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How to Expand Your 
Global Reach Into China 
Special Considerations for Your Internet Presence in China 
Andrew Sullivan /...
WHY LOCATE IN CHINA? 
IT’S A BIG MARKET! 
• Enormous population 
• Increasing prosperity 
§ Lots of consumers 
§ Appetit...
SO WHAT? 
THERE ARE UNUSUAL TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS 
• Serving from elsewhere not a great strategy 
§ Appearance of outa...
SOME CHALLENGES TO DISCUSS 
/ 4
GLOBAL + CHINA 
WHAT WORKS PERFECTLY OUTSIDE CHINA, MAY NOT WORK 
AT ALL ON THE MAINLAND 
• fonts.googleapis.com 
• NYTime...
CONGESTION 
INTERNATIONAL INTERNET GATEWAYS TO 
US & EUROPE ARE OVERLOADED 
• long routes 
• frequent packet loss 
• low t...
DNS FAILURES 
UNREACHABLE FOREIGN NAME SERVERS (DNS) & LOW TTLS 
ARE MAJOR SOURCES OF OUTAGES 
• Keeping traffic local is ...
GREAT FIREWALL 
THIS IS NOT LIKE THE FIREWALL IN YOUR OFFICE 
• Not “inside” and “outside” 
• No “DMZ” 
• DNS and IPs can ...
UNEXPECTED OUTCOMES 
BANNED CONTENT IN ONE PAGE CAN AFFECT YOUR ENTIRE SITE 
• User-generated content 
could be the trigge...
THINGS WE’VE HEARD 
CUSTOMERS SAY 
/ 10
AFTER I’VE TRANSLATED, I’M GOOD TO GO! 
APPEALING TO THE CHINESE MARKET IS NOT 
JUST ABOUT CHINESE LANGUAGE AND CHARACTERS...
I CAN USE THE DNS I HAVE 
IF YOUR DNS PROVIDER HAS NO PRESENCE IN CHINA, 
YOU MIGHT NOT EITHER 
• If the DNS lookup fails,...
I’M IN HONG KONG. I’LL JUST USE THAT 
HONG KONG IS A SPECIAL PLACE 
• HK data centers peer with carriers 
all over the wor...
I DON’T NEED AN ICP LICENSE 
EVEN IF YOU ARE DOING MARKETING OF OFF-LINE PRODUCTS, 
AN INTERNET CONTENT PROVIDER (ICP) LIC...
IT’S NOT JUST THE GREAT FIREWALL 
/ 15
THE GREAT FIREWALL IS IMPORTANT 
LOCAL POLICIES AFFECT WHAT YOU CAN DO, 
JUST LIKE EVERYWHERE ELSE ON THE INTERNET 
• URLs...
TUNNELS WON’T HELP YOU 
BACKHAUL TRAFFIC TO FOREIGN LOCATIONS ARE 
STILL SUBJECT TO THE GREAT FIREWALL 
• IPSec, GRE tunne...
NETWORK TOPOLOGY IS CHALLENGING 
CHINA IS NEXT TO THE “RING OF FIRE” 
• Fiber routinely breaks 
• Connections to Singapore...
THE GREAT FIREWALL ISN’T THE GREAT PROBLEM 
POLICY IS NOT THE ONLY OR MAIN SOURCE OF ISSUES. 
• Congestion and packet loss...
CHINA IS A BIG PLACE 
Mainland China is almost the 
same size as the US. Nobody 
thinks having one data center 
in the US ...
YOUR COMPETITORS MIGHT HAVE AN ADVANTAGE 
IF YOU’RE NOT IN CHINA AND YOUR COMPETITOR IS, YOUR 
POTENTIAL CUSTOMERS HAVE A ...
USE A REGIONAL STRATEGY 
DIFFERENT PARTS OF YOUR INFRASTRUCTURE MIGHT NEED 
DIFFERENT TREATMENT 
• Host DNS and GSLB in Ma...
PRACTICAL STEPS TO TAKE 
/ 23
MEASURE & QUANTIFY 
• Measure your services from inside China 
§ On every major carrier: 
/ 24 
• Telecom (CT) 
• Unicom ...
CREATE A CHINA FOCUS TEAM 
• Form an internal focus 
team to specialize on 
performance and 
availability in China 
• Find...
SPECIFIC THINGS THE TEAM SHOULD EXAMINE 
• DNS Name Server (NS) availability 
• Page and service availability 
• Response ...
OTHER THINGS THE TEAM SHOULD DO UP FRONT 
• Increase your DNS TTLs 
§ 600 seconds as a default minimum 
• Extend HTTP Ser...
DON’T FORGET TO STUDY COMPETITORS 
OTHERS HAVE ALREADY LEARNED FROM EXPERIENCE. 
DON’T NEGLECT THAT. 
• Study competitors’...
THANK YOU! 
/ 29 
INTERNET PERFORMANCE. DELIVERED.
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How To Expand Your Global Reach Into China

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With over a billion citizens in China, it has become a hot market for online businesses. Unfortunately, tapping into that booming market isn't so easy without the right tools. In this webinar, Dyn's Director of Architecture, Andrew Sullivan, and C3 Edge's Director of Platform Operations, Steven Ryder, discuss the appeal of the Chinese market, the challenges for entry, and the solutions to break through.

In this webinar, you'll learn:
- Industries that should be entering the Chinese market
- Why it's difficult to operate outside of China The Great Firewall of China
- Plus more!

Watch the video recording here: http://hub.dyn.com/h/i/30196840-how-to-expand-your-global-reach-into-china

Published in: Internet
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How To Expand Your Global Reach Into China

  1. 1. How to Expand Your Global Reach Into China Special Considerations for Your Internet Presence in China Andrew Sullivan / Director of Architecture, Dyn Steven Ryder / Director of Platform Operations, C3Edge October 22, 2014
  2. 2. WHY LOCATE IN CHINA? IT’S A BIG MARKET! • Enormous population • Increasing prosperity § Lots of consumers § Appetite for luxury goods / 2
  3. 3. SO WHAT? THERE ARE UNUSUAL TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS • Serving from elsewhere not a great strategy § Appearance of outages • Latency and foreign experiences are both killers / 3
  4. 4. SOME CHALLENGES TO DISCUSS / 4
  5. 5. GLOBAL + CHINA WHAT WORKS PERFECTLY OUTSIDE CHINA, MAY NOT WORK AT ALL ON THE MAINLAND • fonts.googleapis.com • NYTimes.com • embedded YouTube videos • many more / 5
  6. 6. CONGESTION INTERNATIONAL INTERNET GATEWAYS TO US & EUROPE ARE OVERLOADED • long routes • frequent packet loss • low transfer rates / 6
  7. 7. DNS FAILURES UNREACHABLE FOREIGN NAME SERVERS (DNS) & LOW TTLS ARE MAJOR SOURCES OF OUTAGES • Keeping traffic local is critical • DNS is fundamental to everything / 7
  8. 8. GREAT FIREWALL THIS IS NOT LIKE THE FIREWALL IN YOUR OFFICE • Not “inside” and “outside” • No “DMZ” • DNS and IPs can be blocked in China (including entire TLDs) § Once blocked, there is no public address to ask why! § Partners with Government Affairs Departments provide value here / 8
  9. 9. UNEXPECTED OUTCOMES BANNED CONTENT IN ONE PAGE CAN AFFECT YOUR ENTIRE SITE • User-generated content could be the trigger / 9
  10. 10. THINGS WE’VE HEARD CUSTOMERS SAY / 10
  11. 11. AFTER I’VE TRANSLATED, I’M GOOD TO GO! APPEALING TO THE CHINESE MARKET IS NOT JUST ABOUT CHINESE LANGUAGE AND CHARACTERS • Site layouts and preferences vary • Long pages are common • Payment methods are different / 11
  12. 12. I CAN USE THE DNS I HAVE IF YOUR DNS PROVIDER HAS NO PRESENCE IN CHINA, YOU MIGHT NOT EITHER • If the DNS lookup fails, nobody can find you • DNS lookup from inside China to outside fails frequently • The name cn.example.com probably just uses the same example.com name servers / 12
  13. 13. I’M IN HONG KONG. I’LL JUST USE THAT HONG KONG IS A SPECIAL PLACE • HK data centers peer with carriers all over the world § Multi-carrier connectivity not standard § In-China experience dependent on user’s ISP • The Great Firewall does not include HK • Bandwidth from HK to China is expensive § $80+/Mbps not uncommon! / 13
  14. 14. I DON’T NEED AN ICP LICENSE EVEN IF YOU ARE DOING MARKETING OF OFF-LINE PRODUCTS, AN INTERNET CONTENT PROVIDER (ICP) LICENSE IS REQUIRED • Formal requirement for every site since July 2014 • No exceptions • If you don’t get one, hosting and CDN companies will not be able to deliver your content in country • Issued by Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) / 14
  15. 15. IT’S NOT JUST THE GREAT FIREWALL / 15
  16. 16. THE GREAT FIREWALL IS IMPORTANT LOCAL POLICIES AFFECT WHAT YOU CAN DO, JUST LIKE EVERYWHERE ELSE ON THE INTERNET • URLs containing banned keywords will get TCP Reset § Breaks the site • Pages with banned content may be blocked § Included content can time out (e.g. missing CSS file breaks page layout) § Embedded objects (e.g. YouTube videos) can fail / 16
  17. 17. TUNNELS WON’T HELP YOU BACKHAUL TRAFFIC TO FOREIGN LOCATIONS ARE STILL SUBJECT TO THE GREAT FIREWALL • IPSec, GRE tunnels, or VPNs to foreign origins are illegal in Mainland China • Traffic may be blocked & ICP license revoked • Using dedicated China names can help § Suggestion is to use .cn top-level domain § Avoid dependence on foreign (NS) Name Servers / 17
  18. 18. NETWORK TOPOLOGY IS CHALLENGING CHINA IS NEXT TO THE “RING OF FIRE” • Fiber routinely breaks • Connections to Singapore and Japan are severed / 18
  19. 19. THE GREAT FIREWALL ISN’T THE GREAT PROBLEM POLICY IS NOT THE ONLY OR MAIN SOURCE OF ISSUES. • Congestion and packet loss to overseas networks • Long routes and round trip times • Server and infrastructure failures • Browser compatibility and content problems / 19
  20. 20. CHINA IS A BIG PLACE Mainland China is almost the same size as the US. Nobody thinks having one data center in the US is good enough for the whole country. / 20
  21. 21. YOUR COMPETITORS MIGHT HAVE AN ADVANTAGE IF YOU’RE NOT IN CHINA AND YOUR COMPETITOR IS, YOUR POTENTIAL CUSTOMERS HAVE A WORSE EXPERIENCE WITH YOU • The interior network is fast, though often congested • If your traffic has to be served internationally, the latency is immediately visible § And sometimes, everything is just broken • You can’t reach Chinese customers if they can’t reach you / 21
  22. 22. USE A REGIONAL STRATEGY DIFFERENT PARTS OF YOUR INFRASTRUCTURE MIGHT NEED DIFFERENT TREATMENT • Host DNS and GSLB in Mainland China § Optimize your local service delivery • Consider hosting shared or global content nearby § Both HK and Taiwan avoid most cut fiber related outages § Network latency is greatly reduced • Separate .cn domain names provide flexibility / 22
  23. 23. PRACTICAL STEPS TO TAKE / 23
  24. 24. MEASURE & QUANTIFY • Measure your services from inside China § On every major carrier: / 24 • Telecom (CT) • Unicom (CU/CNC) • Mobile (CMCC) • Review all channels and sub-domains § Look beyond your single “www” homepage • Identify hosting locations by checking IPs § Use dig and traceroute for reliable results
  25. 25. CREATE A CHINA FOCUS TEAM • Form an internal focus team to specialize on performance and availability in China • Find partners to help / 25
  26. 26. SPECIFIC THINGS THE TEAM SHOULD EXAMINE • DNS Name Server (NS) availability • Page and service availability • Response Times (timeouts and slow-loading) • Browser Response Headers § All content, especially anything cacheable All from within Mainland China, from multiple cities, and all major ISPs. / 26
  27. 27. OTHER THINGS THE TEAM SHOULD DO UP FRONT • Increase your DNS TTLs § 600 seconds as a default minimum • Extend HTTP Server keep-alive § 10-15 seconds time out value § Allow longer overall page load times • Define a China-specific architecture § Identify what’s foreign hosted today / 27
  28. 28. DON’T FORGET TO STUDY COMPETITORS OTHERS HAVE ALREADY LEARNED FROM EXPERIENCE. DON’T NEGLECT THAT. • Study competitors’ deployments § See what’s working (or failing) • Consult with China deployment experts § Seek advice specific to your particular case • Separate your China and Global services § Avoid collateral damage and unexpected outcomes / 28
  29. 29. THANK YOU! / 29 INTERNET PERFORMANCE. DELIVERED.

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