Justin C S W R P


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  • cswrpindia@gmail.com www.cswrpindia.org
  • cswrpindia@gmail.com www.cswrpindia.org
  • cswrpindia@gmail.com www.cswrpindia.org
  • Justin C S W R P

    1. 1. UNWED TRIBAL MOTHERS IN WAYANADU <ul><li>Researchers: </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Justin P. Jose, MA, MSW, M.Phil [NIMHANS] </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs. Treesa T. Pulickal, MSW, M.Phil [NIMHANS] </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Santhosh K. J, MA, MSW. </li></ul><ul><li>Centre for Social Work Research & Practice –India </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Anvar Sadath. V, MSW, M. Phil [NIMHANS] , </li></ul><ul><li>Lecturer, </li></ul><ul><li>Rajagiri College of Social Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>CSWRP - INDIA </li></ul>No One Knows Unwed Tribal Mothers in Wayanadu Better than Us!!
    2. 2. <ul><li>UNWED TRIBAL MOTHERHOOD IN SOUTH INDIA </li></ul><ul><li>Does marital status matter for fewer difficulties and dissatisfactions in social life and its quality? </li></ul><ul><li>POLICY AND PROGRAMMATIC IMPLICATIONS TO ENSURE EQUITY </li></ul><ul><li>This research was sponsored by </li></ul><ul><li>Centre for Social Work Research & Practice [CSWRP-INDIA] </li></ul><ul><li>Contact Us </li></ul><ul><li>Website: www.cswrpindia.org & Emil: [email_address] </li></ul>No One Knows Unwed Tribal Mothers in Wayanadu Better than Us!!
    3. 3. Background <ul><li>Unwed tribal mothers in Wayanadu were often the victims of sexual exploitation with false promise of marriage (Lukose, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>They often become pregnant as early as at 13 years and struggle to bring up their children (Lukose, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>Most of these unwed mothers were illiterate or less educated and daily wage earners as agricultural coolies and housemaids etc., who hail from less income families. </li></ul><ul><li>Besides, unwed motherhood is attached with intense societal stigma and discriminations . </li></ul><ul><li>These are in the forms of exclusion from important familial affairs and customary religious practices (Jose, et al, 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>Many live with their own parents and enjoy very limited freedom (Lukose, 2004). </li></ul>No One Knows Unwed Tribal Mothers in Wayanadu Better than Us!!
    4. 4. Background <ul><li>Though the most unwed mothers were living with their parents and siblings. </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of relationships with family were often characterized by frequent blame, dishonor, and discriminatory treatment Jose et al., 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>which lead to intense psychological distress among many unwed mothers. (Jose et al., 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Further, we do not know how they are treated or their status within their families? </li></ul><ul><li>How empowered are they to take decision for themselves and for their children. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also critical to look at the extent of difficulties and dissatisfaction they experience social life and its quality. </li></ul>No One Knows Unwed Tribal Mothers in Wayanadu Better than Us!!
    5. 5. Research Questions <ul><li>Hence the current study raised a two central research questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Does marital status of tribal mothers influence their empowerment? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Does marital status influence unwed tribal mothers’ domains of social life and its quality? </li></ul><ul><li>Research Design and Study Participants: </li></ul><ul><li>A cross-sectional descriptive research was conducted </li></ul><ul><li>A total of 185 tribal women from Wayanadu district were selected for the study. </li></ul><ul><li>The study participants were divided into three groups based on their present marital status. </li></ul>No One Knows Unwed Tribal Mothers in Wayanadu Better than Us!!
    6. 6. Method and Materials <ul><li>Group-I </li></ul><ul><li>First group included 95 participants who were unwed tribal mothers living alone or with their parents or siblings. </li></ul><ul><li>They were not living either with the help of the father of their children or other men. </li></ul><ul><li>Group-II </li></ul><ul><li>The second group was 40 tribal mothers who were impregnated and delivered children outside the wedlock but later married </li></ul><ul><li>And presently living with the same men or other men in a marital relation. </li></ul><ul><li>Group-III </li></ul><ul><li>The third group constituted 50 tribal women who were traditionally married as per the tribal customary practices and presently living with their husbands. </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling procedure: The universe of the study was tribal mothers from Kerala’s district of Wayanadu, India. </li></ul>No One Knows Unwed Tribal Mothers in Wayanadu Better than Us!!
    7. 7. Methods and Materials <ul><li>Protection of participants: All participants were educated about the purpose and objectives of the study in their native language. </li></ul><ul><li>Informed consent was obtained in writing from each participant. </li></ul><ul><li>Research Instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-demographic Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment Index (Amin, et al., 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>3. Social Problem Questionnaire (Corny and Clare , 1985) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Quality of Community Life Questionnaire (ICMR, 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical Analyses </li></ul><ul><li>To analyze demographic variables, descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation and range were used. </li></ul><ul><li>The acros group differences and variance were studied using one way ANOVA and Independent Sample t’ test. </li></ul>No One Knows Unwed Tribal Mothers in Wayanadu Better than Us!!
    8. 8. Key findings & discussion <ul><li>Demographic Information </li></ul><ul><li>Most of Unwed Mothers were from Paniya and Adiyan tribal communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Which dispose tribal women more vulnerable to pre-marital sexual relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>About 80% of the later marriages were self arranged which were closely associated to inadequate family support. </li></ul><ul><li>Most unwed mothers were living alone and they were more regular at work and earn more than other two groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Because they were often left alone with no instrumental family support. </li></ul><ul><li>They were likely to have less support from the father of their children which necessitated them to work more regular than other groups. </li></ul>No One Knows Unwed Tribal Mothers in Wayanadu Better than Us!!
    9. 9. Key findings & discussion <ul><li>Unwed mothers also reported having almost equal number of children as traditionally married mothers and unwed mothers who later married. </li></ul><ul><li>This implied that the nature of pre-marital sexual relationships were likely to be ongoing and consistent rather commonly perceived single or occasional episodes. </li></ul><ul><li>Marital Status & Empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>The central research question being raised was ‘does the marital status influence tribal women’s empowerment?’ </li></ul><ul><li>To answer this we need to consider the larger rural Indian social system which is fundamentally patriarchal and male dominated, where women are merely subordinates. </li></ul><ul><li>Though there are tribal groups where either women enjoy equal status with men or even lead family affairs, </li></ul><ul><li>the ever increasing contact with non-tribal rural communities may have possible influence of male domination onto tribal family structure. </li></ul>No One Knows Unwed Tribal Mothers in Wayanadu Better than Us!!
    10. 10. Key Findings & discussion <ul><li>Furthermore, married women hold far higher status in the society than unmarried or widowed women (Handy and Kassam, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>However, this advantage of being married did not guarantee empowerment at individual and family sphere of women’s lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the traditionally married tribal mothers were less likely to be empowered </li></ul><ul><li>This may because unwed mothers were more likely to live alone. </li></ul><ul><li>And they often do not require consulting with husbands, parents or others family members </li></ul><ul><li>They work more regular and more number of days in a month and earn more income than other two groups of participants. </li></ul>No One Knows Unwed Tribal Mothers in Wayanadu Better than Us!!
    11. 11. Key findings & discussion <ul><li>The current results supported the assumption that tribal mothers who arranged their marriage without family involvement were more likely to have higher score on E-Index. </li></ul><ul><li>This may be because certain amount of empowerment is a prerequisite for a woman to decide her own marriage, than letting it to her parents to decide or chose. </li></ul><ul><li>Unwed tribal mothers were more likely to experience intense difficulties and dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Marital Status and Social Life </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly, they were more likely to experience burden in performing household activities than other two groups. </li></ul><ul><li>This may be because unwed tribal mothers were often left alone, stigmatized and discriminated (Jose, et al., 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>therefore they lack adequate social support in the forms of supports from family, relatives and friends. </li></ul>No One Knows Unwed Tribal Mothers in Wayanadu Better than Us!!
    12. 12. Key Findings & Discussion <ul><li>As a result, they need to perform multiple roles (of family life) resulting intense difficulties and dissatisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>The present findings showed an interesting direction that there were no significant differences across groups on financial difficulties. </li></ul><ul><li>This may be due to high level of empowerment, being more regular at work, independent earning of unwed mothers. </li></ul><ul><li>Can we promote later marriage of unwed tribal mothers as solution? </li></ul><ul><li>The present finding showed that unwed mothers who later married experienced higher level of marital difficulties and dissatisfaction than other two groups </li></ul><ul><li>Which strengthen the assumption that their past life i.e., they were labelled as ‘unwed mothers’ may have a possible influence in later marital life. </li></ul>No One Knows Unwed Tribal Mothers in Wayanadu Better than Us!!
    13. 13. Key Findings & Discussion <ul><li>Which creates problems and mistrust in spousal relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Further, the children born in pre-marital sexual relations may pose another threat to current marital relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>However, systematic verification for these explanations are needed for the precise understanding on how does unwed motherhood influence on later marital life? </li></ul><ul><li>Does unwed motherhood stimulate relationship issues in social life? </li></ul><ul><li>The answer seems to be “ yes ” as the present findings showed that unwed mothers’ relationships with their own families seemed unhealthy </li></ul><ul><li>as they experience higher levels of relationships difficulties with their families. </li></ul><ul><li>they were also highly dissatisfied in present relationship status than other two groups </li></ul>No One Knows Unwed Tribal Mothers in Wayanadu Better than Us!!
    14. 14. Key Findings & Discussion <ul><li>Though we have seen that the tribal mothers who choose self arranged marriage scored higher score on E-Index. </li></ul><ul><li>They were less likely to receive adequate family support and had significant relationship difficulties and dissatisfactions with family of origin, relatives and children. </li></ul><ul><li>A possible explanation may be that self arranged marriages were often associated to unwillingness of family members. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus couples who choose self arranged marriages were often enjoy limited or inadequate social support from family and relatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Besides, such couples also face high levels of relationship difficulties and dissatisfaction with family members and relatives. </li></ul>No One Knows Unwed Tribal Mothers in Wayanadu Better than Us!!
    15. 15. Key Findings & discussion <ul><li>Marital Status & Quality of Social Life </li></ul><ul><li>Does marital statuses of study participants influenced quality of social life ? </li></ul><ul><li>Result revealed that unwed tribal mothers were more likely to enjoy less quality of social life than other two groups. </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of marriage also influences the quality of social life. </li></ul><ul><li>The study revealed that tribal mothers who had self arranged marriages were less likely to have better relationships with colleagues at workplace. </li></ul><ul><li>They enjoy inadequate family support, social contacts and access to community information. </li></ul><ul><li>The traditionally married mothers had better community engagement and participation. </li></ul>No One Knows Unwed Tribal Mothers in Wayanadu Better than Us!!
    16. 16. Key Findings & Discussion <ul><li>whereas unwed mothers were least likely to engage and participate in such community events. </li></ul><ul><li>The results imply that grater level of perceived social exclusion of unwed mothers from mainstream social life due to their marital status. </li></ul><ul><li>They were likely to have less social contacts and access to community information and they also enjoy inadequate social support from friends and neighbours. </li></ul>No One Knows Unwed Tribal Mothers in Wayanadu Better than Us!!
    17. 17. Recommendations <ul><li>Interventions need a critical policy shift in terms of increased social investment by state and central governments, NOGs and other funding agencies </li></ul><ul><li>This should aim at initiating and strengthening social capital for tribal women. </li></ul><ul><li>The current study justifies interventions at individual and structural levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed identifying and linking unwed tribal mothers to existing and newly designed programmes. </li></ul><ul><li>Tailored Clinical Social Work Interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Assertive Skill Training </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Advocacy Services </li></ul><ul><li>Initiating and Strengthening Social Support Groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Initiate and Promote Micro Credit Programs for tribal mothers </li></ul>No One Knows Unwed Tribal Mothers in Wayanadu Better than Us!!
    18. 18. Recommendations <ul><li>Linking with existing Employment Schemes and other welfare measures </li></ul><ul><li>Interventions are needed for the promotion of literacy level, providing skill based training programs; and facilitating access to existing employment schemes </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs and local administrative bodies can play a constructive role to identify and link vulnerable tribal women to such welfare programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling bias occurred during the sample selection due to the over representation of Paniya tribe. </li></ul><ul><li>Low score on E-Index of traditionally married mothers also might have an influence of social desirability </li></ul>No One Knows Unwed Tribal Mothers in Wayanadu Better than Us!!