McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-1
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-2ChapterIndividual Differences andWork Beha...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-3Why Individual Differences Are Important:(...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-4Why Individual Differences Are Important:(...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-5Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Cycle...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-6Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Cycle...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-7Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Cycle...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-8Each phase of the ASA cycle issignificantl...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-9Effective managerial practicerequires that...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-10Individual Differences in the WorkplaceAb...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-11The Basis for Understanding WorkBehavior:...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-12Ability andAbility andSkillsSkillsPercept...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-13Diversity FactorsPrimary Dimensions(stabl...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-14Sex Differences in Management:Selected Re...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-15Sex Differences in Management:Selected Re...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-16Abilities and Skills• Ability – a person’...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-17Attitudes• Are determinates of behavior b...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-18Attitudes: Implications for the Manager1....
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-19Manager styleManager styleTechnologyTechn...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-20Cognition• What individuals know about th...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-21Affect• The emotional component of an att...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-22Cognitive Dissonance• A discrepancy betwe...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-23Changing AttitudesThe CommunicatorThe Com...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-24How to Increase Your Effectiveness inChan...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-25How to Increase Your Effectiveness inChan...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-26Attitudes and Job Satisfaction• Job satis...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-27Satisfaction-Performance Relationships:Th...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-28Personality• A relatively stable set of f...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-29Some Major Forces Influencing Personality...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-30The Big FivePersonalityDimensionsLocus of...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-31ConscientiousnessConscientiousnessExtrove...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-32Locus of Control• Locus of control of ind...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-33Self-Efficacy• Feelings of self-efficacy ...
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-34How to Develop Employee Creativity1. Enco...
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Chap003

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Chap003

  1. 1. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-1
  2. 2. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-2ChapterIndividual Differences andWork Behavior3
  3. 3. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-3Why Individual Differences Are Important:(1 of 2)• Individual differences have a direct effecton behavior• People who perceive things differentlybehave differently• People with different attitudes responddifferently to directives• People with different personalities interactdifferently with bosses, coworkers,subordinates, and customers
  4. 4. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-4Why Individual Differences Are Important:(2 of 2)• Individual differences help explain:• Why some people embrace change andothers are fearful of it• Why some employees will be productiveonly if they are closely supervised, whileothers will be productive if they are not• Why some workers learn new tasks moreeffectively than others
  5. 5. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-5Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Cycle(1 of 3)• Different people are attracted to differentcareers and organizations as a function oftheir own:• abilities• interests• personalities
  6. 6. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-6Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Cycle(2 of 3)• Organizations select employees on thebasis of the needs the organization has• skills and abilities• individual attributes such as values andpersonality
  7. 7. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-7Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Cycle(3 of 3)• Attrition occurs when:• individuals discover they do not like beingpart of the organization and elect to resign,or• the organization determines an individual isnot succeeding and elects to terminate
  8. 8. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-8Each phase of the ASA cycle issignificantly influenced by the individualdifferences of each personEach phase of the ASA cycle issignificantly influenced by the individualdifferences of each person
  9. 9. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-9Effective managerial practicerequires that individual behaviordifferences be recognized, and whenfeasible, taken into considerationwhile carrying out the job ofmanaging organizational behavior.
  10. 10. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-10Individual Differences in the WorkplaceAbility and SkillsAbility and Skills AttitudesAttitudesPerceptionPerceptionPersonalityPersonalityWork Behavior• Productivity• Creativity• PerformanceIndividual DifferencesIndividual Differences
  11. 11. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-11The Basis for Understanding WorkBehavior:• To understand individual differences amanager must:1.1. observe and recognize the differencesand2.2. study relationships between variablesthat influence behavior
  12. 12. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-12Ability andAbility andSkillsSkillsPerceptionPerception AttitudesAttitudesHereditary andHereditary andDiversityDiversityFactorsFactorsPersonalityPersonalityIndividual Differences Influencing WorkBehavior:
  13. 13. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-13Diversity FactorsPrimary Dimensions(stable)• Age• Ethnicity• Gender• Physical attributes• Race• Sexual / affectionalorientationPrimary Dimensions(stable)• Age• Ethnicity• Gender• Physical attributes• Race• Sexual / affectionalorientationSecondary Dimensions(changeable)• Educational background• Marital status• Religious beliefs• Health• Work experienceSecondary Dimensions(changeable)• Educational background• Marital status• Religious beliefs• Health• Work experience
  14. 14. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-14Sex Differences in Management:Selected Results (1 of 2)Dimension ResultsBehavior:Task-orientedPeople-orientedEffectiveness ratingsResponse to poorperformerInfluence strategiesNo difference.No difference.Stereotypical difference in evaluations of managers inlaboratory studies: Males favored. No difference inevaluations of actual managers.Stereotypical difference: Males use norm of equity,whereas females use norm of equality.Stereotypical difference: Males use a wider range ofstrategies, more positive strategies, and less negativestrategies. The difference diminishes when womenmanagers have high self-confidence.
  15. 15. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-15Sex Differences in Management:Selected Results (2 of 2)Dimension ResultsMotivation No difference in some studies.Non-stereotypical difference in other studies: Femalemotivational profile is close to that associated withsuccessful managers.Commitment Inconsistent evidence regarding difference.SubordinatesresponsesStereotypical differences in responses to managers inlaboratory studies; Managers using style that matchessex role stereotype are favored.No difference in responses to actual managers.
  16. 16. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-16Abilities and Skills• Ability – a person’s talentto perform a mental orphysical task• Skill – a learned talentthat a person hasacquired to perform a task• Ability – a person’s talentto perform a mental orphysical task• Skill – a learned talentthat a person hasacquired to perform a taskKey AbilitiesKey AbilitiesMental AbilityMental AbilityEmotionalEmotionalIntelligenceIntelligenceTacit KnowledgeTacit Knowledge
  17. 17. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-17Attitudes• Are determinates of behavior becausethey are linked with perception,personality, feelings, and motivation• Attitude – a mental state of readiness• learned and organized through experience• exerting a specific response to people,objects, and situations with which it isrelated
  18. 18. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-18Attitudes: Implications for the Manager1. Attitudes are learned2. Attitudes define one’s predispositionstoward given aspects of the world3. Attitudes provide the emotional basis ofone’s interpersonal relations andidentification with others4. Attitudes are organized and are closeto the core of personality
  19. 19. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-19Manager styleManager styleTechnologyTechnologyNoiseNoisePeersPeersReward systemReward systemCompensation planCompensation planCareer opportunitiesCareer opportunitiesManager styleManager styleTechnologyTechnologyNoiseNoisePeersPeersReward systemReward systemCompensation planCompensation planCareer opportunitiesCareer opportunitiesBeliefs and valuesBeliefs and valuesBeliefs and valuesBeliefs and valuesFeelings and emotionsFeelings and emotionsFeelings and emotionsFeelings and emotionsIntended behaviorIntended behaviorIntended behaviorIntended behaviorStimuliStimuliWorkWorkenvironmentenvironmentfactorsfactorsCognitionCognitionAffectAffectBehaviorBehavior““My supervisor is unfair.”My supervisor is unfair.”““Having a fair supervisor isHaving a fair supervisor isimportant to me.”important to me.”““I don’t like my supervisor.”I don’t like my supervisor.”““I’ve submitted a formalI’ve submitted a formalrequest to transfer.”request to transfer.”The ThreeThe ThreeComponents ofComponents ofAttitudes:Attitudes:Cognition, Affect,Cognition, Affect,BehaviorBehavior
  20. 20. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-20Cognition• What individuals know about themselvesand their environment• Implies a conscious process of acquiringknowledge• Evaluative beliefs – favorable orunfavorable impressions that a personholds toward an object or person
  21. 21. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-21Affect• The emotional component of an attitude• Often learned from• parents• teachers• peer group members• The part of an attitude that is associatedwith “feeling” a certain way about aperson, group, or situation
  22. 22. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-22Cognitive Dissonance• A discrepancy between attitudes andbehaviors• A mental state of anxiety• Occurs when there is a conflict among anindividual’s various cognitions after adecision has been made
  23. 23. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-23Changing AttitudesThe CommunicatorThe CommunicatorThe MessageThe MessageThe SituationThe Situation
  24. 24. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-24How to Increase Your Effectiveness inChanging Attitudes: (1 of 2)1. Concentrate on gradually changing the attitudeover a period of time2. Identify the beliefs or values that are part of theattitude and provide the attitude holder withinformation that will alter those beliefs or values
  25. 25. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-25How to Increase Your Effectiveness inChanging Attitudes: (2 of 2)3. Make the setting (in which the attemptedchange occurs) as pleasant and enjoyable aspossible4. Identify reasons that changing the attitude is tothe advantage of the attitude holder
  26. 26. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-26Attitudes and Job Satisfaction• Job satisfaction –an attitude peoplehave about their jobs• Results frompeople’s perceptionof their jobs• Results from thedegree of fit betweenthe individual and theorganization• Job satisfaction –an attitude peoplehave about their jobs• Results frompeople’s perceptionof their jobs• Results from thedegree of fit betweenthe individual and theorganization• Key factorsassociated with jobsatisfaction:• Pay• Promotion opportunities• Supervision• Coworkers• Working conditions• Job security• Key factorsassociated with jobsatisfaction:• Pay• Promotion opportunities• Supervision• Coworkers• Working conditions• Job security
  27. 27. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-27Satisfaction-Performance Relationships:Three Views2. Job Performance2. Job Performance1. Job Satisfaction1. Job Satisfaction3. Job Performance3. Job PerformanceJob SatisfactionJob SatisfactionJob SatisfactionJob SatisfactionJob PerformanceJob PerformanceJob PerformanceJob PerformanceJob SatisfactionJob SatisfactionJob SatisfactionJob SatisfactionCausesCausesCausesCauses““The satisfied worker is moreThe satisfied worker is moreproductive.”productive.”““The more productive worker isThe more productive worker issatisfied.”satisfied.”RewardsRewardsRewardsRewardsPerceived EquityPerceived Equity
  28. 28. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-28Personality• A relatively stable set of feelings andbehaviors that have been significantlyformed by genetic and environmental factors• The relationship between behavior andpersonality is one of the most complexmatters that managers have to understand
  29. 29. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-29Some Major Forces Influencing PersonalityIndividualIndividualPersonalityPersonalityCultural forcesCultural forcesHereditary forcesHereditary forcesFamily relationshipFamily relationshipforcesforcesSocial class / groupSocial class / groupmembership forcesmembership forces
  30. 30. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-30The Big FivePersonalityDimensionsLocus of ControlSelf-efficacy CreativityPersonality and Behavior in Organizations
  31. 31. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-31ConscientiousnessConscientiousnessExtroversionExtroversionEmotionalEmotionalStabilityStabilityAgreeablenessAgreeablenessOpenness toOpenness toExperienceExperienceThe Big Five Personality Dimensions
  32. 32. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-32Locus of Control• Locus of control of individuals –• Determines the degree to which theybelieve their behaviors influence whathappens to them• Internals – believe they are masters of theirown fate• Externals – believe they are helpless pawnsof fate, success is due to luck or ease oftask
  33. 33. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-33Self-Efficacy• Feelings of self-efficacy have managerialand organizational implications:• Selection decisions• Training programs• Goal setting and performance
  34. 34. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-34How to Develop Employee Creativity1. Encourage everyone to view old problems fromnew perspectives2. Make certain people know that it is OK to makemistakes3. Provide as many people with as many new workexperiences as you can4. Set an example in your own approach to dealingwith problems and opportunities

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