Chapter 12 NotesPhysical Geography of Europe:The Peninsula of Peninsulas
Landforms of Europe• Europe is composed of many peninsulas and islands.• Europe’s landforms also include large plains and mountain ranges.
Landforms of Europe • “Peninsula of Peninsulas”- Europe is a large peninsula of Asia, plus there are many peninsulas jutting out from it also.
Northern Peninsulas Northern Peninsulas: • 1. Scandinavian Peninsula occupied by Norway & Sweden • 2. Jutland Peninsula forms the largest part of Denmark & a small part of Germany.
Fjords • Fjords- U-shaped valleys that connect to the sea, & filled with seawater after glaciers melted. – Created by glaciers – Common in Norway
Southern Peninsulas Southern Peninsulas • 1. Iberian Peninsula is home to Spain & Portugal • 2. Italian Peninsula is home to Italy. • 3. Balkan Peninsula is bordered by the Adriatic, Mediterranean, & Aegean Seas.
Islands • European Islands- Iceland, Greenland, Ireland, Great Britain, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Ibiza, & Crete
Mountains• Mountain Chains of Europe- – Alps, Pyrenees, Apennine, Balkan, Caucuses and Ural Mountains
The Alps• The Alps are Europe’s most famous mountain chain – arc across France, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, & the northern Balkan Peninsula. – Cuts off Italy from the rest of Europe
The Pyrenees and Apennine Mtns. • Pyrenees Mountains create a natural border between France and Spain and the Iberian Peninsula • The Apennine Mountains divide the Italian Peninsula between east & west.
The Balkan Mountains • Balkan Mountains block off the Balkan Peninsula from Europe. • The Caucuses Mountains form a natural barrier between Europe and Asia to the south
The Ural Mountains• The Ural Mountains form a natural barrier between Europe and Asia.
Rivers• Throughout Europe there is a network of rivers.• They transport goods between coastal harbors & inland region, aiding economic growth.
Rivers• The Danube River touches 9 countries over its 1,771 mile length, it links Europeans to the Black sea.• The Rhine River has served as a watery highway for centuries. It flows 820 miles from the interior of Europe north to the north sea.• The Seine River is a major river and commercial waterway that flows through Paris and the country of France.• These and many other rivers connect Europeans and encourage trade and travel
Rivers• The River Thames is a major river that flows through southern England, specifically London.
RiversThe Volga River is longest river in Europe. – 15th longest in the world – -flows 2,300 miles south from Moscow – carries 60% of Russia’s river traffic – Empties into the Caspian Sea
Oceans and Seas• Europe is also surrounded by oceans and seas.• In fact, most places in Europe are only about 100 miles from an ocean or sea.• The Atlantic Ocean lies to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the North.• Major seas include the sunny Mediterranean Sea, the frigid North and Baltic Seas and the prosperous Black Sea.
Oceans and Seas • The North Sea is home to many oil rigs but is very turbulent and dangerous sea. • The frigid Baltic Sea is important as it is the only access to the sea for Russia, Poland and other small countries.• The Black Sea is a large sea that connects Europe and Asia through trade networks. The Danube River flows into the Black Sea.
Mediterranean Sea• The Mediterranean Sea is Europe’s largest and most important sea.• It is still a major trade network, as it was in ancient times.• Many waterways are linked such as the Atlantic Ocean, Black Sea and many rivers.• It’s name literally translates to “Middle Earth” in Latin. Medi meaning middle and terra meaning earth.
Fertile Plains• Northern European Plain is the most fertile agricultural regions of the world. It stretches a huge curve across parts of France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, & Poland.• Relatively flat, very desirable agricultural land, but the plain’s flatness has also allowed armies & groups of invaders to use it as an open route.• Other, smaller, fertile farming plains: – Sweden, Hungary, northern Italy’s Lombardy
Europe’s Climate• Much of Europe has a relatively mild climate because of ocean currents and warm winds.• Eastern Europe has a harsher climate because it is farther from the Atlantic Ocean.
Europe’s Climate• North Atlantic Drift- current of warm water from the tropics – Prevailing westerlies pick up warmth from this and helps give Europe a mild climate
Europe’s Climate Types• Marine west coast climate - warm summers, cool winters throughout most of Northern & West Central Europe because of closeness to the Atlantic Oceans & the North Sea. – Spain, France, Germany, British Isles, coastal Scandinavia
Europe’s Climate Types• Mediterranean climate: hot, dry summers; mild, wet winters – Italy, Greece and southern Spain, France
Europe’s Climate Types• Tundra climate in far northern Scandinavia, along Arctic Circle – permafrost with no trees, only mosses, lichens• South of tundra is subarctic climate: cool with cold, harsh winters