Physical Geography of SW AsiaPhysical Geography of SW Asia
ObjectivesObjectives• Identify and examine different features of the SouthwestAsia’s and North Africa’s physical geography.• Explain the different types of climates and vegetations.• Describe the region’s key resources.
The Middle What?The Middle What?Why do we refer to Southwest Asia asWhy do we refer to Southwest Asia as“The Middle East?”“The Middle East?”
Southwestern Asian Countries and CapitalsSouthwestern Asian Countries and Capitals• Afghanistan: Kabul• Bahrain: Manama• Cyprus: Nicosia• Iran: Tehran• Iraq: Baghdad• Israel: Jerusalem• Jordan: Amman• Kuwait: Kuwait City• Lebanon: Beirut• Oman: Muscat• Qatar: Doha• Saudi Arabia: Riyadh• Syria: Damascus• Turkey: Ankara• United Arab Emirates: Abu Dhabi• Yemen: Sanaa
Ch. 21 Sec. 1Ch. 21 Sec. 1: Landforms &: Landforms &ResourcesResources• Landforms Divide theRegion.• Arabian Peninsulasits in between theRed Sea and thePersian Gulf.
The Arabian PeninsulaThe Arabian Peninsula• Climate– Desert• Rub al-Khali• An-Nafud– Semiarid• What type ofvegetation do theseregions have?– Desert shrub, grasses• Predominately covered by plains– Low ridges, hills, and wadis
Arabian PeninsulaArabian Peninsula• Low hills• Ridges• Wadis• Hejaz Mtns. A wadi in Saudi Arabia
• Rub Al-Khali• “Empty Quarter”= “place whereno one comes out”• Size of Texas• One of largest sandy deserts inworld, dunes can reach 800 ft tall• Surface temps, can reach 150°• 10 years may pass w/out rain
Anatolian PeninsulaAnatolian Peninsula• Turkey• Marks the beginning of the continent of Asia
Peninsulas On Important WatersPeninsulas On Important Waters• Anatolian Peninsula alongthe Mediterranean andBlack Sea• Arabian Peninsula on theRed Sea, Arabian Seaand Persian Gulf
The StraitsThe Straits• Strait of Hormuz • Bosporus Strait
Strait of HormuzStrait of Hormuz• The only passagewayto the rich oil fields ofKuwait.• Connects the PersianGulf and the ArabianSea.
Anatolian PeninsulaAnatolian Peninsula• Bosporus Strait – waterway to Black Sea• Dardanelles Strait – waterway to AegeanSea, Mediterranean Sea
Mtn. Ranges Cut Off the North from Mtn. Ranges Cut Off the North from the Souththe South
Sand DesertsSand Deserts• An-Nafud• Syrian Desert• Separates Lebanon, Israel & Syria from from the Tigris & Euphrates• Acts as a barrier
Sand DesertsSand Deserts• Negev Desert• Located in Israel• Crops are produced in the Negev through extensive irrigation
Salt DesertsSalt Deserts• Iran in rain-shadow• Winds w/ no rain evaporate moisture in soil• Chemical salt is left• Salt Flat
Salt DesertsSalt Deserts• Dasht-e Kavir• Central Iran• Salt crusted landsurrounded by quick-sand-like salt marshes• Extremely hot• Act as barriers
Salt DesertsSalt Deserts• Dasht-e Lut• Eastern Iran
Salt FlatsSalt Flats• Salt Flat- flat land made of chemical saltsthat remain after winds evaporate themoisture in the soil– Common in Iran– Usually uninhabited
PamukkalePamukkale is one ofis one ofthe extraordinarythe extraordinarynatural wonders ofnatural wonders ofTurkey.Turkey.The great attraction isThe great attraction isthe white immensitythe white immensityof the cliffs withof the cliffs withsculptured basins fullsculptured basins fullof water andof water andcongealed waterfalls;congealed waterfalls;they seem done ofthey seem done ofsnow, cloud, or cottonsnow, cloud, or cotton..
The scientific explanation is the hot thermalThe scientific explanation is the hot thermalplaces that lie under the mount provoke theplaces that lie under the mount provoke thecalcium carbonate spill, that makes the formscalcium carbonate spill, that makes the formsas solid as travertino marble.as solid as travertino marble.
One can bathe there; the Turks call this placeOne can bathe there; the Turks call this placePAMUKKALE, which means "Castle of Cotton".PAMUKKALE, which means "Castle of Cotton".
It is a protecting landscape that fascinates, asIt is a protecting landscape that fascinates, asthe action of the mineral waters that containsthe action of the mineral waters that containscalcium oxides left fantastic marks in thecalcium oxides left fantastic marks in thestructures.structures.
The resultant effect is spectacular: theThe resultant effect is spectacular: thewaters spill on a series of steps, formingwaters spill on a series of steps, formingsolid cascades and pools.solid cascades and pools.
The cascades of calcium carbonate as well asThe cascades of calcium carbonate as well asthe water itself changes colors in accordancethe water itself changes colors in accordancewith changes of the solar light that illuminateswith changes of the solar light that illuminatesthem, and the effect is breathtaking.them, and the effect is breathtaking.
At times white, others blue, orAt times white, others blue, orgreen or other colors. Thegreen or other colors. Thespectacle is amazing.spectacle is amazing.
The continuous dynamics of the erosion andThe continuous dynamics of the erosion andthe transformation of the natural landscapethe transformation of the natural landscaperesult in an unusual environment.result in an unusual environment.
PAMUKKALE is one of the most uniquePAMUKKALE is one of the most uniquephenomena in nature.phenomena in nature.
Semiarid LandsSemiarid Lands• Located on fringes of deserts• Eastern Turkey• Hot summers• Good rainfall• Pastures for animal grazing• Mohair goats in Turkey
Coastal LandsCoastal Lands• Mediterranean Climate• Most of Turkey• Hot summer, rainy winter• Citrus fruits, olives, vegetables• Grow year round• Heavily populated in Turkey