Chapter 11 NotesChapter 11 NotesToday’s Issues: Latin AmericaToday’s Issues: Latin America
Its colonial past has left Latin AmericaIts colonial past has left Latin Americawith long-term problems, includingwith long-term problems, includingenvironmental crises, politicalenvironmental crises, politicalinstability, poverty and crime.instability, poverty and crime.
Rain ForestsRain Forests Rain Forests have greatRain Forests have greatbiodiversitybiodiversity--• Wide range of plant & animalWide range of plant & animalspeciesspecies• Cover 6% of earth but are home toCover 6% of earth but are home to50% of earth’s species50% of earth’s species
Slash and BurnSlash and Burn As the region becomes more populated,As the region becomes more populated,more room is needed for land and farmsmore room is needed for land and farms Slash-&-Burn Farming-Slash-&-Burn Farming- cut down trees,cut down trees,brush, grasses, and then burn the debrisbrush, grasses, and then burn the debris• Effective method in tropical regionsEffective method in tropical regions• Leading to destruction of rain forestsLeading to destruction of rain forests
DeforestationDeforestation Deforestation-Deforestation- cuttingcuttingdown & clearing of treesdown & clearing of trees• Major problem in the rainMajor problem in the rainforests of the worldforests of the world• Why are they cut down?Why are they cut down?• Global Warming?Global Warming?
Global Warming?Global Warming? Global Warming & RainGlobal Warming & RainForests-Forests-• Absorb carbon dioxide fromAbsorb carbon dioxide fromatmosphereatmosphere• As they are cut down,As they are cut down,carbon dioxide then buildscarbon dioxide then buildsup in the atmosphereup in the atmosphere• Causing temps. to riseCausing temps. to rise
Rain ForestRain ForestPreservationPreservation Rain Forest PreservationRain Forest Preservation• Environmentalists have programs such asEnvironmentalists have programs such as debt-for-debt-for-nature swap-nature swap- Environmental organizations agree to pay off part of aEnvironmental organizations agree to pay off part of agovernments debt in order to protect part of the rain forestgovernments debt in order to protect part of the rain forest
Political Instability and PovertyPolitical Instability and Poverty
Government and SocialGovernment and SocialDivideDivide After the Spanish Conquest,After the Spanish Conquest,most of Latin America wasmost of Latin America wasruled by Spanish colonists,ruled by Spanish colonists,this is known as rule by thethis is known as rule by thefew, orfew, or oligarchy.oligarchy.• Limited rights & freedomsLimited rights & freedoms
Military GovernmentsMilitary Governments If this didn’t work then theIf this didn’t work then thegovernment would be run bygovernment would be run bygenerals, this is known as agenerals, this is known as ajuntajunta..
The CaudilloThe Caudillo CaudilloCaudillo- military- militarydictator of Latin Americadictator of Latin America• Existed mainly during theExisted mainly during the2020ththCenturyCentury• Most famous would beMost famous would beJuan Peron of ArgentinaJuan Peron of Argentina• Supported by wealthy &Supported by wealthy &militarymilitary
Struggle Between Rich and PoorStruggle Between Rich and Poor The Caudillo caused manyThe Caudillo caused manyproblems for theirproblems for theircountries.countries. Many times, they oftenMany times, they oftenonly paid attention to theonly paid attention to theneeds of the rich andneeds of the rich andwealthy who supportedwealthy who supportedthem.them. This left the commonThis left the commonpeople to suffer.people to suffer. There is a great divideThere is a great dividebetween rich and poor.between rich and poor.
Struggle Between Rich and PoorStruggle Between Rich and Poor According to the UnitedAccording to the UnitedNations, the gapNations, the gapbetween the rich andbetween the rich andpoor in Latin America ispoor in Latin America isthe largest in the world.the largest in the world. The top 20% of theThe top 20% of thewealthiest people holdwealthiest people hold57% of all resources.57% of all resources. Urbanization is rampantUrbanization is rampantas many people haveas many people haveflocked to cities lookingflocked to cities lookingfor jobs.for jobs. This, in fact, leads toThis, in fact, leads tomore rampant poverty.more rampant poverty. In some places such asIn some places such asBrazil, upwards of 50%Brazil, upwards of 50%of the population isof the population isliving in impoverishedliving in impoverishedconditions.conditions.
Drug TradeDrug Trade TheThe illegal drug tradeillegal drug tradein Latin Americain Latin Americaconcerns primarily theconcerns primarily theproduction and export toproduction and export tothe United States andthe United States andEurope of cocaine, meth,Europe of cocaine, meth,marijuana and heroin.marijuana and heroin. While drug use isWhile drug use isrelatively low in Latinrelatively low in LatinAmerican countries, drugAmerican countries, drugtrafficking has increasedtrafficking has increasedin recent years.in recent years.
Drug TradeDrug Trade Columbia produces mostly opiumColumbia produces mostly opiumand cocaine, Jamaica producesand cocaine, Jamaica producesmarijuana and Mexico producesmarijuana and Mexico producesboth.both. 90% of cocaine and 80% of90% of cocaine and 80% ofmeth enters the U.S. via Mexico.meth enters the U.S. via Mexico.
Drug TradeDrug Trade Mexican and Columbian drugMexican and Columbian drugcartels generate around $39cartels generate around $39billion a year in revenue.billion a year in revenue. Mexican cartels are currentlyMexican cartels are currentlyconsidered the "greatestconsidered the "greatestorganized crime threat" toorganized crime threat" tothe United States.the United States. Though many efforts haveThough many efforts havebeen made to stop drugbeen made to stop drugtrafficking, its seems thetrafficking, its seems thebusiness is too lucrative tobusiness is too lucrative toever eliminate it completely.ever eliminate it completely.
Drug TradeDrug Trade As a result of theAs a result of theconcentration of drugconcentration of drugtrafficking, Latin America andtrafficking, Latin America andthe Caribbean has the worldsthe Caribbean has the worldshighest crime rates, withhighest crime rates, withmurder reaching 32.6 permurder reaching 32.6 per100,000 of population in100,000 of population in2008.2008. Violence has surged in MexicoViolence has surged in Mexicosince 2006 when the Mexicansince 2006 when the MexicanPresident intensified thePresident intensified theMexican Drug War.Mexican Drug War. In total, Mexico’s drug warIn total, Mexico’s drug warhas claimed 50,000 lives.has claimed 50,000 lives.
Ciudad JuarezCiudad Juarez Ciudad Juarez is Mexico’sCiudad Juarez is Mexico’sdeadliest city due to drugdeadliest city due to drugtrafficking and drug wars.trafficking and drug wars. This city is home to widespreadThis city is home to widespreadpoverty and violence.poverty and violence. Some researchers have predictedSome researchers have predictedover 5,000 murders will occur inover 5,000 murders will occur inCiudad Juarez alone in 2011.Ciudad Juarez alone in 2011. This is 10x worse than the mostThis is 10x worse than the mostmurderous cities in the U.S.murderous cities in the U.S. Such violence has changed theSuch violence has changed theway of life.way of life. People now stay indoors more often for fearPeople now stay indoors more often for fearof kidnapping or random violence.of kidnapping or random violence.
Ciudad JuarezCiudad Juarez While more police andWhile more police andmilitary personnel are in themilitary personnel are in theregion, the violence persists.region, the violence persists. In 2008, Police Chief MajorIn 2008, Police Chief MajorCastro and several otherCastro and several otherpolice officers werepolice officers wereabducted by heavily armedabducted by heavily armedmen.men. Three days later, hisThree days later, hisdecapitated body anddecapitated body andsevered head were dumpedsevered head were dumpedin front of the police station.in front of the police station.
Pablo EscobarPablo Escobar Pablo Escobar was perhapsPablo Escobar was perhapsthe most famous drug lord.the most famous drug lord. He was the head of theHe was the head of thefamousfamous Colombian MedellinColombian MedellinCartelCartel in the 1970’s andin the 1970’s and1980’s and was mainly1980’s and was mainlyresponsible for the large scaleresponsible for the large scaleintroduction of the drugintroduction of the drugcocainecocaine to the United States.to the United States. It was said he wasIt was said he wasresponsible for 80% of allresponsible for 80% of allcocaine trafficked to the U.S.cocaine trafficked to the U.S.
Pablo EscobarPablo Escobar He started at 20 years oldHe started at 20 years oldby buying coca paste andby buying coca paste andrefining it into cocaine.refining it into cocaine. Soon thereafter, he wasSoon thereafter, he wasmaking billions of dollars.making billions of dollars. His fortune was endless.His fortune was endless. He owned many largeHe owned many largeestates with mansions, hisestates with mansions, hisown personal zoo, airstrips,own personal zoo, airstrips,warehouses for productionwarehouses for productionand an army of hardenedand an army of hardenedsoldiers and criminals.soldiers and criminals. He even owned his ownHe even owned his ownsoccer team team/club!soccer team team/club!
Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar madeColombian drug lord Pablo Escobar madeso much money that he spent $2,500 aso much money that he spent $2,500 amonth on rubber bands to bundle up hismonth on rubber bands to bundle up hisstacks of cash.stacks of cash.
Pablo EscobarPablo Escobar Escobar’s ruthlessness wasEscobar’s ruthlessness waslegendary.legendary. His rise was opposed byHis rise was opposed bymany honest politicians,many honest politicians,judges and policemen, whojudges and policemen, whodid not like the growingdid not like the growinginfluence of this street thug.influence of this street thug. However, Escobar had aHowever, Escobar had asaying on how to deal withsaying on how to deal withthis, “plata o plomo”.this, “plata o plomo”. What do you think heWhat do you think hemeant by this?meant by this?
Pablo EscobarPablo Escobar Escobar wasEscobar wasalways ready foralways ready forwar and he had anwar and he had anarmy to back himarmy to back himup.up. Killing was just anKilling was just anaverage day foraverage day forhim.him.
Pablo EscobarPablo Escobar Despite his ruthlessness,Despite his ruthlessness,Escobar also had a soft side.Escobar also had a soft side. He often made time for thoseHe often made time for thosehe loved, especially hishe loved, especially hischildren.children. He also reached out to theHe also reached out to thecommunity and gave back.community and gave back. He spent millions on parks,He spent millions on parks,schools, stadiums, churchesschools, stadiums, churchesand even housing for theand even housing for thepoorest people of hispoorest people of hishometown of Medellín.hometown of Medellín. In a way, he was like theIn a way, he was like theColombian Robin Hood.Colombian Robin Hood.
Pablo EscobarPablo Escobar According toAccording to ForbesForbesMagazineMagazine, at the height of, at the height ofhis power in the midhis power in the mid1980’s, Escobar was the 71980’s, Escobar was the 7ththrichest man in the world.richest man in the world. He was worth around $24He was worth around $24billion.billion. He was more powerful thanHe was more powerful thanmany political leaders.many political leaders. He could order the murderHe could order the murderof anyone, anytime.of anyone, anytime.
Pablo EscobarPablo Escobar Being one of the mostBeing one of the mostruthless and powerfulruthless and powerfulpeople in the world alsopeople in the world alsohas it’s drawbacks.has it’s drawbacks. He was a wanted man byHe was a wanted man bymany, including the Unitedmany, including the UnitedStates.States. In 1991, the U.S. called forIn 1991, the U.S. called forhis arrest and to behis arrest and to beextradited.extradited. A massive manhunt wasA massive manhunt wasorganized and Escobarorganized and Escobarwent into hiding.went into hiding.
Pablo EscobarPablo Escobar In late 1992, there wereIn late 1992, there weremany organizationsmany organizationslooking for Escobar,looking for Escobar,including a U.S. trainedincluding a U.S. trainedColombian Task ForceColombian Task Forceas well as rival cartels.as well as rival cartels. In 1993, using U.S.In 1993, using U.S.security technology,security technology,Escobar was located atEscobar was located ata house in Medellin.a house in Medellin. The task force moved inThe task force moved into apprehend him butto apprehend him butEscobar fought back.Escobar fought back.
Pablo EscobarPablo Escobar There was a shootout and Escobar wasThere was a shootout and Escobar wasgunned down as he tried to escape on thegunned down as he tried to escape on therooftop of the house.rooftop of the house.
Pablo EscobarPablo Escobar With Escobar gone, theWith Escobar gone, theMedellín Cartel quickly lostMedellín Cartel quickly lostpower.power. However, more drug cartelsHowever, more drug cartelsrose up to take it’s place.rose up to take it’s place. While he is gone, many peopleWhile he is gone, many peopleare still fascinated andare still fascinated andintrigued by one of the mostintrigued by one of the mostpowerful crime lords in history.powerful crime lords in history. And while some peopleAnd while some peopleconsidered him evil, othersconsidered him evil, othersloved him and often visit hisloved him and often visit hisgrave out of respect.grave out of respect.