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Arusha | Jun-14 | Ewan Bloomfield, Village Level Energy Access in East Africa


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The workshop in Arusha explored the East African/Tanzanian environment for village energy, local case studies, challenges and opportunities, with a view to formulating policy recommendations for policymakers, funders, NGOs and other stakeholders the region. An important part of the workshop, and indeed the whole Smart Villages initiative work programme, was to gather evidence from existing projects that have provided or facilitated sustainable off-grid energy solutions in the developing world.The workshop gathered more than 50 experts, including policymakers, NGOs, off-grid energy entrepreneurs and others to look for solutions to providing energy to villages off the grid.

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Arusha | Jun-14 | Ewan Bloomfield, Village Level Energy Access in East Africa

  1. 1. Village Level Energy Access in East Africa Ewan Bloomfield, International Energy Consultant
  2. 2. East Africa Background
  3. 3. East Africa Population 0 10,000,000 20,000,000 30,000,000 40,000,000 50,000,000 60,000,000 Rwanda Uganda Kenya Tanzania East Africa Population Size 66% 68% 70% 72% 74% 76% 78% 80% 82% 84% 86% Tanzania Kenya Rwanda Uganda East Africa Rural Population (%)
  4. 4. East Africa General Energy Access • Over 81% of the East Africa Community’s (EAC) population lives without access to modern energy services. • Less than 30% of households use Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) or an improved cook stove (ICS). • Less than 40% of urban, 5% of rural, households have access to electricity. • Less than 10% of schools, clinics and hospitals in rural areas have access to grid electricity or a sufficient decentralised energy system to meet their needs. • Investments in grid electrification have been far greater than those for clean cooking, decentralised electrification and mechanical power. • Given the potential of various energy resources - biomass, solar, micro- hydro and fossil fuels - greatest need for EAC region is investment.
  5. 5. East Africa Energy Supply Side
  6. 6. East Africa Installed Energy Capacity (MW) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Kenya Tanzania Uganda Rwanda East Africa Installed Energy Capacity (MW)
  7. 7. hydropower 59% geothermal 39% cogeneration 2% wind 0%Kenya Energy Mix Hydro 58% Thermal 42% Tanzania Energy Mix East African Country’s Energy Mix Hydroelectric 59% Thermal 41% Solar 0% Rwanda Energy Mix Hydroelectric 65% Thermal 32% Biomass (bagasse) 3% Uganda Energy Mix
  8. 8. East Africa Potential Energy Capacity (MW) 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 Kenya Energy Potential (MW) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Hydro Geothermal Biomass Wind Solar Installed Tanzania Energy Potential (MW) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Hydro Geothermal Biomass Solar Installed Uganda Energy Potential (MW) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Hydro Geothermal Biogas Installed Rwanda Energy Potential (MW)
  9. 9. East Africa Fossil Fuel Deposits • All 4 East African nations (Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and Rwanda) share common recent history - significant energy resources discovered in last 5 years. • Kenya and Uganda have discovered large oil deposits. • Tanzania has significant natural gas deposits. • Rwanda’s Lake Kivu has huge methane reserves that can, and are, being converted into electricity.
  10. 10. East Africa Rural Energy Use
  11. 11. East Africa Rural Energy Use 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% Tanzania Kenya Rwanda Uganda East Africa Rural Population Using ICS (%) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Kenya Tanzania Uganda Rwanda East Africa Rural Population Using Solid Fuels (%)
  12. 12. East Africa Electrification Rate Ranking 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Kenya Tanzania Uganda Rwanda Ranking of Countries in SSA with Lowest Electrification Rates Country Ranking
  13. 13. East Africa Energy Background • Significant homogeneity of energy issues across the region: o Arising from broad similarities in socio-economic and cultural, and economic development levels. • On-going or initiated regional energy sector reforms leading to: o Formulation and enactment of energy agencies, authorities, acts and policies. o Gradual opening up of energy sector to private sector participation. • Access to biomass fuels becoming increasingly monetised - resources being commercialised, with livelihood implications for rural and urban poor. • Household access to electricity is largely for lighting purposes only. • Lower income groups tend to spend larger portions of their household income on fuel purchasing.
  14. 14. • Household income and fuel purchase patterns reflect global patterns - households tend to move up energy ladder as their disposable incomes rise. • Limited research on impact of increased electrification but is an aspirational commodity. • Most electrical appliances, including light bulbs, radio, mobile phone charger, music players and TV are important to rural and urban residents. • Evidence gap on potential of existing resources - how they can be used for micro-industrial, institutional and household uses, and mechanical power for commercial end-use. East Africa Energy Background
  15. 15. Key Challenges of Rural Energy Access • Limited awareness and exposure to benefits of energy technologies - particularly rural East Africans. • Limited technical capacity particularly in remote areas. • Often high initial investment costs of technologies. • Lack of appropriate and affordable financial services for energy investments. • Lack of ability to calculate life cycle costs of energy options of most East Africans. • Limited political will for rural energy options - also based on limited knowledge. • Highly informal nature of most rural areas which energy programs have tackled to a limited extent.
  16. 16. • Rural end-user perception towards ICS not well established included design, promotion, marketing and quality control of technologies. • Cost saving arguments, especially with firewood stoves, have not been effective when rural households don’t pay for firewood - although now starting to change. • Profitable business case for ICS producers, and other energy technologies, not been established - reliance on subsidies and grants for local producers. • Cost of providing energy access to some areas is very high due to their remoteness, dispersed populations and difficult terrains. • Local communities don’t generate sufficient financial resources to invest in significant energy infrastructure in many remote areas (e.g. mini-grids). Key Challenges of Rural Energy Access
  17. 17. East Africa Energy Policies
  18. 18. East Africa Energy Policy Focus • All 4 East African countries have an entity in charge in Rural Electrification. • The policy and legal framework – laws, policies and regulations - for rural energy in region seem robust. • However, until recently, government-led focus has been on large infrastructure and grid sector energy including thermal, hydro and fossil fuels. • Donor and CSO-led focus has been more on non-thermal, biomass and decentralised energy for households. • Now starting to change.
  19. 19. Kenya Energy Policy • Ministry of Energy and Petroleum responsible - recent name change due to recent discovery of fossil fuels. • Kenya Energy Act (2006) caters mainly for grid hydro electricity. • It provides for the following entities: o Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) o Rural Electrification Authority (REA) o Rural Electrification Programme Fund (REPF) o Energy Tribunal • Act only makes distinction between urban and rural for electrification via the Rural Electrification Authority (REA). • REA mandate is promotion of renewable energy sources - small hydro, wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, hybrid systems and oil fired components and electricity for irrigation and rural income generating. • Under Kenya’s Vision 2030 “Zero Kero” programme, aim is replacing kerosene with alternative fuels such as biogas and liquid biofuels (e.g. bioethanol).
  20. 20. Tanzania Energy Policy • Rural Energy Act of Tanzania (2005) oversees operation and governance of the Rural Energy Board. • Rural Energy Agency (REA) focuses on energy strategy implementation, resource mobilisation, technical assistance and research and development (R&D). • Rural Energy Fund manages provision of grants, technical and financial assistance. • Together 3 entities responsible for promotion of improved access to modern energy services in rural areas of Tanzania. • Act acknowledges - sustainable development achieved when modern rural energy services are promoted, facilitated and supported through private and community initiatives and involvement.
  21. 21. Tanzania Energy Rural Energy Strategy • Role of Government in rural energy service provision - facilitator of activities, with investments made by private and community entities. • Government targeting 30% electricity connectivity by 2015 with 250,000 new customer connections per annum from 2013-17. • Rural Energy Policy, and the Tanzania Energy Development and Access Expansion Program (TEDAP) guides rural electrification. • So far REA has focused on grid extension within rural electrification. • Aims to promote rural productive uses including job creation, stimulation of investment and revenue earnings. • Access to modern energy is key to rural services - particularly health, education, security and water sectors.
  22. 22. Uganda Energy Policy • In Uganda energy lies with the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development (MEMD). • National Energy Policy proposes to meet the energy needs of its population for social and economic development in an environmentally sustainable manner. • Policy framework provides Government’s vision - increased and improved modern energy supply for sustainable economic development as well as improving the quality of life of Ugandan population. • Rural energy overseen by Rural Electrification Agency (REA), although only focuses on electrification (grid extension, mini- grids and stand-alone electrification systems).
  23. 23. Rwanda Energy Policy • Ministry of infrastructure (MININFRA) oversees energy provision in Rwanda. • Under this sits Energy, Water and Sanitation (EWSA). • National Energy Policy and Strategy valid for 2008 until 2012. • Not clear if a new document will be developed for current period. • Its biomass energy strategy documents (BEST) are well established and enacted. • Current programmes on ICS, biogas, solar PV and mini- grids.
  24. 24. East Africa Rural Energy Access
  25. 25. East Africa Rural Household Energy Use • Energy stacking is a key feature, particularly for cooking. • Energy consumption patterns indicate fuel stacking more prevalent than fuel switching in rural areas. • Fuel switching is the main response to increasing incomes in urban areas. • Recent uptake of solar PV lanterns and home systems particularly for mobile phone charging.
  26. 26. Kenya Energy Use • Kenya has a fairly well developed infrastructure, transport and communication networks compared to other East African countries. • Wood fuel provides the majority of energy needs of the rural communities, urban poor, and the informal sector. • Still heavy dependency on wood fuel and charcoal - accounting for 68% of total energy consumption (petroleum 22%, electricity 9%, others account for 1%). • Electricity access in Kenya is low despite the government’s ambitious target to increase electricity connectivity to >65% by 2022. • 10,429 electrified trading centres versus 2,706 non-electrified ones. • 13,135 electrified schools and polytechnics versus 8,195 non- electrified. • 8,195 health centres versus 4,543 non-electrified ones.
  27. 27. Tanzania Energy Use • Tanzania’s energy supply still dependant on biomass. • Since ~90% of population are not connected to electricity grid, majority of households use wood and charcoal for cooking. • As a total, biomass makes up close to 90% of the total primary energy consumption in Tanzania. • Leads to deforestation of 100,000 hectares per year, of which a quarter is reforested. • Below 5% of the rural population use electricity.
  28. 28. Uganda Energy Use • Energy sector is considered key sector in Uganda’s economy. • Energy consumption met by several energy resources including solar, biomass and fossil fuels. • Biomass most important energy source for 97% of population. • Provides 90% of total primary energy consumption (firewood, charcoal and agricultural residues). • Uganda’s biomass dependence is one of Africa’s highest. • Electricity contributes only 1% to the national energy balance - oil products (mainly used for vehicles and thermal power plants) account for the remaining 9%. • Due to recent increase in poverty, significant shift back to non- traded biomass fuels for rural households (from 73% in 1980).
  29. 29. Rwanda Energy Use • Small, landlocked Rwanda is most densely populated country in Africa. • Although GDP has been growing rapidly (currently $1,300 per capita) it still ranks amongst the poorest countries in world. • Approximately 85% of overall primary energy consumption based on biomass. • 99% of all households use biomass for cooking – but virtually all charcoal produced from planted trees, on private as well as community land so limited deforestation impact. • Ambitious government programme to achieve electrification of 16% by 2012 and 60% by 2020 - more than 67% of population live within 5 km of existing electricity networks. • Community service electricity connections: o 21% of schools o 74% of health centres o 67% of administrative offices
  30. 30. East Africa Rural Energy Conclusions and Recommendations
  31. 31. Rural Energy Conclusions • Generally still very low electrification rates in rural areas. • Current very high rates of biomass dependency - need increased effort on efficient and sustainable biomass technologies. • Solar PV technologies have great potential and sector needs further support including larger systems and for productive use (e.g. agricultural irrigation). • Mini-grids have been piloted successfully but models need to be developed to take them to scale. • Mechanical power and productive use of energy - still very underserved and needs greater focus and investment.
  32. 32. Rural Energy Recommendations • East Africa energy policies need to increase focus on rural energy supply - including targets for range of energy markets - solar PV, ICS, mini-grids and mechanical power services – capacity building programmes. • Lessons needs to be learned and shared within the region on a range of technologies and approaches: • Solar PV lantern and SHS programmes (Kenya). • ICS technologies and sustainable biomass supply (Uganda and Rwanda). • Mini-grids (Tanzania). • Innovative distribution, marketing and finance models.