T he S econd Great A wakening:
F oundation of R eform
“Spiritual Reform From Within”
Social Reforms & Redefining the
Ideal of Equality
The Second Great Awakening leads to Reform as
Christians become aware of the effects of certain
behaviors on society. Many of the leaders were
Factory workers’ rights and treatment. Child labor
The limiting of alcohol consumption (Drinking)
Separating men/women/children/mentally ill/debtors
To do away with slavery.
Women’s Rights Suffrage (voting), property , education,
Making education public and available to all children
to create a smarter workforce.
Charles G. F inney
(1 – 1
The ranges of tents, the fires,
reflecting light…; the candles
and lamps illuminating the
encampment; hundreds moving to
and fro…; the preaching, praying,
singing, and shouting, … like the
sound of many waters, was
enough to swallow up all the
powers of contemplation.
He believed women should pray aloud
in church; he was a supporter of
temperance and abolition.
Which 2 denominations experience the greatest
N ew R eligious
D enominations also begin as a
T he M ormons
(The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints)
e 1830 --> Book of Mormon
5. W omen’s R ights
e A woman’s “sphere” was in the home (it was a
refuge from the cruel world outside).
e Her role was to “civilize” her husband and
e An 1830s MA minister:
“The power of woman is her dependence. A
woman who gives up that dependence on man to
become a reformer yields the power God has given
her for her protection, and her character
1. Couldn’t make wills, sign a
contract, or bring suit in court
without her husband’s permission.
2. Unable to vote.
3. Legal status of a minor.
4. Single could own her own
5. Married no control over her
property or her children.
6. Could not initiate divorce.
W hat I t W ould B e Like I f
Ladies H ad T heir O wn W ay!
The 2nd Great Awakening inspired women
to improve society.
e Southern Abolitionists
e American Women’s
e edited Woman’s Journal
1840 --> split in the abolitionist movement
over women’s role in it.
London --> World Anti-Slavery Convention
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
1848 --> Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
6. T ranscendentalism
(E uropean R omanticism)
e “Liberation from understanding and
the cultivation of reasoning.”
e “Transcend” the limits of intellect
and allow the emotions, the SOUL,
to create an original relationship
with the Universe.
T ranscendentalist I ntellectuals/ W riters
Concord, M A
Resistance to Civil
T he A nti- T ranscendentalist:
N athaniel H awthorne (1 1
e pursuit of the ideal led to a
distorted view of human
nature and possibilities:
* The Blithedale Romance
e accept the world as an
* Scarlet Letter
* House of the Seven
7. E ducational R eform
always on the forefront of public
* 1st state to establish tax support for
local public schools.
1860 every state offered free public
education to whites.
* US had one of the highest literacy rates.
H orace M ann (1 1
e children were clay in the hands
of teachers and school officials
e children should be “molded”
into a state of perfection
e discouraged corporal punishment
e established state teachertraining programs
P urpose of E ducation?
According to reformers, what was the purpose
What is the purpose of education today?
What are some differences between 19th
century schools and 21st century schools?
Factories continued to spread in the 1800s
A wave of immigration in the 1840s brought in new
people willing to work for low pay.
Skilled workers faced low wages, long hours, and
the fear of losing their jobs.
Many workers formed trade unions to improve pay
and working conditions.
Sarah G. Bagley was one of the
strongest voices in the union
Founded the Lowell Female
Labor Reform Association in
Fought for a 10-hour work day
instead of 12-14 hours.
Legacy of R eform
•How did these reformers change America?
•What reforms (if any) do you see evidence of
in America today?
•Are they similar or different from those in the