts canin itself provide a way of discussing and negotiating issues like privacy andappropriate behaviour with young people in a meaningful and productiveway.The combinations of digital media forms and dramatic conventions discussedin the chapter are presented as a selection of elements and ideas thatpractitioners should experiment with to find the recipes that best suit theirindividual contexts. They are not asserted as concrete approaches to practice,but rather are presented here as a means of thinking about the possibleadvantages of mixing established drama forms with new technologies. It ishoped that practitioners will continue to share their experiences of workingwith new and emerging media forms in a range of drama settings.ReferencesBoulter, J. D., & Grusin, R. (1999). Remediation. Cambridge: MIT Press.Carroll, J. (2004). Digital pre-text: Process drama and everyday technology. In C. Hatton & M. Anderson (Eds.), The state of our art: NSW perspectives in educational drama (pp. 66 - 76). Sydney: Currency.Carroll, J., & Cameron, D. (2003). To the Spice Islands: Interactive process drama. Paper presented at the Digital Arts & Culture (DAC) Conference.Carroll, J., & Cameron, D. (2008). Drama, digital pre-text and social media. Research in Drama Education.Ito, M., Davidson, C., Jenkins, H., Lee, C., Eisenberg, M., & Weiss, J. (2008). Foreword. In D. Buckingham (Ed.), Youth, identity, and digital media (pp. vii - ix). Cambridge: MIT press.Jenkins, H. (2006). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century MacArthur Foundation.Lenhart, A., Madden, M., & Hitlin, P. (2005). Teens and technology: Pew Internet & American Life Project.Neelands, J. (2004). Beginning drama 11-14 (2nd ed.). London: David Fulton Publishers.Neelands, J., & Goode, T. (2000). Structuring drama work: A handbook of available forms in theatre and drama (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 19
  20. 20. ONeill, C. (1995). Drama worlds : a framework for process drama. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann.ONeill, C., & Lambert, A. (1982). Drama structures: A practical handbook for teachers. London: Hutchison. 20

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