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Smart Cities of Italy: Integrating the Cyber World with the IoT

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Plant the #SmartCity #IoT seed in your community by borrowing some production-ready projects from #Messina, Italy! There's plenty of ideas to choose from http://SmartMe.io, http://smartme.unime.it/ & https://github.com/MDSLab. Our guest Antonio Puliafito explained how Smart Messina technology works and shared many tips for succeeding on your next Smart/Connected Community IoT Initiative.

Event recording is at https://youtu.be/-jLLfE8fRH8

Doubting it's possible to implement that in your community? Or just not sure you can spare 1.5 hours to watch this #Serverless #Toronto meetup? Then, watch this 5min CNET video from 2017 and get inspired (like we did :) https://www.cnet.com/videos/sicilys-smart-cities-show-its-getting-easier-to-get-smart/

And if you'll have any questions for Antonio and his team, post them to the #smart-city channel of http://slack.serverlesstoronto.org/, and the University of Messina researchers will get back to you!

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Smart Cities of Italy: Integrating the Cyber World with the IoT

  1. 1. 1 Inspired by
  2. 2. Welcome to ServerlessToronto.org 2 Introduce Yourself: - Where from? - Why are you here? Fill the survey to win prises! July 9, 2021: “Smart Cities of Italy” starts at 12:05pm…
  3. 3. Serverless Evolution (since FaaS started) 3 Serverless is New Agile & Mindset #1 We started as Back- end FaaS (Serverless) Developers who enjoyed “gluing” other people’s APIs and Managed Services) #3 We're obsessed by creating business value (meaningful MVPs, Products), focusing on Outcomes – NOT Outputs, and we mesh well with Product Managers #2 We build bridges between Serverless Community (“Dev leg”), and Front-end, Voice-First & UX folks (“UX leg”) #4 Achieve agility NOT by “sprinting” faster (like in Scrum), but working smarter (by using bigger building blocks and less Ops)
  4. 4. Disconnect between IT & Business needs 4 How to help companies accelerate? Technology is not the point => We are here to create Value Adopting Serverless Mindset allowed us to shift the focus from “pimping up our cars” (infrastructure/code), towards “driving” (the business) forward. ≠
  5. 5. Let’s bridge the Businesses & IT Gap by: 5 1. bringing more Business-focused topics (like one today) to educate, 2. offering free Second Opinions on Application/Data Architecture modernization (to Businesses), 3. offering for-fee Consulting service (regardless of how short they are), 4. connecting Cloud enthusiasts from the Community with Employers Fill page #1 of the Survey to indicate your needs / interests, and to win Manning raffle today: https://forms.gle/97fXbFxxtPzp4jsh8
  6. 6. Knowledge Sponsor (on our path to enlightenment :) 1. Go to www.manning.com 2. Select *any* e-Book, Video course, or liveProject you want! 3. Add it to your shopping cart (no more than 1 item in the cart) 4. Raffle winners will send me the emails (used in Manning portal), 5. So the publisher can move it to your Dashboard – as if purchased. Fill the survey to win!
  7. 7. Upcoming ServerlessToronto.org Meetups 7 1) Building a Data Cloud to enable Analytics and AI-Driven Innovation – Lak Lakshmanan, Director of Data Analytics and AI Solutions @ Google Cloud 2) Get started with Dialogflow & Contact Center AI on Google Cloud – Lee Boonstra, Conversational AI @ Google 3) Snowflake talk… in the works 4) YOUR “This is my Architecture” style presentations are welcome! Regardless how big or small your learning & sharing will be ☺ Please rate us on Meetup & Tell your peers we’re here to Help YOU help others
  8. 8. Software Defined Smart Cities: Integrating the Cyber World with the Internet of Things Prof. Antonio Puliafito
  9. 9. • Prof. of Distributed Systems at University of Messina, Italy (www.unime.it) • Director of the MDSLab research group (mdslab.unime.it) • Coordinator of the International PhD course in Cyber Physical Systems (www.unime.it/it/dottorato/cps) • Director of the CINI Italian Lab on «Smart Cities & Communities» (https://www.consorzio-cini.it) • Responsible of the SmartME crowdfunding initiative to exploit Messina into a Smart city (smartme.unime.it) • Co-founder of SmartMe.io (smartme.io)
  10. 10. WHAT MAKES A SMART CITY Monitor Model Manage Sense/Observe Communicate/Connect Analyze/Optimize Present/Visualize, Act Data collection and analysis to affect the system Act in Real-time @ City Scale Drive learning algorithms and processing architecture
  11. 11. SMART CITIES MEANS DIFFERENT THINGS TO DIFFERENT STAKEHOLDERS • Traffic control • Air quality monitoring • Trash management • Autonomous security systems • Use the data being collected • Driving Innovation • Providing new services • Money saving (transportation) • Parking solutions • Real-time traffic jam • Predict trajects timing • Connected houses/offices CITIES BUSINESSES CITIZENS
  12. 12. TIME TO VOTE: SMART CITIES… …ARE TRANSFORMING THE WAY WE LIVE & WORK OPTION 1 … ARE OVER-HYPED & UNDER-DELIVERED OPTION 2
  13. 13. SMART CITIES CAN BE COMPLICATED, FRUSTRATING & OVER-HYPED BUT SMART CITIES ARE THE FUTURE THE REALITY
  14. 14. SMART CITY MARKETFORECASTS 5G FOR CONNECTED CITIES WILL GENERATE USD 17 TRILLION IN ECONOMIC GROWTH BY 2035
  15. 15. WHY SMARTER CITIES ARENEEDED 2018 55% 68% 2050 90M 255M 416M MOVE TO URBAN AREAS IN ASEAN BY 2030 MOVE TO URBAN AREAS IN CHINA BY 2050 MOVE TO URBAN AREAS IN INDIA BY 2050 GLOBAL POPULATION LIVING IN URBAN AREAS
  16. 16. SMART CITY STRATEGIES IT’S STILL EARLYDAYS 153 CITIES HAVE PUBLISHED A SMART CITY STRATEGY STRATEGY INCLUDES TARGETS/ACTIVITIES 15 8 STRATEGY THAT INCLUDES IMPLEMENTATION
  17. 17. THE SMART CITYCHALLENGE
  18. 18. SMART CITY CHALLENGE #1 CITIES ARE COMPLICATED SHANGHAI 24M PEOPLE 33 GOVERNMENT AGENCIES 16 DISTRICTS 99 SUBDISTRICT COMMITTES 3 COUNTIES 205 TOWNS PROGRAM MANAGEMENT OFFICE MANAGE DELIVERY BREAK- DOWN SILOES STAKE- HOLDER MGMT SINGLE POINT OF CONTACT ENGAGE VENDORS IDENTIFY CITIZEN NEEDS PMO
  19. 19. GOVERNANCE IS ESSENTIAL SMART CITY CHALLENGE#2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT 360 POLICY TARGETS 4-YEAR WORK SCHEDULE FOR EACH INCIDENT MANAGEMENT TRACK & RESOLVE ISSUES OF CRIME, FIRE, FLOODING & ILLEGAL RUBBISH DUMPING CITIZENS REPORT 4,000 INCIDENTS DAILY (ILLEGAL PARKING, DAMAGE)
  20. 20. SMART CITY CHALLENGE #3 SOLUTIONS ARE COMPLEX SMART CITY SOLUTION ECOSYSTEM Q1: WHICH USE CASES? Q2: WHICH TECHNOLOGIES? Q3: WHICH VENDORS?
  21. 21. SMART CITY CHALLENGE VENDOR ECOSYSTEM ISFRAGMENTED THOUSANDS OF VENDORS CLAIM TO BE THE BEST DEVICE/NETWORK/PLATFORM… WHO SHOULD WE SELECT AS OUR STRATEGIC PARTNERS?
  22. 22. THE ELEPHANT IN THE ROOM: SECURITY LONDON 109M CYBER ATTACKS IN PAST FEW YEARS AT: KEW GARDENS IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM TATE GALLERY NATIONAL HISTORY MUSEUM 82M (75%) WERE SPYWARE ATTACKS TARGETING CONFIDENTIAL INFO SOURCE: PARLIAMENT STREET, 2019 CHALLENGE #5 SINGAPORE LEAKS 1.5M PATIENT MEDICAL RECORDS 800,000 BLOOD DONORS (POPULATION 5.6M) MALAYSIA LEAK 46M MOBILE SUBSCRIBER’S DATA WAS LEAKED VIA THE COMMS & MULTIMEDIA COMMISSION (POPULATION 32M) SOURCE: BBC, 2017
  23. 23. SURVEILLANCE CAMS DATA PRIVACY & SECURITY SMART METERS CHANGE METER READINGS & BILLS SMART PLUGS REMOTE CONTROL OF APPLIANCES PANIC BUTTONS SEND FALSE ALARMS TO EMERGENCY SVCS STREETLIGHTS TRAFFIC BLINDSPOT AND BLACKOUTS THE SITUATION GETS WORST IoT DEVICES
  24. 24. BLACKOUT DECEMBER 2015 UKRAINE POWER GRID CYBERATTACK • 30 SUBSTATIONS WERE SWITCHED OFF • SEVEN 110KV SUBSTATION • 23 35KV SUBSTATION • ABOUT 230 THOUSAND PEOPLE WERE LEFT WITHOUT ELECTRICITY FOR 6 HOURS IGNORE SECURITY AT YOUR PERIL TAKEAWAY
  25. 25. SMART CITY CHALLENGE FUNDING IS LIMITED VS PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP) MODEL DESIGN BUILD OPERATE OPS MAINT DESIGN BUILD BUILD TRANSFER OPERATE BUILD OWN OPERATE LEASE PPP PROOF OF CONCEPT (POC) MODEL
  26. 26. THE GOOD SIDE PUBLIC – PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS ALIBABA’S & HANGZHOU – THE CITY BRAIN HANGZHOU WAS CHINA’S 5TH MOST CONGESTED CITY IN CHINA HANGZHOU’S CITY BRAIN LEVERAGES INTERSECTION CAMERAS, GPS DATA FROM PUBLIC TRANSPORT, ETC TO COORDINATE 1000+ STOPLIGHTS TO EASE TRAFFIC AFTER 2 YEARS, RANKED AS 57TH MOST CONGESTED NOW DEPLOYED IN MACAU, SOZHOU, SHANGHAI, GUANGZHOU, CHONGQING & KUALA LUMPUR SOURCE: CNN, 2019
  27. 27. TAKEAWAY YOU CAN’T DO IT ALONE… COLLABORATE OR DIE TECHNOLOGY IS NOT THE GREATEST CHALLENGE, WE ARE
  28. 28. #SmartME CROWDFUNDING INITIATIVE OF UNIVERSITY OF MESSINA #SmartME intends to exploit the most innovative technology to contribute to a “smart” development process that fosters new behaviour and attidute towards social wellness, thus improving services and quality of life.
  29. 29. #SmartME EXAMPLE OF AN IOT DEVICE
  30. 30. #SmartME ARCHITECTURE OF #SMARTME FRAMEWORK Stack4Things Cloud CKAN datastores Nodes Commands and results Samples Rest interface WAMP interface Administration portal Public portal Fetch data Fetch data Administration actions Citizens Administrator App App App App App Services
  31. 31. #SmartME services ENVIRONEMENTAL MONITORING
  32. 32. #SmartME services SMART PARKING 1/2
  33. 33. #SmartME services SMART PARKING 2/2
  34. 34. #SmartME services OBJECTS IDENTIFICATION/COUNTING The Object Counter is an intelligent device, therefore “smart”, which uses mathematical-computer computation models (neural networks) based on the functioning of biological neural networks. How does it work? It works "On the Edge": all the processing takes place on the smart device and no image is recorded or transferred.
  35. 35. #SmartME services TOO(L) SMART TOO(L) smart is a reuse and evolution of the #SmartMe “good practice” that involves TORINO, PADOVA, MESSINA, LECCE and SIRACUSA The goal of project is to transform urban systems into a network of objects capable of taking an active role, interacting with each other, with citizens and with the PAs thanks to the paradigms of the Internet of Things and Cloud Computing.
  36. 36. #SmartME services TOO(L) SMART • TOO(L) smart is based on (and evolves) the #SmartMe IoT Platform • #SmartME was born as a crowdfunding project for the construction of an infrastructure of smart services within the city of Messina. • The basic technological requirements are based on the "open source" paradigm therefore, "open" solutions have been adopted for software, hardware and data. • Stack4Things is the framework used for IoT devices management. it constitutes an evolution of OpenStack. • The reference hardware adopted is based on the Arancino board, which integrates the Raspberry PI compute module and the Arduino control module in a single device. DEMO Budget: € 684,450.00 • CINI coordinates the dissemination of good practice at national level. • Technical support is provided by the startup smartme.IO • Evolution: Benevento, Montechiarugolo, Bari, Tangier
  37. 37. Virtual Workshop on March 3-4, 2021 http://slices-ri.eu/index.php/events/virtual-workshop-on-march-3-4-2021/ Italian Node: CNR, CINI, CNIT
  38. 38. smartme.IO • smartme.IO is an academic spin-off company of the University of Messina. • Designs and implements products combining open source and low-cost IoT technologies with OpenStack-based Cloud technologies. • Provides best-in-class solutions for Metering, Devices and Fleet Management, Monitoring, Crowdsensing and other aspects related to Smart Environments • The solutions addresses the requirements of municipalities, utilities, companies operating in challenging environments, such as airports and stations, interested in identification facilities, traceability, safety and video surveillance Projects
  39. 39. SmartMe.IO ARANCINO SMART BOARDS
  40. 40. Stack4Things MOTIVATION How to manage in a scalable and powerful way the proliferation of (increasingly smarter) mobile and IoT devices? IoT ecosystem • Mobiles • Cyber Physical Systems • Smart appliances • Sensors/Actuators • Wearables • Vehicles ...
  41. 41. Stack4Things CLOUD AND IOT INTEGRATION • IoT devices send data to the Cloud • Apps is built on top of standard cloud facilities VMs, storage, network) • Apps makes use of stored (non-real time) IoT data • Indirect, IoT device initiated only, retrieval of actuation commands Data-oriented approach
  42. 42. Stack4Things APPLICATION SPECIFIC (VERTICAL APPROACH) • The application uses ad-hoc mechanisms to interact with IoT devices. • No explicit interactions between Cloud components and IoT infrastructure. • Static infrastructure deployment. Application-specific (vertical) approach
  43. 43. • IoT infrastructure as a natural extension of a datacenter • Well-defined Cloud API as a resource management interface • Separation of concerns between infrastructure and application (when needed) • From Cloud to Fog/Edge computing • Device computation offloading I/Ocloud approach Stack4Things IoT FULL CLOUDIFICATION (I/OCLOUD APPROACH)
  44. 44. Approaches (to I/O extensions for the Cloud) • Bare-metal (VMs with I/O) • Virtualization (VNs) through Containers IoT FULL CLOUDIFICATION (I/OCLOUD APPROACH) Stack4Things
  45. 45. Stack4Things SOFTWARE DEFINED CITY • Analogy with Software Defined Networking (SDN). • Extends the SD* approach to a cyber city system to enable the re- configuration of the undelying infrastructure. • Several controllers exploit and implement the requested node topologies through generalized rules and according to predefined policies.
  46. 46. Stack4Things TECHNOLOGY ENABLERS
  47. 47. Stack4Things S4T & OPENSTACK IoT resource management service for OpenStack Clouds OpenStack (unofficial) project: • Member of the OpenStack Edge Computing group (https://wiki.openstack.org/wiki/Edge_Computing_Group) • https://launchpad.net/iotronic • https://opendev.org/x/iotronic
  48. 48. Stack4Things HIGH-LEVEL OVERVIEW • IoT scenarios are different from Cloud-based deployments • The devices are outside datacenters. • Deployed at the network Edge • Behind networking middleboxes (e.g., NATs, Firewalls) • S4T uses suitable mechanims to overwhelm the unique constraints of IoT deployments
  49. 49. Stack4Things HIGH-LEVEL OVERVIEW • Use of a software probe on the device-side (lightning-rod) • OpenStack compliant service (IoTronic) • Use of WAMP and plain WebSocket control channels •REST interfaces
  50. 50. Stack4Things CLOUD-SIDE ARCHITECTURE • Infrastructure management and interaction services exposed as RESTful APIs. • The Horizon dashboard as control surface for any kind of resource, including IoT- borne ones. • Deep integration with OpenStack (OS) frameworks and services, i.e., Cloud-side functionalities.
  51. 51. Stack4Things BOARD-SIDE ARCHITECTURE • The Lightning-Rod engine is the core of the device-side software architecture. • The engine interacts with the Cloud through WAMP protocol (i.e., pub/sub and RPCs) • The WebSocket libraries allows the engine to act as a WebSocket reverse tunnelling server. • Custom plugins can be injected from the Cloud in order to implement specific user-defined commands The figure shows the core services of IoTronic. Advanced functionalities are deployed by adding other components to this architecture.
  52. 52. Stack4Things SENSING-AND-ACTUATION-AS-A-SERVICE (SAaaS) • Management of different entities involved (owners, administrators, users ...) • OpenStack Keystone Identity service is used to manage authorizations and delegation. • Blockchain is being used to enhance authorization/delegation processes.
  53. 53. Stack4Things SERVICE FORWARDING • A user can access, remotely, his/her services running on the device using the Cloud IP address. • Each service has its own (secured) Websocket tunnel. • Requests received on a specific port on the Cloud are forwarded through a Websocket tunnel. • Example: An SSH daemon running on the board (i.e., port 22) can be exposed through the public IP address of the Cloud and a specific port.
  54. 54. Stack4Things LOGIC CUSTOMIZATION: PLUGINS • Adapt the behaviour, or define the business logic of remote devices. • Users can inject custom code on any device at runtime under the guise of independent pluggable modules. • Plugins are managed/stored on the Cloud. • Stack4Things provides Node.js and Python as runtime environments. • Two kinds of plugins are available in the system: synchronous and asynchronous. o Synchronous plugins: are characterized by a short execution time and can provide a result to the user (in the form of a JSON object). o Asynchronous plugins: are long-running pieces of code that can be executed on a node and do not provide any result.
  55. 55. Stack4Things VIRTUAL NETWORKING IN IOT • Virtualization both at the network and datalink layers enables flexible overlay networking topologies. • Infrastructure-agnostic applications. • Enable the creation of network overlays between geographically dispersed devices, we integrated Neutron, the networking subsystem of OpenStack, with our S4T middleware. • Extending the scope of applicability of service discovery protocols (e.g., AllJoyn). • Virtual networks may span both (datacenter- hosted) VMs and virtual IoT devices.
  56. 56. Stack4Things VIRTUAL NETWORKING IN IOT • Integration of S4T with the OpenStack Networking subsystem, Neutron. • Extending Neutron capabilities to deal with IoT deployments constraints. • Boards are totally unaware about network virtualization duties and Neutron. • Virtual Networking equipment (e.g., virtual switches) are deployed on the Cloud. • Only virtual interfaces (i.e., TAP class devices) are created on the devices. • The overall footprint of the solution is inherently lightweight for the boards.
  57. 57. Stack4Things VIRTUAL NETWORKING IN IOT USE CASE 1 USE CASE 2 USE CASE 3 USE CASE 4
  58. 58. Stack4Things EDGE FUNCTION-AS-A-SERVICE (FaaS) • S4T provides the capability to conceive applications involving IoT devices based on the FaaS/Serverless paradigm. • Functions can be injected on remote IoT devices and then executed/triggered by particular events (i.e., event-driven). • We make use of the Cloud-oriented OpenStack services Qinling (Serverless subsystem) and Zun (containers management subsystem). • IoTronic is used as a networking driver for Zun/Qinling.
  59. 59. Stack4Things EDGE FUNCTION-AS-A-SERVICE (FaaS) • Use case: Create IoT pipelines/dataflows involving geo-distributed devices and their hosted resources (i.e., sensors and actuators) • Node-Red blocks are instantiated on the devices as FaaS functions. • Functions deployed on the Cloud-side can be also involved (i.e., more compute resources). • OpenStack/Qinling is used as a centralized repository for the custom actions. • For applications involving ‘serverless’ logic in the cloud, S4T can provide a standard way to package, deploy and manage functions/actions across the cloud and the edge. • You can conveniently develop custom logic for the IoT devices in programming languages other than JavaScript (e.g., Python).
  60. 60. Stack4Things WEB OF THINGS • Integration of the OpenStack DNS-as- a-Service, Designate, with IoTronic. • Adding new devices or removing others from the deployments is efficiently managed. • Manage/associate unique URLs with services running on IoT devices. • Websockets tunnels are used to send the requests received. • The NGINX reverse proxy is used to forward received request to their destination based on the URLs indicated.
  61. 61. Stack4Things WEB OF THINGS • The S4T device-side agent Lightning-Rod (LR) manages the configuration of the devices. • Manage/associate unique URLs with the services as sub-domains of a public one. • The NGINX reverse proxy forwards the received requests to the service involved based on the URLs indicated. • HTTPS is used to enhance the security of the approach. • Let’s Encrypt CA and Certbot are used to manage X.509 certificates issuance. For a short demo: https://wot.rasp-univ.iot.felooca.eu/
  62. 62. Stack4Things WEB OF THINGS
  63. 63. Stack4Things WEB OF THINGS • Use case: Stack4Things Web services are used to enable the Web of Things paradigm (WoT). • The WoT paradigm aims at making IoT devices/resources an integral part of the Web. • By exposing Web servers running on the IoT devices, we can expose sensors and actuators as Web resources. • Smart things become easier to build upon popular Web languages (e.g., HTML, Python, JavaScript, PHP) can be used to easily build applications involving smart things • Demo: https://wot.rasp-univ.iot.felooca.eu/ All interactions here are HTTPS based. Everything as a Resource
  64. 64. Portal for fleet management 1/2 Stack4Things
  65. 65. Portal for fleet management 2/2 Stack4Things
  66. 66. Short Video of the portal for fleet management
  67. 67. Containers managed by the same wstunnel agent Stack4Things BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] D.Bruneo et al. An IoT service ecosystem for Smart Cities: The #SmartME project. [2] Z.Benomar et al. Enabling Container-Based Fog Computing with OpenStack. [3] G. Tricomi et al. Software-Defined City Infrastructure: A Control Plane for Rewireable Smart Cities. [4] D.Bruneo et al. I/Ocloud: Adding an IoT Dimension to Cloud Infrastructures. [5] Z.Benomar et al. Extending Openstack for Cloud-Based Networking at the Edge. [6] F.Longo et al. Stack4Things: a sensing-and-actuation-as-a-service framework for IoT and cloud integration. [7] D.Bruneo et al. Head in a Cloud: An approach for Arduino YUN virtualization. [8] Z.Benomar et al. A Stack4Things-based Web of Things Architecture [9] S.Distefno et al. Device-Centric Sensing: An Alternative to Data-Centric Approaches. [10] N.Tapas et al. Blockchain-Based IoT-Cloud Authorization and Delegation.
  68. 68. • DEMO THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION Antonio Puliafito apuliafito@unime.it Projects links: • https://smartme.io • https://arancino.cc • https://git.openstack.org/cgit/openstack/iotronic
  69. 69. Join www.ServerlessToronto.org Home of “Less IT Mess”

Plant the #SmartCity #IoT seed in your community by borrowing some production-ready projects from #Messina, Italy! There's plenty of ideas to choose from http://SmartMe.io, http://smartme.unime.it/ & https://github.com/MDSLab. Our guest Antonio Puliafito explained how Smart Messina technology works and shared many tips for succeeding on your next Smart/Connected Community IoT Initiative. Event recording is at https://youtu.be/-jLLfE8fRH8 Doubting it's possible to implement that in your community? Or just not sure you can spare 1.5 hours to watch this #Serverless #Toronto meetup? Then, watch this 5min CNET video from 2017 and get inspired (like we did :) https://www.cnet.com/videos/sicilys-smart-cities-show-its-getting-easier-to-get-smart/ And if you'll have any questions for Antonio and his team, post them to the #smart-city channel of http://slack.serverlesstoronto.org/, and the University of Messina researchers will get back to you!

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