Physical Geography of SW AsiaPhysical Geography of SW Asia
ObjectivesObjectives• Identify and examine different features of the SouthwestAsia’s and North Africa’s physical geography...
The Middle What?The Middle What?Why do we refer to Southwest Asia asWhy do we refer to Southwest Asia as“The Middle East?”...
Southwestern Asian Countries and CapitalsSouthwestern Asian Countries and Capitals• Afghanistan: Kabul• Bahrain: Manama• C...
Ch. 21 Sec. 1Ch. 21 Sec. 1: Landforms &: Landforms &ResourcesResources• Landforms Divide theRegion.• Arabian Peninsulasits...
The Arabian PeninsulaThe Arabian Peninsula• Climate– Desert• Rub al-Khali• An-Nafud– Semiarid• What type ofvegetation do t...
Arabian PeninsulaArabian Peninsula• Low hills• Ridges• Wadis• Hejaz Mtns. A wadi in Saudi Arabia
• Rub Al-Khali• “Empty Quarter”= “place whereno one comes out”• Size of Texas• One of largest sandy deserts inworld, dunes...
Anatolian PeninsulaAnatolian Peninsula• Turkey• Marks the beginning of the continent of Asia
Peninsulas On Important WatersPeninsulas On Important Waters• Anatolian Peninsula alongthe Mediterranean andBlack Sea• Ara...
The StraitsThe Straits• Strait of Hormuz • Bosporus Strait
Strait of HormuzStrait of Hormuz• The only passagewayto the rich oil fields ofKuwait.• Connects the PersianGulf and the Ar...
Anatolian PeninsulaAnatolian Peninsula• Bosporus Strait – waterway to Black Sea• Dardanelles Strait – waterway to AegeanSe...
•     Bosporus Strait      •     Dardanelles Strait 
The Red Sea and Persian GulfThe Red Sea and Persian GulfRed SeaPersian Gulf
• Suez Canal- artificial waterway between the Mediterranean Sea & the Red Sea
Water BodiesWater Bodies• Region as a whole is so arid that rivers do not flow all year.  A wadi in Saudi Arabia
Water BodiesWater Bodies• Water is the most important resource in this region– Tigris & Euphrates river valleys supported ...
Tigris RiverTigris River
Euphrates RiverEuphrates River
MesopotamiaMesopotamia
Jordan RiverJordan River• Natural boundary between Israel & Jordan• Flows from mtns. of Lebanon into Dead Sea
• Dead Sea- landlocked salt lake– So salty that only bacteria lives in it– Lowest place on the exposed surface of the eart...
MountainsMountains1. Zagros Mountains         2. Elburz Mountains3. Taurus Mountains                                 1.2.3. 
Mtn. Ranges Cut Off the North from Mtn. Ranges Cut Off the North from the Souththe South
Sand DesertsSand Deserts• An-Nafud• Syrian Desert• Separates Lebanon, Israel & Syria from from the Tigris & Euphrates• Act...
Sand DesertsSand Deserts• Negev Desert• Located in Israel• Crops are produced in the Negev through extensive irrigation
Salt DesertsSalt Deserts• Iran in rain-shadow• Winds w/ no rain evaporate moisture in soil• Chemical salt is left• Salt Flat
Salt DesertsSalt Deserts• Dasht-e Kavir• Central Iran• Salt crusted landsurrounded by quick-sand-like salt marshes• Extrem...
Salt DesertsSalt Deserts• Dasht-e Lut• Eastern Iran
Salt FlatsSalt Flats• Salt Flat- flat land made of chemical saltsthat remain after winds evaporate themoisture in the soil...
PamukkalePamukkale is one ofis one ofthe extraordinarythe extraordinarynatural wonders ofnatural wonders ofTurkey.Turkey.T...
The scientific explanation is the hot thermalThe scientific explanation is the hot thermalplaces that lie under the mount ...
One can bathe there; the Turks call this placeOne can bathe there; the Turks call this placePAMUKKALE, which means "Castle...
It is a protecting landscape that fascinates, asIt is a protecting landscape that fascinates, asthe action of the mineral ...
The resultant effect is spectacular: theThe resultant effect is spectacular: thewaters spill on a series of steps, forming...
The cascades of calcium carbonate as well asThe cascades of calcium carbonate as well asthe water itself changes colors in...
At times white, others blue, orAt times white, others blue, orgreen or other colors. Thegreen or other colors. Thespectacl...
The continuous dynamics of the erosion andThe continuous dynamics of the erosion andthe transformation of the natural land...
PAMUKKALE is one of the most uniquePAMUKKALE is one of the most uniquephenomena in nature.phenomena in nature.
Semiarid LandsSemiarid Lands• Located on fringes of deserts• Eastern Turkey• Hot summers• Good rainfall• Pastures for anim...
Coastal LandsCoastal Lands• Mediterranean Climate• Most of Turkey• Hot summer, rainy winter• Citrus fruits, olives, vegeta...
Sulemaniye MosqueTurkey
Umayyad MosqueDamascusSyria
BeirutParliament Square in BeirutLebanon
Dead Sea Salt BedsDome of the RockNegev DesertTel AvivIsrael
King Abdullah IIAbdullah MosquePetraAmmanJordanOne of the new 7wonders of theworld
Tigris RiverIraqBaghdadAlnidaeMosque
Empty QuarterKing FahdSaudi Arabia
TehranShahid MotahariMosqueIran
SanaaYemen
Sultan’s PalaceMosqueOman
Abu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
Police Cars in DubaiPolice Cars in Dubai
MuseumDesertDohaQatar
Kuwait CityOil wells on fireWater TowersKuwait
Ch.21southwest.asia
Ch.21southwest.asia
Ch.21southwest.asia
Ch.21southwest.asia
Ch.21southwest.asia
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Ch.21southwest.asia

  1. 1. Physical Geography of SW AsiaPhysical Geography of SW Asia
  2. 2. ObjectivesObjectives• Identify and examine different features of the SouthwestAsia’s and North Africa’s physical geography.• Explain the different types of climates and vegetations.• Describe the region’s key resources.
  3. 3. The Middle What?The Middle What?Why do we refer to Southwest Asia asWhy do we refer to Southwest Asia as“The Middle East?”“The Middle East?”
  4. 4. Southwestern Asian Countries and CapitalsSouthwestern Asian Countries and Capitals• Afghanistan: Kabul• Bahrain: Manama• Cyprus: Nicosia• Iran: Tehran• Iraq: Baghdad• Israel: Jerusalem• Jordan: Amman• Kuwait: Kuwait City• Lebanon: Beirut• Oman: Muscat• Qatar: Doha• Saudi Arabia: Riyadh• Syria: Damascus• Turkey: Ankara• United Arab Emirates: Abu Dhabi• Yemen: Sanaa
  5. 5. Ch. 21 Sec. 1Ch. 21 Sec. 1: Landforms &: Landforms &ResourcesResources• Landforms Divide theRegion.• Arabian Peninsulasits in between theRed Sea and thePersian Gulf.
  6. 6. The Arabian PeninsulaThe Arabian Peninsula• Climate– Desert• Rub al-Khali• An-Nafud– Semiarid• What type ofvegetation do theseregions have?– Desert shrub, grasses• Predominately covered by plains– Low ridges, hills, and wadis
  7. 7. Arabian PeninsulaArabian Peninsula• Low hills• Ridges• Wadis• Hejaz Mtns. A wadi in Saudi Arabia
  8. 8. • Rub Al-Khali• “Empty Quarter”= “place whereno one comes out”• Size of Texas• One of largest sandy deserts inworld, dunes can reach 800 ft tall• Surface temps, can reach 150°• 10 years may pass w/out rain
  9. 9. Anatolian PeninsulaAnatolian Peninsula• Turkey• Marks the beginning of the continent of Asia
  10. 10. Peninsulas On Important WatersPeninsulas On Important Waters• Anatolian Peninsula alongthe Mediterranean andBlack Sea• Arabian Peninsula on theRed Sea, Arabian Seaand Persian Gulf
  11. 11. The StraitsThe Straits• Strait of Hormuz • Bosporus Strait
  12. 12. Strait of HormuzStrait of Hormuz• The only passagewayto the rich oil fields ofKuwait.• Connects the PersianGulf and the ArabianSea.
  13. 13. Anatolian PeninsulaAnatolian Peninsula• Bosporus Strait – waterway to Black Sea• Dardanelles Strait – waterway to AegeanSea, Mediterranean Sea
  14. 14. •     Bosporus Strait      •     Dardanelles Strait 
  15. 15. The Red Sea and Persian GulfThe Red Sea and Persian GulfRed SeaPersian Gulf
  16. 16. • Suez Canal- artificial waterway between the Mediterranean Sea & the Red Sea
  17. 17. Water BodiesWater Bodies• Region as a whole is so arid that rivers do not flow all year.  A wadi in Saudi Arabia
  18. 18. Water BodiesWater Bodies• Water is the most important resource in this region– Tigris & Euphrates river valleys supported several ancient societies
  19. 19. Tigris RiverTigris River
  20. 20. Euphrates RiverEuphrates River
  21. 21. MesopotamiaMesopotamia
  22. 22. Jordan RiverJordan River• Natural boundary between Israel & Jordan• Flows from mtns. of Lebanon into Dead Sea
  23. 23. • Dead Sea- landlocked salt lake– So salty that only bacteria lives in it– Lowest place on the exposed surface of the earth. • 1349 feet below sea level
  24. 24. MountainsMountains1. Zagros Mountains         2. Elburz Mountains3. Taurus Mountains                                 1.2.3. 
  25. 25. Mtn. Ranges Cut Off the North from Mtn. Ranges Cut Off the North from the Souththe South
  26. 26. Sand DesertsSand Deserts• An-Nafud• Syrian Desert• Separates Lebanon, Israel & Syria from from the Tigris & Euphrates• Acts as a barrier
  27. 27. Sand DesertsSand Deserts• Negev Desert• Located in Israel• Crops are produced in the Negev through extensive irrigation
  28. 28. Salt DesertsSalt Deserts• Iran in rain-shadow• Winds w/ no rain evaporate moisture in soil• Chemical salt is left• Salt Flat
  29. 29. Salt DesertsSalt Deserts• Dasht-e Kavir• Central Iran• Salt crusted landsurrounded by quick-sand-like salt marshes• Extremely hot• Act as barriers
  30. 30. Salt DesertsSalt Deserts• Dasht-e Lut• Eastern Iran
  31. 31. Salt FlatsSalt Flats• Salt Flat- flat land made of chemical saltsthat remain after winds evaporate themoisture in the soil– Common in Iran– Usually uninhabited
  32. 32. PamukkalePamukkale is one ofis one ofthe extraordinarythe extraordinarynatural wonders ofnatural wonders ofTurkey.Turkey.The great attraction isThe great attraction isthe white immensitythe white immensityof the cliffs withof the cliffs withsculptured basins fullsculptured basins fullof water andof water andcongealed waterfalls;congealed waterfalls;they seem done ofthey seem done ofsnow, cloud, or cottonsnow, cloud, or cotton..
  33. 33. The scientific explanation is the hot thermalThe scientific explanation is the hot thermalplaces that lie under the mount provoke theplaces that lie under the mount provoke thecalcium carbonate spill, that makes the formscalcium carbonate spill, that makes the formsas solid as travertino marble.as solid as travertino marble.
  34. 34. One can bathe there; the Turks call this placeOne can bathe there; the Turks call this placePAMUKKALE, which means "Castle of Cotton".PAMUKKALE, which means "Castle of Cotton".
  35. 35. It is a protecting landscape that fascinates, asIt is a protecting landscape that fascinates, asthe action of the mineral waters that containsthe action of the mineral waters that containscalcium oxides left fantastic marks in thecalcium oxides left fantastic marks in thestructures.structures.
  36. 36. The resultant effect is spectacular: theThe resultant effect is spectacular: thewaters spill on a series of steps, formingwaters spill on a series of steps, formingsolid cascades and pools.solid cascades and pools.
  37. 37. The cascades of calcium carbonate as well asThe cascades of calcium carbonate as well asthe water itself changes colors in accordancethe water itself changes colors in accordancewith changes of the solar light that illuminateswith changes of the solar light that illuminatesthem, and the effect is breathtaking.them, and the effect is breathtaking.
  38. 38. At times white, others blue, orAt times white, others blue, orgreen or other colors. Thegreen or other colors. Thespectacle is amazing.spectacle is amazing.
  39. 39. The continuous dynamics of the erosion andThe continuous dynamics of the erosion andthe transformation of the natural landscapethe transformation of the natural landscaperesult in an unusual environment.result in an unusual environment.
  40. 40. PAMUKKALE is one of the most uniquePAMUKKALE is one of the most uniquephenomena in nature.phenomena in nature.
  41. 41. Semiarid LandsSemiarid Lands• Located on fringes of deserts• Eastern Turkey• Hot summers• Good rainfall• Pastures for animal grazing• Mohair goats in Turkey
  42. 42. Coastal LandsCoastal Lands• Mediterranean Climate• Most of Turkey• Hot summer, rainy winter• Citrus fruits, olives, vegetables• Grow year round• Heavily populated in Turkey
  43. 43. Sulemaniye MosqueTurkey
  44. 44. Umayyad MosqueDamascusSyria
  45. 45. BeirutParliament Square in BeirutLebanon
  46. 46. Dead Sea Salt BedsDome of the RockNegev DesertTel AvivIsrael
  47. 47. King Abdullah IIAbdullah MosquePetraAmmanJordanOne of the new 7wonders of theworld
  48. 48. Tigris RiverIraqBaghdadAlnidaeMosque
  49. 49. Empty QuarterKing FahdSaudi Arabia
  50. 50. TehranShahid MotahariMosqueIran
  51. 51. SanaaYemen
  52. 52. Sultan’s PalaceMosqueOman
  53. 53. Abu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates
  54. 54. United Arab Emirates
  55. 55. Police Cars in DubaiPolice Cars in Dubai
  56. 56. MuseumDesertDohaQatar
  57. 57. Kuwait CityOil wells on fireWater TowersKuwait

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