1850s Road to Secession (Newer)


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1850s Road to Secession (Newer)

  1. 1. The 1850s: Road to Secession By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Additional content by Matt López & History Alive!
  2. 2. Problems of Sectional Balance in 1850 <ul><li>California statehood. </li></ul><ul><li>Southern “fire-eaters” threatening secession. </li></ul><ul><li>Underground RR & fugitive slave issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal liberty laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prigg v. Pennsylvania (1842) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Houghton Mifflin Compromise of 1850
  4. 6. Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811 – 1896) So this is the lady who started the Civil War. -- Abraham Lincoln
  5. 7. Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 <ul><li>Sold 300,000 copies in the first year. </li></ul><ul><li>2 million in a decade! </li></ul>
  6. 8. The “Know-Nothings” [The American Party] <ul><li>Nativists. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Catholics. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-immigrants. </li></ul>1849  Secret Order of the Star-Spangled Banner created in NYC.
  7. 9. 1852 Presidential Election √ Franklin Pierce Gen. Winfield Scott John Parker Hale Democrat Whig Free Soil
  8. 10. 1852 Election Results
  9. 11. Docs
  10. 12. Houghton Mifflin Kansas-Nebraska Act Would let people of Kansas and Nebraska decide whether to have slavery or not (popular sovereignty)
  11. 13. Birth of the Republican Party, 1854 <ul><li>Northern Whigs. </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Democrats. </li></ul><ul><li>Free-Soilers. </li></ul><ul><li>Know-Nothings. </li></ul><ul><li>Other miscellaneous opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Republican Platform of 1856 <ul><li>This Convention of Delegates, assembled in pursuance of a call addressed to the people of the United States, without regard to past political differences or divisions, who are opposed to the repeal of the Missouri Compromise; to the policy of the present Administration; to the extension Slavery into Free Territory; in favor of the admission of Kansas as a Free State; of restoring the action of the Federal Government to the principles of Washington and Jefferson; and for the purpose of presenting candidates for the offices of President and Vice-President, do… </li></ul>
  13. 15. Documents 1-5
  14. 16. Review <ul><li>Kansas-Nebraska Act… </li></ul>
  15. 18. “ Bleeding Kansas”
  16. 19. http://www.cs.cornell.edu/nystrom/images/Antietam/fullsize/hf-john-brown.jpg John Brown Murders five pro-slavery settlers in Kansas Flees to Canada
  17. 20. “ The Crime Against Kansas” Sen. Charles Sumner (R-MA) Congr. Preston Brooks (D-SC)
  18. 22. 1856 Presidential Election James Buchanan John C. Frémont Millard Fillmore Democrat Republican American (Know Nothing) / Whig
  19. 24. Dred Scott Sued his master saying he should be free
  20. 26. <ul><li>Causes? </li></ul><ul><li>Effects? </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton prices remain stable </li></ul><ul><li>Attempted Homestead Act </li></ul><ul><li>Desire for higher tariff </li></ul>Panic of 1857
  21. 27. <ul><li>http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/gal/chs30367.html#about and http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/gal/chs30368.html </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln & Douglas Debates 1858 </li></ul><ul><li>Running for senator from Illinois </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly focused on slavery </li></ul>
  22. 28. Douglas’ Freeport Doctrine <ul><li>Supreme Court ruling on slavery didn’t necessarily matter </li></ul><ul><li>Territorial legislatures could refuse to enact the type of police regulations necessary to make slavery work </li></ul><ul><li>Without a legal framework and enforcement officials, slavery would be excluded </li></ul>
  23. 29. <ul><li>Republican Party </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Lincoln </li></ul><ul><li>New party </li></ul><ul><li>No more new slave states </li></ul>
  24. 30. “ A house divided against itself can not stand”
  25. 31. <ul><li>  In my opinion, it will not cease until a crisis shall have been reached and passed. &quot;A house divided against itself cannot stand.&quot; I believe this government cannot endure, permanently, half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved; I do not expect the house to fall; but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other. Either the opponents of slavery will arrest the further spread of it and place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in the course of ultimate extinction, or its advocates will push it forward till it shall become alike lawful in all the states, old as well as new, North as well as South </li></ul>
  26. 32. http://www.cs.cornell.edu/nystrom/images/Antietam/fullsize/hf-john-brown.jpg John Brown Led a raid on federal arsenal to steal guns to arms slaves http://www.history.com/shows/america-the-story-of-us/videos/playlists/exclusive-video#john-brown
  27. 33. 1860 Election Abraham Lincoln Republican John Bell Constitutional Union Stephen A. Douglas Northern Democrat John C. Breckinridge Southern Democrat
  28. 34. Republican Party Platform 1860 Non-extension of slavery (for Free-Soilers) Protective tariff (for the N. Industrialists) No abridgment of rights for immigrants (a disappointment for the “Know-Nothings”) Government aid to build a Pacific RR (for the Northwest) Internal improvements at federal expense. (for the West) Free homesteads for the public domain (for farmers)
  29. 35. 1860 Election: 3 “Outs” & 1 ”Run!”
  30. 36. 1860 Election: A Nation Coming Apart?!
  31. 38. Crittenden Compromise: A Last Ditch Appeal to Sanity Senator John J. Crittenden (Know-Nothing-KY)
  32. 39. Secession!: SC  Dec. 20, 1860
  33. 41. Fort Sumter: April 12, 1861