Introduction The Industrial Revolution saw a shift from an economy based on farming and handicrafts to an economy based on manufacturing by machines and industrial factories.
The Cottage Industry Before industrialization, much of the work such as spinning and weaving cotton into cloth was done by individuals in their own home. This is known as the cottage industry.
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution first began in Great Britain in the 1750s. The Industrial Revolution spread to other parts of the world at different speeds. Belgium, France and Germany were quick to industrialize. The Industrial Revolution also hit the United States and greatly effected the growing nation.
Industrial Revolution Industrialization is the move to machine production of goods. Britain became the world’s greatest industrial nation. Improved farming methods increased the food supply, which drove food prices down and gave families more money for manufactured goods. The increased food supply also supported a growing population.
Mechanization During the first half of the 19th century, the European manufacturing process shifted from small-scale production by hand at home to large-scale production by machine in a factory setting. Factories — buildings that contain machinery for manufacturing New inventions made it more efficient to bring workers to the factories. Use of machines to do work is called mechanization. The cottage industry was no longer efficient.
Great Britain in the Industrial Revolution Britain had abundant natural resources and a supply of markets, in part because of its colonial empire (American Colonies). Great Britain had surged ahead in the production of cotton goods. Britain has all needed factors of production —land, labor, capital
Textile Industry By 1840 cotton cloth was Britain’s most valuable product. Its cotton goods were sold all over the world.
Textile Industry Weavers work faster with flying shuttles and spinning jennies Water frame uses water power to drive spinning wheels Power loom, spinning mule speed up production, improve quality The cotton gin boosts American cotton production to meet British demand
Steam Power Need for cheap, convenient power spurs development of steam engine James Watt improves steam engine Robert Fulton builds first steamboat, the Clermont, in 1807
The Railway Age The steam engine drove Great Britain’s Industrial Revolution. Steam engines were powered by coal. This led to the coal industry expanding. The coal supply seemed unlimited. Coal also transformed the iron industry. Iron had been made in England since the Middle Ages but due to new inventions and technology, the iron industry boomed. In 1740 Britain produced 17,000 tons of iron. By 1852, Britain was producing almost 3 million tons of iron annually.
The Role of the Railroads Railroads were an efficient way to move resources and goods, railroads were crucial to the Industrial Revolution.
The Role of the Railroads The railroads, built during the 1830s and 1840s: Building railroads was a new job for farm laborers and peasants. Enabled people to leave the place of their birth and migrate easily to the cities. Allowed cheaper and more rapid transport of raw materials and finished products. Created an increased demand for iron and steel and a skilled labor force. The less expensive transportation lowered the price of goods and made for larger markets.
More Jobs, More Opportunities More jobs created during the Industrial Revolution meant more people could improve their lives. The middle class—made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers—did well. They enjoyed comfortable lives in pleasant homes. This class began to grow in size, and some people grew wealthier than the nobles who had dominated society for many centuries.
Population Growth As a result of better Millions jobs, more food, 40 many countries see 30 a large boom in population 20 1831 Growing population 10 1851 provides more work 0 force and a larger ce d ny market for factory an an ma gl Fr En r Ge goods
Population Growth The population of the United States continued to grow as well.
Conditions in the Countryside During the Industrial Revolution, many lands were converted from farming to sheep raising, leaving farm workers without jobs The only successful farmers were those with large landholdings who could afford agricultural innovations. Most peasants: Didn’t have enough land to support themselves Were devastated by poor harvests (e.g., the Irish Potato Famine of 1845-47)
Urban Growth Those who could no longer make a living on the land migrated from the countryside to the cities to seek work in the factories. This led to urbanization — city-building and movement of people to 1850: Population Living in Cities cities 100 England The number of cities with 75 50 50 France & more than 100,000 25 25 Germany Eastern people doubled between 0 Europe % Population 1800 and 1850.
The Plight of the Cities The sheer number of human beings put pressure on city resources: Housing, water, sewers, food supplies, and lighting were completely inadequate. Rapidly growing cities lack sanitary codes, building codes Slums grew and disease, especially cholera, sweep through and ravaged the population. The average life span of a person living in a city was 17 years—compared to 38 years in the countryside. Factory pollution fouls air, poisons river Cities also without adequate housing, education, police protection Crime increased and became a way of life for those who could make a living in no other way.
At the Expense of Workers The shift from cottage industry to factories meant high quality products at competitive prices, but often at the expense of workers. For example: Average working day was 14 hours for 6 days a week, year round Dirty, poorly lit factories injure or kill the workers Many coal miners killed by coal dust, mine collapses
The Condition of Labor All working people, however, faced possible unemployment, with little or no provision for security. In addition, they were subject to various kinds of discipline: The closing of factory gates to late workers Fines for tardiness Dismissal for drunkenness Public censure for poor quality workmanship Beatings for non-submissiveness
Child Labor in the Industrial Revolution Children had been an important part of the family economy in preindustrial times. They worked in the fields or at home in cottage industries. In the Industrial Revolution, however, child labor was exploited. Children as young as 6 work in factories; many are injured or killed.
Children and Women in the Workplace Both women and children enjoyed being employed and paid, some for the first time ever. However, both children and women were paid a substantially lower income than their adult, male counterparts. Oftentimes, they performed the same, if not harder/more dangerous jobs. Women and children were ideal for working the machines in factories. They are smaller and have a delicate touch. They could easily squeeze around or under machines… sometimes with deadly consequences.
Why do you think factory owners allowed the exploitation of children or women? How do you feel about that? Is this the same thing stilloccurring in places like China or other countries?
Work or Riot? Many people did not like their working conditions. Workers tried to organize secretly, but they lacked a political voice and were powerless to affect change. Frustration sometimes turned to violence and workers would riot and smash machines or products.
Labor Unions In time, the workers gained a voice. Labor Unions or organizations of workers were created to speak out against poor conditions. Eventually labor laws were created to protect the workers. Inspections were mandatory at factories. Children were removed from factories and age limits and hours were established. This led to better wages and higher standards of living.
Can you think of modern daylabor laws that are in place to protect workers from exploitation like during the Industrial Revolution?
Economic and Political Reform The Industrial Revolution would also lead to economic, social, and political reforms.
Laissez-Faire Some economists thought that the government should leave business owners alone. Their view was called laissez-faire, from a French phrase meaning “let people do as they please.” Basically, the government stays out of economic affairs.
Can you explain positive and negative consequences to laissez-faire?
Capitalism American Economist Adam Smith argued that putting no limits on business or on trade would help a nation’s economy grow the most. He and other writers supported a system called capitalism. In a capitalist economy, people invest their money in businesses to make a profit. Government has limited control in businesses such as setting regulations, preventing monopolies and even bailing out failing companies. For the most part, the government stays out of economy.
The only difference betweenlaissez-fair and capitalism is government involvement.Do you think it is necessary togovernment to be involved in the economy, even if just a little bit.
Socialism Some thinkers went further and urged that businesses should be owned by society as a whole, not by individuals. In this case, few people could not grow wealthy at the expense of many. Instead, all would enjoy the benefits of increased production. People felt that all production should be directed for every on now individuals in society. This view—called socialism—grew out of a belief in progress and a concern for justice and fairness.
Communism A German thinker named Karl Marx wrote about a radical form of socialism called Marxism. He said that the rich and poor were bound to oppose one another in the struggle for power. Over time, he said, the capitalist system would destroy itself. The great mass of the proletariat (workers) would rebel against the wealthy few. Marx wrote The Communist Manifesto in which he described communism, a form of complete socialism in which all production is owned by the people. In the early 1900s, these ideas would inspire revolution and a new government/economic style.
Communism Communism is a social and political structure in which classes are abolished and all property is commonly controlled (typically by a strong, central government). It advocates and aims to create a common society in which everyone is has equal share. The central government makes ALL major economic decisions. It controls the wealth: land, mines, factories, banks, transportation. It decides what products, crops are produced; sets prices and divides shares equally. Many times, this also means that the government controls all aspects of citizens’ lives.
Discuss the positive andnegative aspects to socialism communism. Could it truly work?
ImperialismThe Industrial Revolution changed the world. Not only for the countries in Europe or the U.S., but countries globally would be feeling the effects from a practice known as imperialism.
Imperialism Countries that had adopted an industrial economy enjoyed more wealth and power than those that had not. The countries of Europe, the U.S. and Japan soon began to take advantage of lands in Africa and Asia. They used these lands as sources of raw materials needed for their factories. They saw the people only as markets for the goods they made. They took control of these lands, a practice called imperialism.
European Power and Influence in China Having long time interest in China, European powers seek to access profitable Chinese markets. In the 1800’s, treaties force a weak China to give Europeans privileges - spheres of influence — territory awarded to European nations & Japan The Chinese, angered over outside control leads to the 1900 Boxer Rebellion - Chinese militants kill Europeans, Chinese Christians and take back China
Europeans Exploit Africa European colonizers also exploited Africa’s resources, people millions sold into slavery or died from harsh working conditions Land was mined, drilled; environment was ignored
The United States andImperialism In the late 19th century, the United States rapidly expanded it’s territorial possessions. It started with the Mexican-American War in 1846 where the U.S. annexed Texas (which was claimed by Mexico) and then quickly occupied New Mexico and California.
The United States and Imperialism The war was brief, yet bloody and the United States came out victorious. The result of the United States victory of the Mexican American War was the expansion of the United States to New American territory as reach all the way to the a result of the treaty of Pacific Ocean. Gaudalupe Hidalgo.
The United States andImperialism In1898, the U.S. was involved in another conflict known as the Spanish American War. The U.S. claimed yet another victory and as a result would claim Spanish territory of Cuba, Puerto Rico and Pacific Spanish colonies such as the Philippines, Guam as well as claiming the islands of Hawaii.
Effects of Imperialism Centralized governments with lots of corruption No regard for tribal or national boundaries Loss of resources Cultural & ethnic oppression Little or no infrastructure Little or no education
The Jungle Book The book and films by Rudyard Kipling, “The Jungle Book”, takes place in British occupied India in 1895. The 1994 Disney movie follows Mowgli, a boy raised in the wild, and his struggle to adapt to civilized life under the British rule.
Ghost and the Darkness Set in Africa at the end of the 19th century. The film is based on real life accounts of two man- eating lions that attacked and killed hundreds of workers in British occupied Tsavo, Kenya during the building of the African Uganda-Mombasa Railway in 1898.
Inventions During the I.R. The Steam Engine, invented by James Watt in 1775 The Cotton Gin, invented by Eli Whitney in 1798
Inventions During the I.R. The locomotive, invented by Robert Trevithick in 1804 The Steamboat, invented by Robert Fulton in 1807
Inventions During the I.R. The first Photograph, invented by Joseph Niépce in 1826 The Telegraph invented by Samuel Morse in 1836 Also the first time electricity was controlled and used to power something
Inventions During the I.R. The Telephone, invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876 The Light Bulb, invented by Thomas Edison in 1879