Informal education in national development (2012)


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Informal education in national development (2012)

  1. 1. INFORMAL EDUCATION Prof. Ace Suryadi, M.Sc.Ph.D.In the National Development Perspective Translator : Edy Hardiyanto, S.Pd.,M.T.Center For the Development of Non Formal 2012and Informal Education Regional I Bandung
  3. 3. FORWARD Center for Development of Non-formal and Informal Education (PP PNFI)Region I Bandung, as one of the technical units of directorate general of non-formal and informal education, performs its tasks and functions as stipulated onEducation Minister Decree (Permendiknas) number 08 year 2008, which coverthe formulation of educational technical policies, the analysis and development ofnon-formal and informal education (NFIE) programs and learning models, andNFIE resource development. The NFIE services provided by PP PNFI is, in essence, a devoted effort toimprove the quality of all Indonesian citizens in order to become virtuous,intelligent, professional and competitive in fulfilling its goal of independence thatis to establish a happy, wealthy and just Indonesian nation. Educational institutions are obliged to improve the nation’s human resourcesby means of formal, non-formal or informal education stream. On the non-formaland informal streams, educational services are offered both through conventionaland alternative methods that each member of the nation can democraticallychoose his or her own learning path in accordance with their nature andexpectation to reach a better quality life. Procurement of various learning media both printed and electronic types byPP PNFI is aimed to provide contextual, motivating, quality-learning materials toimprove knowledge, skills, and attitude needed in expanding vision, self-respectand dignity, and professionalism as citizen of Indonesian nation. On behalf of the director and all the staffs of PP-PNFI Region I Bandung, Iwould like to extend my appreciation to all parties who have devoted all theefforts in fulfilling community’s expectation through the creation of quality-learning materials and information. Director of PP-PNFI Region I Bandung, Ir. Djayeng Baskoro, M.Pd. NIP. 196306251990021001 i
  4. 4. CONTENTFORWARD iCONTENT iiCHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1CHAPTER 2 INFORMAL EDUCATION 4 A. Informal Education and Learning Perspective Throughout Life 4 B. Types of Informal Education 10CHAPTER 3 CONCLUSION 19BIBLIOGRAPHY 22 ii
  5. 5. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Informal education is one of the educational pathways that takeplace within the family and community, which typically take the form ofindependent learning. The results of informal education can berecognized as equal to the result of formal education and non formaleducation as long as the learner acquire competencies that is useful forhim to obtain a better life. Education is a process inherent in allhumankind activities and is as large as the human life itself. An educationis a series of learning process whether intentionally or unintentionallycarried out by everyone as an ongoing process.Decree no. 20/2003 has established that the National Education Systemincludes three channels, namely Formal Education, Non FormalEducation, and Informal Education. Article 27 states that (1) informaleducation activities are conducted by the family and the environment, asindependent learning, (2) The education outcome as stated in verse (1) isrecognized as equal to formal and non formal education degree afterparticipants pass examination accord with national standards of education(SNP), and (3) the recognition of informal learning outcomes referred to inverse (2) shall refer to relevant government regulations. Informaleducation is education undertaken by the family, neighborhood as well aseach individual which is equivalent to formal and non formal education.Seven years later, Article 27 verse (3) is comprehended by GovernmentRegulation (PP) no. 17/2010 on Management and Education Deliverance.The PP is revised within a couple months as PP no. 66/2010, the newregulation no. 17/2010 on verse 117 states: (1) The outcome of informaleducation is equivalent to non-formal and formal education after passing 1
  6. 6. the equivalency examination which meets the National Standards ofEducation organized by the institution designated either by theGovernment or local government according to respective authorities, andappropriate legislation. The equivalency examination mentioned above refers to: a.Equivalency test is applied to non formal education students as in Article115, and b. Minister Regulation is valid to manage other informaleducation beyond the range of Article 115Furthermore the equalization of education outcome is stipulated in Article115, as follows. (1) The non-formal education is equivalent to non-formaland formal education after meeting the National Standards of Educationorganized by the institution designated either by the Government or localgovernment according to respective authorities, and appropriatelegislation, and (2) Equivalency test referred to verse (1) for the ProgramPackage A, B, C and Package C Vocational Program implemented by theNational Education Standards Agency.The provisions of the legislation clearly implies that the informal educationstudents are only directed to take the non-formal education nationalexams which is Package A, B, C which is equivalent to formal education.Thus, informal education quality bias occurs twice, first, Package A, B, Cnational exams is equivalent to the formal education national exams, andsecond, informal education itself is equivalent to the equivalency exam.In other words, legislation is still "half-hearted" to recognize independentlearning as a process that can produce competence. It also means, thenational education system in Indonesia has not been able to identify theprinciple of life-long learning to realize a learning community (learningsociety). 2
  7. 7. Based on the above matters, this book will explain the various dimensionsof informal education as an integrated part of national education system,and its implications for real conduct. 3
  8. 8. Chapter 2 Informal EducationA. Informal Education and the Life-Long Learning Perspective In the economics of education literature (Psacharopoulos, 1993) it isbasically explained that "Knowledge is a critical factor in economic andsocial development." In other words, success in building a society invarious sectors is largely determined by the competence and mastery ofvarious fields of science and technology (Ace Suryadi, 2009). In a bookentitled The Economics of Non-Formal Education, Mansur Ahmed (1977)asserted that the acquisition of competence and ability of the communityis more determined by the learning process implemented by eachmember of the community throughout his life, rather than by theeducational institution conducted in formal education. In other words,knowledge, competencies, and skills used by workers or members of thepublic in general are largely acquired through self-learning activitiesrather than through schools or colleges. Lifelong learning is universal. It is a principle that should be the rootfor a successful learning process in each path and level of education.Lifelong learning is the essence of human life itself to grow from onestage of development to the next one towards maturity. Learning, as wellas food, clothing, housing, and health, are the basic needs of everyperson in order to survive and develop as independent and usefulmembers of society both for themselves as well as their environment.Therefore, the principle of self learning, as one of the implications of life-long learning, is the adult human skill that must be developed in alllearners in the formal, informal or non formal education unit. 4
  9. 9. Mohamed Yunus in his book "Creating the World Without Poverty"(2009) asserts: knowledge stimulates economic growth through increasedproductivity as a result of innovation, contributes to poverty reduction,facilitates the achievement of most of the Millennium Development Goals,and increases countries capacity to cope with natural emergencies."More than a necessity for survival, knowledge is a powerful tool foreveryone to grow and develop into a man of character and a productivehuman being. In the latest development, knowledge is increasinglybecoming a commodity as a source of national income which is muchhigher in value than other forms of commodities. Australia is an exampleof the famous OECD member that is able to obtain the highest nationalincome, up to 60-70%, from the education sector, where knowledge andmastery of technology attracts learners around the world. With his typical question, "Lifelong Learning and Adult Education:Luxury or Necessity for Developing Countries?" Yunus (2009) confirmsthat lifelong learning is the basic need of every person, even for thosewho are poor and illiterate. To prove it, he applied education program forthe poor and illiterate by emphasizing the importance of knowledge andskills in the use of micro-credit supported by micro financing as boostersto get out of the chain of poverty. He has successfully implemented theprogram and in 2006 won the prestigious Nobel Peace Prize. Yunusinsists that, illiterate people do not need a piece of paper, a schooldiploma; they need the ability to learn to enhance rnicro financing effortsto sustain the productivity of everyday life. They also do not needtheoretical knowledge learned in schools, they need the ability to seekand renew useful knowledge (applied knowledge) to run their dailybusinesses. The Millennium Development Goals (MDG), which consists of eightgoals agreed by the members of UNESCO to be achieved in 2015, every 5
  10. 10. country, including Indonesia have commitments to achieve it. MDGs firsttwo goals, to eradicate poverty and hunger and achieve universal primaryeducation is the cornerstone of all goals. Achieve universal primaryeducation for all, should not be read as "school" or an equivalent diplomaas its output. According to the MDG of primary education was not theelementary/junior high, not junior even senior religion school, norPackage A/B, using the SNE, National Exams, and the formal schooldiploma as a requirement. In other words, path and type of education isnot important anymore because the most important is the ability to embededucation to learn the basic skills and basic competencies that is reallyuseful for life and the lives of all people in society. In Indonesia there is a serious misconception associated with theleast basic education listed in national legislation. Decree 20/2003, verse17, states that (1) Basic education is education that underlies secondaryeducation, (2) basic education takes the form of primary school (SD) andmadrasah (MI) or other equivalent form as well as junior high school(SMP) and madrasah tsanawiyah (MTs), or other equivalent forms. Thatmisconception is the formal education bias, which does not conform withthe above millennium development goals. The bias assumption of formaleducation appears in section (1) verse 17 which states that primaryeducation only underlies secondary education and paragraph (2) thatemphasize basic education is the institution, not the content and mission.According to the MDGs, basic education mission is not only a preparationfor secondary education, but the most important is to cultivate a spirit oflifelong learning for all, one of the mission is so that people can learn toeradicate poverty and hunger. Basic education in Indonesia does not have the mission to developlife-long learners. In the concept of Education for All (UNESCO, 1990),basic education is the concept of life-long learning. The EFA document, 6
  11. 11. asserted that the most important is the material requirements of basiceducation, namely "basic learning content" in relation to knowledge,character, basic skills which are really useful and needed by learners.Other material requirements of basic education is Basic Learning tools,namely the learner’s basic skills to learn throughout his life. Both of thesematerial conditions are the two sides of one coin as the true nature ofbasic education. In general, the basic ability to learn consists of five basic literacy skillsto be possessed by all citizens. In the Education for All literature, thebasic literacy skill consists : quickly understand the reading material(reading); pouring ideas through writing that are simple and easy tounderstand (writing); capture the speech of others quickly and accurately(listening comprehension); express ideas orally in a simple manner andeasily understood (conversation); and understand the logic of numbers,area and space in everyday practice (mathematical reasoning ability).These five types of basic literacy is not only taught but must beintensively practiced by the students through basic education. Basicliteracy is a powerful tool for all citizens to have and to rejuvenate thewhole of knowledge, character, and basic skills, through the ability tolearn throughout his life. The formal education bias in national legislation has resultedIndonesia to be "stranded" in the trap called credentialism. Credentialismtrap has become a major problem in most developing countries, thegeneral assumption that only regard education as status symbol (diploma,academic degree certificates, etc.) rather than competence obtained.Employment hiring based on certificate of work tend to be moreappreciative rather than the ability of the applicant, and the fact that thisproblem has led to declining productivity of industry, business, andprofessional bureaucracy. If the credentialism effect is allowed to 7
  12. 12. proceed, then the acquisition of a diploma or degree is considered farmore important than learning to acquire skills. Credentialism and formal education bias lead to life-long learningprinciple to be less developed and is not even used as principles ofeducation in this country. Whereas life-long learning places "learning" asmore important than the "physical evidence" namely educational diplomasor academic degrees. This problem is really acute in the educationsystem in Indonesia, so that the National Education Act underestimatedinformal education which is loaded with continuous learning process forlearners. The birth of informal education in the national legislation shouldbe directed to realizing lifelong learner that will later create a learningsociety. In order to achieve these goals, national education should beable to control the credential trap and formal education bias. Both trapswill only be controlled if the government can influence the position of the"Informal Education" one or two levels above more important, even themost important position, in the development program of the nationaleducation. Within the framework of "lifelong learning," informal education is notthe path of education as defined in Education decree. Lifelong learning isan approach to thinking (mind set) in the development of education whichcan accelerate the ability to learn, to achieve a sustainable quality ofeducation. Informal education as an approach to thinking is not onlyintended for education in either the family or the environment with theability to learn independently as a concept. This approach also isappropriate for the learning process in schools, with the intention that thelearners have the capacity to learn, so that after they graduate, learningwill become an absolute requirement, equivalent to other necessities inlife, the "lifelong learning" frame is that in the picture below. 8
  13. 13. Fig. 1 : Framework for Lifelong Learning It is questioned by Cradall (2009), "life-long learning; is it Luxury orNecessity for Developing Countries?" Life-long learning is a mindset alsofunctions as a New Pedagogical Approaches in contemporary educationare commonly used in the learning process in schools excels today.According Crodalls "life-long learning: focuses on learning rather thanteaching, new and varied modalities for learning. Learning tailored toneeds of individuals, teacher as guide and facilitator; and reliance onadvanced technology in education was Appropriate." Informal educationis the "first hand" of the principle of lifelong learning, as informaleducation more emphasis on learning rather than teaching. If teachers inschools to develop study skills for students to vary the learning activitiesin order to provide flexibility for students to perform learning activitiessuch as they like and the way they need. Schools therefore do not imposea student teachers learning style, because teachers only serves as afacilitator and motivator for students to learn as much as possible. Thus,the answer to the question Cradall, informal education is an approach to 9
  14. 14. learning sharpshooter who able raise students confidence to learn, andstudents are expected to become lifelong learners for life. If students are “lifelong learners," it is certain that they will besuccessful in studying in any path. Their learning capacity will succeed intheir education at school or college. They will also succeed in mastering aprompt skills, and professions through formal education or training thatthey follow. They are also able to become independent learners in his lifebecause every time they are always motivated to rejuvenate knowledgeand improve skills and obtain character to support the life and careersuccess.B. Types of Informal Education Meanwhile, there are those who define education as a learningprocess which takes place in everyday life. If a friend encourages anotherfriend to talk about something that he is experiencing so that he is able tocope with disappointment and take further actions, it is an informaleducational event. Parents teaching their children to behave or to write isanother example. Others consider education as an informal learningactivity provided by themselves and for themselves. A fisherman whotakes his son fishing and shows him how to fish is another form ofinformal education. Other parties see education as informal learning activities that occurbecause of being involved in community or youth organizations. Ininformal education settings, there should be a specialist who works as asocial worker and whose job is to facilitate and encourage communities tolearn. In contrast to the parent or friend, a professional "social teacher"will be able to provide insights or ways to work better for members of thecommunity who need it. In other words, informal education is a variety offorms and types, but basically should be a process to help people learn. 10
  15. 15. We can see that parents, friends, educators and social teacher areteaching in informal education. If we are engaged in a learning activity, inschool or elsewhere, that means were teaching ourselves. We oftenteach children with a clear objective in our minds, for example, teachingchildren to read at home. In this case it is obvious who is teaching, who islearning and the objective is clear, to teach children the ability to read. Butin another time, maybe we did not plan anything but engage in aconversation that might enable us to learn, to add or increase theunderstanding of our interests to find out more about things. The above example implies that learning is to know or acquire anability but it is usually informal, taking place both intentional orunintentionally. We often do not know when or where the learningprocess occurs and its effects. If we speak or do something that candirect the thoughts of someone or make someone aware of something, itis a an unintentional form of informal education. As educators, we need tobring more information about informal education as an alternativeapproach to provide a more relevant education and directly perceivedbenefits. By understanding the principles of informal education, we canopen up great opportunities to understand the content and educationalprograms that are most relevant. In many ways, there is no different objective between informaleducation and education in general term. Some situations, we may focuson healthier foods and others concern with the interaction within thefamily. However, basically informal education is related to an interactionin a society where the learning needs are met. John Dewey alsodescribes informal education as an activity in which every member ofsociety can learn from each other to co-exist better. For that purpose,community education will provide a very important role. 11
  16. 16. Informal education emphasizes on what is needed by community,whether it relates to the value of education, comprehension, emotionalcontrol, and the need for competency, skill, and even expertise. In acommon situation informal education is more relevant to value andbehavior. Informal education as expressed by Dewey is related to : (1)work for the well-being of all; 2) respect the unique value and dignity ofeach human being; (3) Dialogues (4) equality and justice, and (5)democracy and the active involvement of people in the issues that affecttheir lives. As a community educator, he must devote his time to thinkingabout the values associated his job. However, there is no curriculum orlearning guidelines for informal education, but importantly how we canrespond to situations that occur in the environment, Informal education aims to acquire knowledge, skills, competency,professional ability, and even expertise in a certain required field and canbe acquired by the learners themselves. The process can be carried outthrough various means, such as reading, asking questions anddiscussion, watching TV, practicing, or engaging in an activity orcommunicating with others. In informal education the most important isthe high motivation to learn or master the competencies required. Theforms of informal education can be categorized into the followingeducational activities. First is paassive learning through reading, observing, and watching.Reading not just sounding out letters, words or sentences, but it is morethan that. Reading is a powerful tool for a person to acquire knowledge,where learners are required to seek and find the most appropriate andeasy to learn reading materials. Every learner must have the ability toread fast (speed reading) in order to understand quickly and exactly whatyou want to learn. Observing is watching an event in which learners areinvolved in, for instance participate in an organizational activity or witness 12
  17. 17. issues in society. By observing, learners are required to participate,understand and experience for themselves the cause and effect. If yousee an authoritarian leader, a learner can experience how a leader is notfavored by its members. Watching is the process of wathing a series ofevents in which the learners themselves are not involved in like enjoyinga movie or soap opera on TV. In wathing, a learner is passive andinformal education is necessary to explain the presence of any cause andeffect of the witnessed events so that he will develop certainunderstanding and value. Second, informal education can also be carried out through askingquestions and discussion with people who has more knowledge or skills.Learners can ask questions about things that he wants to know orcomprehend. Asking question is a stimulus from the learner to provoke aresponse from informal educators to provide an explanation as much ashe desires. Through this stimulus and response a discussion will arise tocreate an indepth learning process and to reach the desired objective. Acompetent learner must master the questioning techniques that are ableto "drain" as much information to gather, if necessary informal educatorscan explain the various ways that enable learners to understand what isbeing learned. The third informal education can be done by learning a particular skillor expertise. To acquire a skill or expertise, a learner conducts repetitiveexercises, involving physical movement and mentally active. An informaleducator teaching a certain skill is a trainer who is sought directly by theto train the required skills. Perhaps the trainer is not present, but all theinstruction have been written in the manuals that can be followed by thelearner while doing the exercises independently. 13
  18. 18. Fourth, informal education can be carried out through self learning tobroaden a professional skill or expertise. Independence in learning is thebehavior of a professional as lifelong learners. This category of informaleducation requires the learners ability to make the best decisions aboutwhat to learn, to whom they learned, the learning activities to carry out,and how to measure success in achieving a level of professionalcompetence or expertise. The decision can be explained as follows,(1) The decision about what will be learnt is largely determined by the learners own competence. A professional teacher should know the competencies that must be mastered as compared with a predetermined standard of competence. Therefore, teachers must be able to assess himself to know exactly what competencies that must be learned.(2) A learner must make decisions about who is the informal educator to whom he can learn. Learning resources may be a person who is directly present to teach the learner interactively. Or it may be someone who is not present but the learning material has been prepared into various forms of media such as books, textbooks, manuals, learning tools, learning modules, or interactive ICT program. If not physically present, a learner be imaginative as though the teacher is present through the messages contained in the learning media.(3) A learner must able to determine the types of activities most effective to learn the substance to be learnt. Informal learning activities can be done through various activities such as reading, writing, attend a relevant lecture, seminar or training, or even attending a relevant part- time college course, or practicing alone until the desired competencies have been acquired. 14
  19. 19. (4) To ensure that the desired competencies have been acquired, a learner must decide whether to take a competency test and if he passes he will acquire a higher level competence in a particular profession. Professional competency test is a tool to obtain recognition of the competence that has been acquired or increase competency that has been achieved which is usually indicated by a professional certificate. Based on this recognition, a professional will receive a reward for the increase in service quality in his profession.View from the learning system, informal education covers all dimensionsof learning, ranging from individual self-learning, learning within thefamily, collective learning, mass learning, to informal education throughschooling or university.First, the most universal informal education is self-directed learning on thebasis of own desire and motivation. Self learning is unique because everyperson has a different strategy in the conducting learning activities.Independent learning is "self study" or "auto-didactics" in which learnersperform learning activities voluntarily without any coercion from anotherperson. Each learner carries out "fine-tuning" after "trial & error" on the otypes of learning activities that can ultimately be selected as the mosteffective learning strategies. Self-learning activity is the most perfect formof education because the purpose, process, and evaluation of learning isentirely determined by the incentives and disincentives perceived by thelearner. By learning independently, a learner can : acquire the desiredcharacter traits, gain knowledge, improve skills, become skilled andproductive workers, improve professional status and become excellentstudents. Quality and educational excellence that have been achieved indeveloped countries is due to the formal education systems that havebeen able to stimulate self-learning ability along with the learning process. 15
  20. 20. Meanwhile, students are encouraged to learn independently as much aspossible so that teachers only serve as facilitators.Second, informal education can take the form of education inside familyenvironment. Parents often serve as informal educators who decide onthe content, process, as well as assessment for their children. Learningcontent is also more variety, ranging from good character, knowledge,skill that must be achieved, family task, work to earn income, as well asschool lessons to be learned in the family. Learning methods range frommentoring, training, order task, inviting a tutor for additional learning, untila good example whether intentionally or not. Learning assessment followparents standards, depending on its purpose. In recent development,education in the family is introduced by the Ministry of Education,particularly with regard to home-schooling or early childhood education athome through parenting education.Third is informal education that emphasizes on collective learning.Collective learning is carred out by enabling the activities of communitygroups who have a common interest. In order to empower the community,various groups are created by the government or independently, such as,collective learning activities through: farmer group, Radio ListenersGroup, nature lovers, sidewalk vendors group, etc. These groups canchoose mutual learning, share experience or share information onlearning resources. Farmer groups can learn among members that canbe driven by incentives and disincentives mechanism. Soybean purchaseby the government at market prices could be a market incentive forsoybean farmers to study in his group on how to farm more efficiently andproduce more quality soy products. In order for farmers to increaseproduction of high quality grain and can compete with imported products,the Logistic Bureau can provide market incentives by buying grain at aprice higher than the price of imported grain. This will make farmers learn 16
  21. 21. effectively if they join a study group. In seducation, informal education ingroups has also been carried out through study groups of teachers whoare members of the Teacher Working Group (KKG) or Council of SubjectTeachers (MGMP). With the increase in professional incentive, teacherscan take advantage of KKG and MGMP as a learning vehicle.Fourth, informal education can take the form of learning carried out bymass. This kind of informal education represents various social, religious,economic, and political institutions. Even electronic or printed media aresocial institutions that serve as informal educators with huge influence onchanging attitudes and the behavior of society in a relatively short time.The mass media can create the learning process such as soap operas,sports, movies, game shows, talk shows, or news that can indirectly bringabout various forms of public response as informal learners. Assessmentand informal education control must be conducted by government body,for example film censor committee shoud be under the Menkominfo(Ministry of Communication and Information) to issue licenses, orbroadcast permits. The Directorate of PAUDNI Kemdiknas should beinfluence controller of mass media through the recommendation forbroadcast permits with consideration from the educational aspect.Fifth, the informal education in the formal education institution. In termsimproving the quality of education, informal education can be used as anappropriate learning strategy to encourage the development of selflearning ability. Self-learning ability is a necessity to implement through alearner centered learning approach (student centered), in order tosustainably improve the quality of education. College excellence in theglobal scope can only be achieved if the student learning processemphasized on self-learning ability. Meanwhile, university lecturer servesmore as a facilitator who can provide study independently. RSBI schoolscan also become a laboratory to develop the ability of the independent 17
  22. 22. learning for students, for example through independent tasks, writing andresearch, group work, etc. For the development of self-learning capability,a mechanism of incentives and disincentives must be applied so that thestudents are compelled to seek, research, and present the results of theirstudy. To develop independent learning, assessments should not bebased on menial cognitive ability (remembering, memorizing theoretically)but should be based on analytical and applicative ability. 18
  23. 23. Chapter 3 ConclusionDiscussion of informal education is carried out critically and conceptuallyand is intended to change the mindset of national education systems.Informal education can not only be regarded as a highly variededucational path type and form as provided for in verse 17 of theEducation Decree No. 20/2003, but also as a powerful tool in the learningstrategies that can be developed through formal education. Based on itsactivities, informal education consists of pasive learning activities, activelearning activities, observation, training, and independent learning forprofessionals. Based on the actors of learning, informal education consistof individuals (self study), the collective learning activities, mass learningactivities as well as independent learning activities undertaken bystudents in formal education units.Based on the above conclusions, some implications for policy andprogram development can be stated as follows.1. Informal education takes place automatically in all human life in society. But not all have an impact on the growth of informal education attitude, the character of knowledge, and skills desired in the community. To develop informal education that will have a positive impact, the ability of the basic literacy needs to be developed for students even as early as childhood education, so that learners acquire independent learning throughout his life. Therefore, the basic learning skills should be included in the basic education curriculum with a significant composition. Ability of basic literacy is essential in order to create learning as one of the basic requirements for every graduate. 19
  24. 24. 2. To develop independent learning (self study), various strategies of incentives and disincentives must be applied to ensure that everyone feels compelled to learn as much as possible to gain competence. One type of incentive is upholding credibility in the selection mechanism, ranging from school entrance exams, final exams, competency test, recruitment test, the professional test and so on. If the selection mechanism is credible, then everyone will feel challenged to work hard to pursue the possibility to be selected objectively.3. To develop successful collective learning activities, the Government needs to design a study group for teachers and clear and credible incentives and disincentives. One example already implemented is KKG and MGMP as a form of informal education to facilitate collective learning activities in order to improve their career and productivity. The system can also be created for groups of school principals, groups of researchers and policy analysts, structural position, etc. Professional testing system, recruitment exam, promotion exam, promotion, or office allowance must be more credible and objective in order for the selection mechanism to be universal and the learning activity will be more dynamic among the employees.4. Informal education in the student’s family environment need to be developed in such a way that the family can serve as a support system to education in schools. One example is parenting education conducted intensively for parents of students in order to educate their children according to the education they receive in school. Parenting education in care-giving, nurturing, and educating the children under five at home is important for parents to educate their children beyond what is done in early childhood institutions, even more if the parents are unable or unwilling enter their children in early childhood 20
  25. 25. education. Educating and broadening the parent’s insight are also required to enhance the effectiveness of home-schooling. Especially for those who cannot afford to send their children to school. But school final exams need to be developed in such a way that can objectively offer opportunity for children who are not in school to take the school exam and gain recognition as a result of their learning activities independently in the family.5. In relation to informal education carried out en masse. Governments need to devise a system for guiding the provision of technical assistance or permits in such a way that the media do not bring about an adverse impact on changing undesirable behavior. That is why the Ministry need to compose a draft guidance and / or permissions granted to a variety of media content, printed as well as electronic (eg news, stories, ads, etc.) that are presented to the public in consideration of the education asepct. Permission need not be given by the Ministry, but recommendation to the Minister of Communication from the educational aspect on issue or broadcast permits.6. The Ministry is advised to prepare a strategic plan that contains draft guidance informal education as described in point 1 to 6 above. The draft should be drawn by the Ministry but daily guidance is carried out by Directorate General PAUDNI. To arrive at this draft, P2PNFI need to prepare and develop a pilot guidance program for informal education, if successful it can be applied nationally by Minstry.So, hopefully there is no benefit. 21
  26. 26. BIBLIOGRAPHYAhmed, Manzoor (1975) “Economics of Nonformal Education; Praeger special studies in international economics and development, Published August 1975 by Praeger Publishers Inc., U.S.Hanafi Taufik (2009) Rencana Pembangunan Pendidikan Jangka Panjang Bidang Pendidikan, Bahan presentasi Direktur Pendidikan dan Olahraga dan Agama Bappenas pada Rembuh Nasional Depdiknas 2009.Muhammad Yunus (2009) “Creating a World Without Poverty; Social Business and the Future Capitalism.; New York, Barnes & Noble.Psacharopoulos, George (2007) “The effect of education on employment, wages and productivity: A European perspective,” in Measuring, improving and promoting effects of lifelong learning. European Commission 2007.Psacharopoulos, George (1985) Return to Education: A Further International Update and Implications. “Journal of Human ResourcesPsacharopoulos, George and Maureen Woodhall (1985) Education for Development: An Analysis of Investment Choice. Published for the World Bank: Oxford University Press.Sen Amartia (2005) Sen, Amartya, “Development as Freedom,” Random House USA Inc; 1st Ed edition, 1999.Suryadi Ace (2008) Peranan Pendidikan Non-formal dalam Menanggulangi Kemiskinan” Bahan Presentasi Dirjen PNFI Depdiknas dalam Rapat Menko Kesra RI.Suryadi, Ace, Ph.D. (2002) Pendidikan Investasi SDM, dan Pembangunan. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.Suryadi, Ace. Ph.D. (2009). Mewujudkan Masyarakat Pembelajar. Bandung: Widya Aksara Press. 22
  27. 27. Suryadi, Ace., Prof. Ph.D. dan Dasim Budimansyah, Prof. Dr. M.Si. (2009) Paradigma Pembangunan Pendidikan: Konsep, Teori dan Aplikasi dalam Analisis Kebijakan Publik dalam Bidang Pendidikan. Bandung: Widya Aksara Press. 23