Chapter 11
 The Sahara, in northern Africa, is
the biggest desert in the world.
The desert is very dry therefore,
farming is almost ...
 Tropical rainforests
cover less than 5% of
the land. The rainforests
have thick vegetation
and a heavy amount of
rain wh...
 As a result of the different climate regions, different
people will settle the land in certain areas.
 About 2700 B.C.E., civilization along the Nile
was growing
 Traded with Egypt, incorporated a lot of
Egyptian culture, ...
 The rulers of the Nubian
kingdom of Kush accepted
many traditions and ideas
from Egypt.
 The Nubians began to build
pyr...
 So close to the
Mediterranean—who is
nearby?
 Carthage was a major
trading city, until the Punic
Wars
 After Punic War...
 Eventually, Muslim
traders made their
way into North
Africa from the
Middle East.
 Muslim traders
introduce camels to
t...
 In the 700’s, Muslims
from the Middle East
started to conquer and
occupy North Africa.
 Gradually, Islam
became the dom...
 As a result of the desertification of North
Africa, people migrated to find new farmland.
 These people were known as t...
 Salt was very rare in most of
Africa, but was highly valued
 Need salt to retain water, preserve
food
 The Sahara in N...
 Mansa Musa was the strongest ruler of
Mali (Western Africa), came to power in
1312 C.E.
 He spread control of gold and ...
 He conquered a lot of regions, and
eventually converted to Islam
 He became a devout Muslim and he
based much of his la...
 Western African’s
would trade with
Muslims from North
Africa in great
trading centers such
as Timbuktu.
 Muslims introd...
 By 1400, Mali had grown weak
 In 1460, the Songhai started to gain power,
with a new capital in Gao
 Developed along t...
 Songhai was invaded by Moroccans who
wanted to control the salt and gold trade
 Songhai had no guns or new technology, ...
Moving to East Africa!
 Aksum- powerful trading
civilization from circa 100-
1100’s A.D.
 Crossroads of major trading
routes & civilization
 C...
 Axum became a Christian kingdom in the
300s.
 At first, this helped strengthen trade ties with
other Christian countrie...
 Many smaller kingdoms grew on the East Coast
of Africa, trading with the rest of the Eastern
Hemisphere (Arabia, Persia,...
 While many African’s
converted to Islam and others
remained traditional, some
mixed the influences.
 One of these mixed...
 Eventually, the kingdom
of Aksum fell and gave
way to the Kingdom of
Ethiopia.
 Many people Ethiopia
did not convert to...
 King Lalibela of Ethiopia had a
vision Jerusalem (which was under
Muslim control at the time) in a
dream.
 He then orde...
 In southeast Africa the gold
and ivory trade helped people
grow wealthy and establish a
big city around 1000 C.E.
known ...
 East Africans had an
extensive trade network.
 They traded with Europe,
the Middle East, India
and even as far as
China...
Kingdoms and trading_states_of_africa
Kingdoms and trading_states_of_africa
Kingdoms and trading_states_of_africa
Kingdoms and trading_states_of_africa
Kingdoms and trading_states_of_africa
Kingdoms and trading_states_of_africa
Kingdoms and trading_states_of_africa
Kingdoms and trading_states_of_africa
Kingdoms and trading_states_of_africa
Kingdoms and trading_states_of_africa
Kingdoms and trading_states_of_africa
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Kingdoms and trading_states_of_africa

  1. 1. Chapter 11
  2. 2.  The Sahara, in northern Africa, is the biggest desert in the world. The desert is very dry therefore, farming is almost impossible.  The Sahara is largest desert in world; name means “desert” in Arabic  It stretches 3,000 miles from the Atlantic to the Red Sea; 1,200 miles north to south  temperatures as high as 136 degrees in summer, freezing at night  The desert is very dry therefore, farming is almost impossible.
  3. 3.  Tropical rainforests cover less than 5% of the land. The rainforests have thick vegetation and a heavy amount of rain which makes it very moist.  Africa’s largest and most populated climate zone is the savanna, or grassy plains. The savanna generally has good soil and enough rainfall to support farming.
  4. 4.  As a result of the different climate regions, different people will settle the land in certain areas.
  5. 5.  About 2700 B.C.E., civilization along the Nile was growing  Traded with Egypt, incorporated a lot of Egyptian culture, modeled their society on Egyptians  Eventually had to leave their region in Egypt and return south when Assyrians took over Egypt
  6. 6.  The rulers of the Nubian kingdom of Kush accepted many traditions and ideas from Egypt.  The Nubians began to build pyramids, to worship Egyptian gods, to wear Egyptian clothing, and to use a form of writing that was similar to the writing used in Egypt.  Despite their similarities, the Nubians were rivals and threatened the Egyptian empire.
  7. 7.  So close to the Mediterranean—who is nearby?  Carthage was a major trading city, until the Punic Wars  After Punic Wars, Rome took over North Africa. Built roads, aqueducts, dams, cities  Also spread Christianity, used Africans for Roman soldiers
  8. 8.  Eventually, Muslim traders made their way into North Africa from the Middle East.  Muslim traders introduce camels to traverse across the Sahara.  Much of Northern Africa converts to Islam.
  9. 9.  In the 700’s, Muslims from the Middle East started to conquer and occupy North Africa.  Gradually, Islam became the dominant religion and Arabic was the main language spoken.  The Muslims built large mosques and universities in Eastern and Northern Africa.
  10. 10.  As a result of the desertification of North Africa, people migrated to find new farmland.  These people were known as the Bantus were West African farmers and herders who migrated about 2000 years ago!  This is a key event in African history.  Look at the Bantu migrations on the map  Where did they go?  They spoke Bantu language.  They spread their knowledge about farming, ironworking, domesticating animals as well as the culture and language.  Bantu influence is still around, in fact, hundreds of languages in Africa are based on Bantu.
  11. 11.  Salt was very rare in most of Africa, but was highly valued  Need salt to retain water, preserve food  The Sahara in Northern Africa had lots of salt  Western Africa (Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal) had almost no salt, but lots of gold.  In fact, up until the 1300’s, 60% of the world’s gold came from Ghana!  Many times, they would trade a pound of gold for a pound of salt!
  12. 12.  Mansa Musa was the strongest ruler of Mali (Western Africa), came to power in 1312 C.E.  He spread control of gold and salt regions, and became very wealthy  Where trade routes intersected, big cities like Timbuktu arose
  13. 13.  He conquered a lot of regions, and eventually converted to Islam  He became a devout Muslim and he based much of his law on the Quran  Did not force Islam on his people, but promoted religious freedom and tolerance  Built mosques in Timbuktu  In 1324, made the hajj to Mecca, and started good relationships with other Muslim states  Because of his hajj, he introduced new ideas and education from all over:  Brought back Scholars, Judges, Doctors, Religious leaders, better business practices, increased trade, technology, etc.
  14. 14.  Western African’s would trade with Muslims from North Africa in great trading centers such as Timbuktu.  Muslims introduced written language, coins, business methods, technology, etc. to the west.  Some people (not all) adopted Islam. Timbuktu was built where trade routes intersected and was once a very prosperous trading center.
  15. 15.  By 1400, Mali had grown weak  In 1460, the Songhai started to gain power, with a new capital in Gao  Developed along the Niger River  Did not initially adopt Islam, but later became an Islamic state in 1492  Had very organized government  Like Mansa Musa, leaders went to Mecca, formed good relationships and built mosques and schools to study the Quran
  16. 16.  Songhai was invaded by Moroccans who wanted to control the salt and gold trade  Songhai had no guns or new technology, and were quickly wiped out by the Moroccans  How did Moroccan Muslims get guns?  When Songhai fell, it was the end of 1,000 years of powerful kingdoms in West Africa
  17. 17. Moving to East Africa!
  18. 18.  Aksum- powerful trading civilization from circa 100- 1100’s A.D.  Crossroads of major trading routes & civilization  Controlled the Nile’s trade routes as well the route from the Red Sea to North Africa  This made them rich!  Gold, ivory, animal skins, perfumes, slaves were traded with Mediterranean and Southwest Asia
  19. 19.  Axum became a Christian kingdom in the 300s.  At first, this helped strengthen trade ties with other Christian countries.  When Islam began spreading across North Africa in the 600s, however, Axum became isolated and lost power.  Civil war and economic decline combined to weaken Axum
  20. 20.  Many smaller kingdoms grew on the East Coast of Africa, trading with the rest of the Eastern Hemisphere (Arabia, Persia, China, India…)  Swahili developed as a need for communication arose between Africans and people from Arabia  “Swahili”  “of the coast”
  21. 21.  While many African’s converted to Islam and others remained traditional, some mixed the influences.  One of these mixed cultures is Swahili.  Swahili developed as a need for communication arose between Africans and people from the Middle East.  “Swahili”  “of the coast”  Swahili language is a mix of traditional African and Arabic.
  22. 22.  Eventually, the kingdom of Aksum fell and gave way to the Kingdom of Ethiopia.  Many people Ethiopia did not convert to Islam, instead they kept Christianity as their main religion.  This isolates Ethiopia from their neighbors in North Africa, but creates a unique culture.
  23. 23.  King Lalibela of Ethiopia had a vision Jerusalem (which was under Muslim control at the time) in a dream.  He then ordered the building of many churches to help build a “New Jerusalem”.  Many of the churches are carved right out of stone in the sides of cliffs.  No one really knows how it was done as records have been lost.  He simply is quoted as saying that he “carved these churches out of stone with only the help of angels.”
  24. 24.  In southeast Africa the gold and ivory trade helped people grow wealthy and establish a big city around 1000 C.E. known as Greater Zimbabwe.  The city included great stone buildings, and its people mined gold and traded goods across the Indian Ocean.  Greater Zimbabwe became a powerful economic, political and religious center during it’s time.
  25. 25.  East Africans had an extensive trade network.  They traded with Europe, the Middle East, India and even as far as China!  Chinese porcelain has been found in places like Greater Zimbabwe.

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