Fundamentals of biology


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Fundamentals of biology

  1. 1. Fundamentals of Biology
  2. 2. 4.1 The Ingredients of Life• A. The Building Blocks• 1 Organic compounds – molecules containing C, H, & O• Make life possible• High-energy molecules Energy used to synthesize Energy released in breakdown• Four types of organic compounds
  3. 3. 2 Carbohydrates – sugars• Glucose – metabolized for energy• Starches – long chains of simple sugars used for energy storage• Chitin – skeletal material• Cellulose – cell structure
  4. 4. 3 Proteins• Chains of amino acids• Muscles are mostly made up of proteins• Enzymes – catalyze reactions• Structural proteins – skin, hair, skeleton• Hormones
  5. 5. 4 Lipids• Fats, oils, & waxes• Energy storage – more than twice as much as sugar• Water repellant• Buoyancy• Insulation• Hormones
  6. 6. 5 Nucleic Acids• Store and transmit the genetic information of all living things• Long chains of subunits called nucleotides• DNA – instructions for the construction and maintenance of an organism; the complete set is called the genome• The nitrogen bases are sequenced into genes that code for a specific protein• RNA – helps DNA
  7. 7. B. The Fuel of Life• ATP – the molecule used to store energy; like a rechargeable battery• You use ~ 125 lbs./day• Organisms need to capture, store and use energy• Most organisms use only two sets of reactions
  8. 8. 1 Photosynthesis: Making the Fuel• Algae, plants, and some microorganisms• Capture the sun’s energy and use it to make glucose The pigment chlorophyll captures the solar energy CO2 + H2O → C6H12O6 (glucose) + O2• We rely on photosynthesis for food and oxygen• Organisms that photosynthesize are called autotrophs Plants on land; bacteria and algae in the ocean
  9. 9. 2 Respiration: Burning the Fuel• Both autotrophs and heterotrophs do it• Releases the energy from org. compounds• Reverse of photosynthesis Organic matter (glucose) + O2→ H2O + CO2• Similar to burning wood or oil• Chemical energy captured in ATP• Aerobic – uses oxygen, more efficient• Anaerobic – does not use oxygen, less efficient
  10. 10. 3 Primary Production• Most of the glucose is used for fuel or converted into other types of org. compounds• The organic matter autotrophs make is called primary production Used by the organism for growth and reproduction• Autotrophs are also called producers
  11. 11. 4 The Importance of Nutrients• Vitamins, minerals and other substances are needed to convert glucose into other org. compounds• Nitrogen for proteins & nucleic acids• Phosphorus for nucleic acids• Silica (SiO2) to make shells• Iron – necessary, but a limited resource in the ocean
  12. 12. 4.2 Living Machinery• Organic compounds are organized into functional units that are alive
  13. 13. A. Cells and Organelles Cell – basic unit of life All organisms are made of cells Wrapped in a cell membrane• Cell is filled with jelly-like cytoplasm• Organelles have specific jobs in the cell
  14. 14. 1. Structurally Simple Cells: Prokaryotes Prokaryotes are primitive cells Ancient, simple, small No membrane-bound organelles Bacteria Prokaryotes have few structures: Cell wall – support Ribosomes – assemble proteins DNA – loose in the cytoplasm Flagella – locomotion
  15. 15. 2. Structurally Complex Cells: Eukaryotes Eukaryotic cells are organized and complex Larger than prokaryotes Have specialized organelles: Nucleus – contains chromosomes (DNA) Endoplasmic reticulum – make proteins and other org. molecules for the cell Golgi apparatus – package and transport molecules Mitochondria – respiration center to provide energy Flagella and cilia – for movement Only in plant & algal cells Chloroplasts – photosynthesis center Cell wall - support
  16. 16. B. Levels of Organization1. A cell is self-contained and can carry out all the functions necessary for life• Unicellular – all prokaryotes and some eukaryotes• Multicellular – most eukaryotes Human body has 100,000,000,000,000 cells• In multicellular organisms cells specialize to perform different tasks for the organism• Cells that act together for a specific job are called tissues Muscle, nervous, bone, blood, epithelial• Tissues are organized into organs to carry out specific functions Liver, kidney, heart, skin, brain• Organs act together in an organ system Skeletal, muscular, excretory, endocrine, digestive
  17. 17. 2. Organization exists outside the individual organism Species – one type of organism Blue mussel Population – a group of one species A bunch of blue mussels Community – several different populations that live and interact in an area Blue mussels, crabs, barnacles, & chitons living on a rock Ecosystem – the communities living together with the physical environment Living on a rocky shore with seawater, air, temperature, sunlight, etc.
  18. 18. 4.3 Challenges of Life in the Sea• Marine organisms must cope with different problems than on land• They have evolved ways to adapt to their marine habitat• Most important is maintaining homeostasisKeeping their internal condition normal regardless of the external condition
  19. 19. A. Salinity• Marine organisms are immersed in a medium – sea water – that can greatly affect their cell function• Enzymes and organic molecules are sensitive to ion concentration (salinity)
  20. 20. 1. Diffusion and Osmosis• Dissolved ions move around in water• Random movement spreads them out in an even distribution• Results in diffusion – movement from high low concentration• When concentrations are different inside and outside a cell, substances will move in/out by diffusion Salt from seawater will diffuse into the cell Nutrients will diffuse out of the cell• The cell membrane blocks block diffusion It’s selectively permeable – it allows only some substances to go in/out
  21. 21. • Water is a small molecule and can fit through the cell membrane It also diffuses from high → low concentration If a cell has more solutes inside than outside, water will stream in and swell the cell If the seawater has more salt, water will leave and the cell will shrivel This diffusion of water is called osmosis• Cells may need to move materials against diffusion (low high) e.g. expelling extra salt or taking in more sugar Active transport – proteins in the cell membrane pump materials using ATP1/3 of the cell’s energy is spent on this
  22. 22. 2. Regulation of Salt and Water Balance• Marine organisms have adapted ways to balance water and salt• Osmoconformers –their internal concentrations change with the salinity of the seawater Live in a narrow range of salinity• Osmoregulators – control internal concentrations to avoid osmotic problems Can tolerate changes in salinity better Can change their internal concentrations to match the seawater Salt water fishes lose water by osmosis Drink water or reduce urine amount to replace lost water Excrete excess salts in the urine or through the gills
  23. 23.  Freshwater fishes gain water by osmosisDon’t drink water or produce lots of urineSalt absorbed by gills Some marine birds and reptiles have special glands to get rid of excess salt Most algae have rigid cell walls that resist the swelling caused by osmotic water gain
  24. 24. B. Temperature Metabolic reactions speed up/slow down when temperature goes up/down Metabolic rate doubles every 10oC At extreme temps most enzymes cease to function Marine organisms are adapted to live in a temp range Thus determining what regions of the oceans they live
  25. 25.  Ectotherms – “cold blooded” lose their heat to the seawater Endotherms – “warm blooded” retain heat and keep their body temp higher than the water Mammals, birds, and some large fishes Poikilotherms – body temp changes with the temp of the seawater Incl. all ectotherms & endothermic fishes Homeotherms – keep internal temp the same, regardless of outside temp Produce more heat as need to keep their metabolic activity high Mammals & birds They need to eat more food Insulate their bodies with feathers, hair, and blubber
  26. 26. C. Surface-to-Volume Ratio Heat and materials exchange across the surface of an organism The surface-to-volume ratio (S/V ratio) determines how rapidly this happens As organisms get larger the volume grows faster than the surface area Small organisms rely on diffusion Large organisms respiratory and excretory systems
  27. 27. 4.4 Perpetuating LifeA species must reproduce or vanish from the planet Produce a new offspring Pass on the genetic information
  28. 28. A. Modes of ReproductionCells reproduce through cell division Cell fission in prokaryotes; mitosis in eukaryotes Results in identical daughter cells
  29. 29. 1. Asexual ReproductionNo partner Offspring are genetically identical – clones Most single-celled organisms reproduce this way Some multicellular organisms do: Some sea anemones will split in half, making two smaller ones –fission Some sponges develop growths that break off to become separate individuals – budding or vegetative reproduction
  30. 30. 2. Sexual Reproduction Union of two separate gametes from two parents Ovaries – female gonads that produce eggs Testes – male gonads that produce sperm Meiosis divides the chromosomes in half; Fertilization combines them to form a full set again A fertilized egg is called a zygote. It has DNA from both parents This genetic recombination causes variation in the offspring Greatest advantage of sexual reproduction The zygote divides by mitosis and eventually forms an embryo May pass through a larval stage on the way to adulthood
  31. 31. B. Reproductive StrategiesThe goal of reproduction is to pass on the genes Varying reproductive strategies to get the same result Broadcast spawning – release millions of eggs and sperm into the water No parental care, most die Have few offspring and invest more time and energy into their survival Some use sexual and asexual reproduction Some species are hermaphroditic, both sexual organs
  32. 32. 4.5 The Diversity of Life in the Sea• The vast diversity of organisms in the ocean came through millions of years of evolution• The gradual alteration of a species’ genetic makeup
  33. 33. A. Natural Selection and AdaptationIndividual organisms show variation in how they: Find food, avoid being eaten, reproduce, find mates, metabolize, etc. The best-adapted produce more offspring than the others This process is called natural selection As their genes get passed on the favorable traits become more common The population’s genetic makeup changes over time as it adapts to its environment Populations either adapt to the changes in the environment or become extinct
  34. 34. B. Classifying Living ThingsTo discuss the huge variety of life forms we must first classify them1. The Biological Species Concept What is a species? A type of organism? A population with common characteristics that can successfully breed with each other (fertile offspring) If two populations cannot interbreed they are reproductively isolated
  35. 35. 2. Biological Nomenclature• Organisms are identified with a two-word name - Genus and species• Blue whale – Balaenoptera musculus• Fin whale – Balaenoptera physalus• Minke whale – Balaenoptera acutorostrata• Latin or Greek is used for naming• Common names are confusing, scientific names are used worldwide to precisely identify a species
  36. 36. Levels of Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
  37. 37. 3. Phylogenetics: Reconstructing Evolution Organisms are grouped according to their relatedness  Related organisms share an evolutionary history, or phylogeny  They share a common ancestor  Look at fossil record, anatomy, reproduction, embryological development, DNA, behavior, etc.
  38. 38. 4. The Tree of Life• Classifications have changed over time• Started with two kingdoms – Animalia and Plantae• Then five kingdoms – added Fungi, Monera, & Protista• Then three domain system