06 planning the dictionary

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06 planning the dictionary

  1. 1. Planning the Dictionary
  2. 2. Comprehension Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 8 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. What is the difference between the terms ‘macrostructure’ and ‘microstructure’? What is a ‘lexical item’? Explain the distinction between ‘lexical words’ and ‘grammatical words’. Write the types of the grammatical words. Write th t W it the types of partial words and explain th f ti l d d l i them. List the types of fixed and semi-fixed phrases. Write the types of compounds and state their rules with an example. Explain the term ‘support verb’ and give some examples support verb examples. What kind of information do the parts called as ‘front matter’ and ‘back matter’ contain? Classify the vocabulary types and explain each of them with an example. Write the advantages of constructing a domain list with a hierarchical structure. Which factors should be considered when deciding on the last forms of the headwors lists? Write the definition of the term ‘homograph’. Write entry types and define each of them briefly.
  3. 3. 6.1 6 1 Preliminaries In this chapter, the major decisions that have to be made about what the dictionary will contain will be discussed. When we talk about the content of a dictionary, the terms ‘macrostructure’ and ‘microstructure’ are often used. Deciding on the types of entry the dictionary will include and organizing the headword list are macrostructure decisions. Planning the entries in the dictionary and deciding on their structure and components are microstructure decisions. 6.1.1 Talking about words A single-word lemma can have various senses called as ‘lexical units’ which are the core building blocks of dictionary entries. Some lemmas exist in multiword form, and these can also have more than one sense. Some t S types of multiword l f lti d lemma such as compounds lik i cream and phrasal verbs lik set off h d like ice d h l b like t ff regularly appear as headwords in dictionaries. 6.2 Types of lexical item A ‘lexical item is any word, abbreviation, partial word or phrase which can figure in a dictionary as lexical item’ the target of some form of lexicographic description, most commonly a definition or a translation.
  4. 4. 6.2.1 Single items 6.2.1.1 Simple words These are the common words of the language (e.g. be, like, head, possible, remember). This type may be subclassified into two types as lexical and grammatical words. Lexical L i l words consist of nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs and i t j ti d i t f dj ti b d b d interjections. Grammatical words (function words or closed-category items) perform a function in the sentence.This usually involves either linking parts of the sentence (e.g and, or, because, when), referring to something mentioned already or about to be mentioned ( g g y (she, our, yours, who), or , ,y , ), specifying (the , many, every).There are at least five types of grammatical words; Prepositions Conjunctions Pronouns Auxiliary verbs Determiners 6.2.1.2 Abbreviations and contractions Alphabetisms the initial letters of a group of words, pronounced as series of letters like BBC. Acronyms the initial letters of a group of words, pronounced as a word like NATO.
  5. 5. Contractions two or more words fused with some letters omitted like don’t, wouldn’t. 6.2.1.3 Partial words Bound affixes e.g. im- (impossible), -ment (attainment) Productive affixes e.g. ex- (ex-wife, ex-mayor); -gate (Monicagate, Zippergate) Productive ffi P d ti affixes are used to create new complex word f dt t l d forms and th must b explained i a di ti d they t be l i d in dictionary. Combining forms These are essentially headwords or their inflected forms which occur as first or second elements of hyphenated compounds e.g. numerals one-legged, nouns vinyl-covered, and adjectives flat-leafed. 6.2.2 Multiword expressions The term covers all the different types of phrases that have some degree of idiomatic meaning or behaviour. The Th question i ‘Whi h multiword items should be treated as ‘ l i i is ‘Which li di h ld b d ‘multiword expressions’ i our d i ’ in dictionaries?’. Many dictionaries give specific treatment to compounds and phrasal verbs, but it is not usual for g y phrases. dictionaries to distinguish many subclasses of p MWEs are a central part of the vocabulary of most languages and need to be accounted for in the dictionary especially in the learners’ dictionaries.
  6. 6. The lexicographer’s rule is ‘its meaning is more than the sum of its parts’. 6.2.2.1 Fixed and semi-fixed phrases i d d i fi d h Transparent collocations to risk one’s life Fixed phrases ham and eggs S Similes white as snow Catch phrases join ’em Proverbs too many cooks spoil the broth Quotations to be or not to be Greetings G ti good morning d i Phatic phrases have a nice day 6.2.2.2 Other phrasal idioms The wording is never entirely fixed. g y Alternative words may be substituted without changing the meaning. There are parallel idioms with opposite meanings. There is no fixed canonical form. There is no complete canonical form, but th Th i l t i lf b t there are semantic restrictions on what can fill th open slot. ti t i ti h t the l t There are syntactic restrictions upon the idiom’s behaviour, in that it undergoes only limited grammatical transformations.
  7. 7. The idiom shows morpho-syntactic flexibility, allows inflections, agreement of possessives and so on. 6.2.2.3 Compounds Compounds mainly consist of nouns, adjectives and verbs (especially phrasal verbs). There are idiomatic and non idiomatic types of compounds. non-idiomatic compounds In the course of corpus analysis, it can be difficult to distinguish idiomatic compounds from nonidiomatic, but there are a few properties shared by many of them. The compound is fixed in form. It participates in semantic relationships with single words. Its meaning is more than the sum of its parts. Figurative comppounds An XY is not a Y that is X: it is not necessarily a Y at all. e.g. A lame duck is not a duck that is lame lame. Semi-figurative compounds An XY is a Y but it is not a Y that is X. e.g. A high school is a school but not a school that is high. Functional compounds p An XY is a Y that has to do with Xs, but also more than that. e.g. , g Not everyone who sells a house is a house agent.
  8. 8. 6.2.4.4 Phrasal verbs A phrasal verb is a multiword expression consisting of a verb plus one or more particle(s). It is usuful to look at the kind of meaning thay can carry (their semantics), and how they interact with the rest of the language (their syntax). Semantics A phrasal verb unit may have a literal meaning and one or more figurative or metaphorical meanings. E.g. Literal sense of run out (go outside at a run) and figurative meaning (become depleted). Some of the indications of the phrasal-verbhood are; It is a fixed MWE with syntactic rules regarding pronoun objects which must be embedded between verb and particle like pass it over. It has a discrete unitary meaning and may participate with single words in semantic relationships thus put off and put up with have the single word synonyms. It often has a single-word translation in another language. E.g. Come up with = trouver in French. Syntax The rule i ‘if a pronuon object can b placed b h l is bj be l d between the verb and particle, the particle i an h b d i l h i l is adverb e.g. hold it over; if the pronoun object must be placed after the particle, the particle is a preposition e.g. see through them.
  9. 9. Problem areas Two or three part phrasal verbs whether get away from should be recorded separately Motion verbs + directional particle run up (a literal and one or more figurative meanings). Semantically related, syntactically distinct get across (the transitive and intransitive units have the same translation) translation). 6.2.2.5 Support verb constructions They are called as ‘light verbs’ and they carry less meaning in such constructions than in many other contexts. E.g. make, take, have, give and do (to have a rest, to make a complaint etc.). g , , ,g ( , p ) 6.3 The constituent parts of a dictionary Most dictionaries have two major components: the A-Z entries and front and back matter. 6.3.1 Front and back matter Front matter is whatever precedes the A-Z text, and back matter is whatever follows it. The front matter typically contains a foreword and acknowledgements, some kind of introduction to the dictionary, and an explanation of abbreviations, labels and codes used in the text. The back Th b k matter ( d matter) often i l d li t such as verb t bl numbers, weights and tt (end tt ) ft includes lists h b tables, b i ht d measures, Roman numerals, maps, diagrams and so on.
  10. 10. 6.3.2 The A-Z entries The Th core of the di i f h dictionary i the great b d of entries h ldi d il of the meaning, grammar and is h body f i holding details f h i d usage conventions associated with each headword. Decisions on headword selection and design and content are driven by the user profile, the target market of the dictionary, its competitors in that market and its costing and b g y, p g budget. 6.4 Building the headword list No dictionary can include everything everyone might want, so it follows that decisions about what to include in a dictionary are critical. Current practice is to include all headwords in one single list. 6.4.1 Common words 6.4.1.1 Wordclass The headword li t will i l d all th major wordclasses t diti Th h d d list ill include ll the j d l traditionally nouns, verbs, adjectives, ll b dj ti adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, determiners and interjections. 6.4.1.2 Lexical form Variant forms aluminium (BE), aluminum (AE). Variant spellings harbour(BE), harbor (AE). Inflections irregular nouns (oxen,children), irregular comparatives and superlatives of
  11. 11. adjectives (better,best), verb inflections (speaks, speaking, spoken). Derived forms blissful, highhandedness. 6.4.1.3 Lexical structure Simple words be, like, possible, now, in. Abbreviations contractions BBC, EU, o’clock. Partial words distaste, servanthood, ex-wife, broad-leafed. Multiword expressions It is unusual to give headword status to the following: Tranparent collocations to risk one’s life Fixed and semi-fixed phrases by and large Other phrasal idioms raining cats and dogs The other two types of MWE are more commonly afforded hadword status in dictionaries. Compounds Phrasal verbs civil servant, police dog. look forward to, set about. 6.4.1.4 6 4 1 4 Vocabulary types In designing a headword list for a particular dictionary, you need to make conscious choices about lexical items that do not form part of the unmarked basic general vocabulary and may not even be
  12. 12. known to educated native speakers. It helps I h l to consider these expressions as b l id h i belonging to various types of specialized vocabulary. i i f i li d b l Once you have decided to include any of these vocabulary types, the problem for each type is to produce a list of items to be included in the dictionary. Domains The vocabulary of brain surgeons, corpus linguists, and many hundreds of other such groups are from different domains. Examples of such specialist vocabulary items are tibia (medicine), fractal (maths), lien (the law) and so on. It is more practicable to try to build a domain list with a certain hierarchical structure. This has two advantages: It makes it easier t ensure th t th k i to that there are no omissions. F i t i i For instance, i thi f in this format it is simple t group all t i i l to ll the sciences together and make sure that none is missing. It allows you to mark vocabulary items more accurately. Region This refers to the varieties of a language found in countries where it is spoken as an official language. E.g. postcode (BE), zipcode (AE).
  13. 13. Dialect This refers to non-standard words used in local areas and not outside them. E.g. Yorkshire dialect (beck ‘stream’), Scots dialect (peely-wally ‘ill-looking’). Register This refers to current expressions which are either more formal than the norm, or more informal norm informal. Three levels of formality are; the one above the ‘unmarked’ (formal, official or correct), and the two below it (informal, familiar, casual, relaxed etc.). Style This refers to expressions that are literary (revels), bureaucratic (incentivization), journalese (romp, fashionista) and so on. Time This f Thi refers t words which are not ti to d hi h t time-neutral: they may be archaic ( t l th b h i (greensward) or oldd) ld fashioned (jolly in the sense of ‘very’), or ephemeral (cool in the sense of ‘excellent’). Slang and jargon This refers to non-standard expressions used within specific groups of people (avast in naval non standard slang) or sharing the same interest (play in computer jargon). Slang is further down the informality scale than jargon which is often used among technical experts on quite formal business occasions.
  14. 14. Attitude This group indicates the attitude of the speaker or writer towards what is being discussed. Typical attitude labels are pejorative or derogatory (indicating disapproval) and appreciative (indicating approval). Offensive terms This group covers racist terms (mick, jock) and others including swear words which may give offence and/or are taboo. 6.2.4 Proper names 4 p Here are some points to be aware of when considering these items as potential headwords: Formerly, proper names were usually excluded from the headword list, and sometimes corralled into a list at the end of the book. Nowadays most reasonably sized English dictionaries include them as headwords headwords. Even dictionaries which exclude encyclopedic entries will make honourable exceptions for proper names with metonymic force and cultural entities. There are difficult boundary issues. Proper names come i two kinds: closed sets and open sets. in ki d l d d The actual decision about what to include and what to exclude will depend on how important the various classes of proper name are for the dictionary’s intended market.
  15. 15. 6.4.2.1 Place names Basic names: the oceans, continents, countries, states, provinces……… . Capital and non-capital cities: London, New York, Washington…….. . Major geographic features: seas, lakes, rivers, regions .……. . Metonyms: names of places used t d M t f l d to denote th people who work th t the l h k there, e.g. Whit h ll Whitehall…….. . Famous places and buildings: the Tower of London, Waterloo ……... . Extra-terrestrial objects: planets, stars, comets, moons……. . Imaginary, Imaginary biblical or mythological places: the Garden of Eden, Lilliput Eden Lilliput…….. . Nicknames for places: the Big Apple (New York), the Square Mile (the City of London). 6.4.2.2 Personal names Ganeric names: First names (John, Mary) and surnames (Smith); but in practice few dictionaries include surnames. People’s names: Beethoven, Hitler. This class subdivides into: Real people: including famous people alive today and historical figures such as writer (Samuel Johnson), artists (Michelangelo) m sicians (Mo art) military and political fig res (Abraham Lincoln) (Michelangelo), musicians (Mozart), militar figures Lincoln). Others: including religious (Buddha), biblical (Solomon), mythological (Jupiter), semi-historical (Robin Hood), and purely fictional characters (Othello). Related adjectives: Dickensian.
  16. 16. Nationalities: French, American, Chinese……. . Names of ethnic groups: African-American, Celt…….. . 6.4.2.3 Other names Festivals, ceremonies: Christmas, Ramadan, Thanksgiving……. . Organizations: political parties (N L b O i ti liti l ti (New Labour), i tit ti ) institutions (E (European C t l B k) government Central Bank), t departments (Defense Department), other official or semi-official agencies (NASA), and clubs and other social groupings (Freemasons). Languages: Dutch, Arabic, Sanskrit……. . g g , , Trademarks: BlackBerry, iPhone…… . Beliefs and religions, and their adherents: Muslim, Marxism…… . Miscellaneous: Academy Awards, Olympic Games. 6.4.3 Deciding the Specifics It is good to take the following factors into account: The item’s corpus frequency Its profile or salience Ho familiar it is to the dictonary users, and ho widely kno n salience: How dictonar sers how idel known. Its possible translation Its additional meanings or connotations
  17. 17. 6.5 Organizing the headword list Homograph headwords are of real importance to lexicographers 6.5.1 Alphabetization Here are some factors for dictionary planners to take into account when devising an alphabetization policy: If all the headwords are single words, there is no alphabetization problem. If the headword list contains MWEs, then problems arise. Essentially there are two options: to alphabetize word by word or letter by letter. In a word by word list, the space between words takes precedence, hyphens come next, and letters come last. In a letter by letter list, spaces and hyphens are disregarded, and the words would appear in this order. Dictionaries therefore tend to alphabetize letter by letter, ignoring capitalization. 6.5.2 6 5 2 Syllabification Syllabification is the marking of syllables within the headwords in the dictionary, by means of a centred period, or a vertical line, or other similar device. 6.5.3 Homographs Homograph headwords consist of two or more identically written words, each given its unique number and treated as a discrete entity in its own right. The term homograph denotes a word with identical spelling to another word, but different meaning
  18. 18. etymology, and/or pronunciation. Below are some criteria used to decide whether there should be one entry or more: Same spelling: different meaning and etymology. E.g. bear (animal), bear (carry, tolerate, support). Same spelling: different meaning and pronunciation. E.g. tear (from weeping), tear (in paper, cloth). Same spelling and pronunciation; different meaning and capitalization. E.g. may (modal verb), May (month). capitalization E g verb) (month) Same spelling and pronunciation; different meaning. E.g. bank (edge of river), bank (financial institution). Same word (spelling, meaning and pronunciation); different wordclass. E.g. hit (to strike), hit (a blow). 6.6 Types of entry Once you’ve decided what kinds of word are to be headwords in your dictionary, you have to consider the varieties of entry structure needed if the information about these words is to be presented clearly. 6.6.1 6 6 1 Standard lexical entry Lexical words carry a full definable meaning and their contribution to a sentence is principally to add meaning. 6.6.2 Abbreviation entry Entries for abbreviations do not carry much information, for they have rarely more than one sense and rarely belong to more than one wordclass. In this, they resemble proper-name entries.
  19. 19. 6.6.3 Grammatical word entry As distinct from lexical words, which carry meaning, the principal role of grammatical words is to perform a function in the sentence. Because each wordclass and subclass perform different functions, there is no set structure for grammatical entries entries. 6.6.4 Encyclopedic entry These are entry types for proper names and they are necessarily slimmer than lexical and grammatical entries.
  20. 20. Turkish Summary Bu bölümde bir sözlüğün içeriğinin nelerden oluşacağına dair alınması gereken başlıca kararlar anlatılmaktadır. Bu kararların alınmasını sağlayan unsur ise sözlüğün yapısını da etkileyen sözcük türleridir. türleridir Sözcüklerin yapısı tek veya çok sözcükten oluşmalarına göre çeşitlilik gösterir ve basit basit, türetilmiş ya da birleşik sözcük gibi farklı isimlerle adlandırılırlar. Bu sözcük türleri de bir anlam çağrıştırmaları, cümlede dilbilgisel bir işlev taşımaları, kısaltmalarla ve harf düşmeleriyle oluşturulmaları, ön veya son eklerle türetilmeleri, farklı sözcük türlerinin birleşimi sonucu oluşturulmaları ve gerçek ya da mecazi bir anlam ifade etmeleri gibi çeşitli nedenlerle farklılık gösterirler. Günümüzde birçok sözlük A-Z arası sözcük dizisi ve sözlük-başı ve sözlük-sonu bilgisi olmak üzere iki temel bölümden oluşur. Sözlük-başı bilgisi olarak adlandırılan kısım sözlüğe giriş niteliği taşır ve bu bölümde önsöz, teşekkür yazıları ve sözlükte kullanılan kısaltmaların, etiketlerin ve kodların açıklamaları yer alır; böylelikle sözlüğün tanıtımı yapılır Sözlük sonu bilgisi olarak adlandırılan kısımda yapılır. Sözlük-sonu ise fiil tabloları, sayılar, ağırlık ve uzunluk ölçü birimleri, Roma rakamları, haritalar ve diyagramlar gibi hedef dil kullanıcısına yardımcı olacak bazı faydalı bilgiler bulunur. A-Z arası sözcük dizisi ise sözlüğün temelini oluşturan ve sözlükteki her ana sözcük başlığı için anlam, dilbilgisi ve kullanım şekilleri gibi detaylı bilgileri içeren sözcük başlıklarının oluşturduğu bir gövdedir Sözlük için gerekli olan ana sözcük gövdedir. başlıklarını içeren listeyi oluşturan sözcüklerin seçimi önemli bir aşamadır ve sözcükler genel ya da özel anlam taşımalarına göre gruplandırılırlar. Bu sözcükler ayrıca belli bir alana, coğrafi bölgeye, lehçeye, kesite, biçeme, zamana ait olmalarına; argo, jargon ya da saldırı amaçlı olarak kullanılmalarına ve insanların tutumlarına göre de farklılık gösterirler Sözcük listesinin düzenlenmesi ise alfabetik sıraya gösterirler. sıraya, hecelere ya da benzer şekilde sesletilen, hecelenen fakat anlamları farklı olan sözcüklere göre yapılır. Madde başlığı türleri standart sözcük başlığı, kısaltılmış başlık, dilbilgisel sözcük başlığı ve özel isimler için olan ansiklopedik başlık olmak üzere dört gruba ayrılır.
  21. 21. Comprehension Questions / Answers • What is the difference between the terms ‘macrostructure’ and ‘microstructure’? Deciding on the types of entry the dictionary will include and organizing the headword list are macrostructure decisions. Planning the entries in the dictionary and deciding on their structure and components are microstructure decisions. • What is a ‘lexical item’? A ‘lexical item’ is any word, abbreviation, partial word or phrase which can figure in a dictionary as the target of some form of lexicographic description, most commonly a definition or a translation. • Explain the distinction between ‘lexical words’ and ‘grammatical words’. Lexical words consist of nouns adjectives verbs adverbs and interjections Grammatical words (function words nouns, adjectives, verbs, interjections. or closed-category items) perform a function in the sentence. • Write the types of the grammatical words. There are at least five types of grammatical words; Prepositions ii Conjunctions Pronouns Auxiliary verbs y Determiners • Write the types of partial words and explain them.
  22. 22. Bound affixes: e.g. im- (impossible), -ment (attainment). These affixes consist of suffixes or prefixes that cannot stand on their o n own. Productive affixes: e.g. ex- (ex-wife, ex-mayor); -gate (Monicagate, Zippergate). Productive affixes are used to create new complex word forms and they must be explained in a dictionary. Combining forms: These are essentially headwords or their inflected forms which occur as first or second elements of h h f hyphenated compounds e.g. numerals one-legged, nouns vinyl-covered, and adjectives fl t l f d t d d l l d i l d d dj ti flat-leafed. • List the types of fixed and semi-fixed phrases. Transparent collocations: to risk one’s life Fixed phrases: ham and eggs Similes: white as snow Catch phrases: join ’em Provebs : too many cooks spoil the broth Quotations: to be or not to be Greetings: good morning Phatic phrases: have a nice day • Write the types of compounds and state their rules with an example. Figurative comppounds : An XY is not a Y that is X: it is not necessarily a Y at all. e.g. A lame duck is not a duck that is lame. Semi-figurative compounds: An XY is a Y but it is not a Y that is X. e.g. A high school is a school but not a school that is high.
  23. 23. Functional compounds: An XY is a Y that has to do with Xs, but also more than that. e.g. Not everyone who sells a house ho se is a ho se agent house agent. • Explain the term ‘support verb’ and give some examples. They are called as ‘light verbs’ and they carry less meaning in such constructions than in many other contexts. E.g. make, take, heve, give and do (to have a rest, to make a complaint etc.). • What kind of information do the parts called as ‘front matter’ and ‘back matter’ contain? The front matter typically contains a foreword and acknowledgements, some kind of introduction to the dictionary, dictionary and an explanation of abbreviations labels and codes used in the text The back matter (end matter) abbreviations, text. often includes lists such as verb tables, numbers, weights and measures, Roman numerals, maps, diagrams and so on. • Classify the vocabulary types and explain each of them with an example. Domains : The vocabulary of brain surgeons corpus linguists and many hundreds of other such groups are from surgeons, linguists, different domains. Examples of such specialist vocabulary items are tibia (medicine), fractal (maths), lien (the law) and so on. Region: This refers to the varieties of a language found in countries where it is spoken as an official language. E.g. postcode (BE) zipcode (AE) (BE), (AE). Dialect: This refers to non-standard words used in local areas and not outside them. E.g. Yorkshire dialect (beck ‘stream’), Scots dialect (peely-wally ‘ill-looking’).
  24. 24. Register: This refers to current expressions which are either more formal than the norm, or more informal. Three levels formality are; le els of formalit are the one abo e the ‘ nmarked’ (formal official or correct) and the t o belo it (informal above ‘unmarked’ (formal, correct), two below (informal, familiar, casual, relaxed etc.). Style: This refers to expressions that are literary (revels), bureaucratic (incentivization), journalese (romp, fashionista) and so on. Time: Thi refers t words which are not ti Ti This f to d hi h t time-neutral: th may b archaic ( t l they be h i (greensward) or old-fashioned (j ll i d) ld f hi d (jolly in the sense of ‘very’), or ephemeral (cool in the sense of ‘excellent’). Slang and jargon: This refers to non-standard expressions used within specific groups of people (avast in naval slang) or sharing the same interest (play in computer jargon). Attitude: This group indicates the attitude of the speaker or writer towards what is being discussed. Typical attitude labels are pejorative or derogatory (indicating disapproval) and appreciative (indicating approval). Offensive terms: This group covers racist terms (mick, jock) and others including swear words which may give offence and/or are taboo. • Write the advantages of constructing a domain list with a hierarchical structure. This has two advantages: It makes it easier to ensure that there are no omissions. For instance, in this format it is simple to group all g g the sciences together and make sure that none is missing. It allows you to mark vocabulary items more accurately. • Which factors should be considered when deciding on the last forms of the headwors lists?
  25. 25. It is good to take the following factors into account: The item’s corpus frequency Its profile or salience: How familiar it is to the dictonary users, and how widely known. Its possible translation Its additional meanings or connotations • Write the definition of the term ‘homograph’. The term homograph denotes a word with identical spelling to another word, but different meaning etymology, and/or pronunciation. • Write entry types and d fi i d define each of them b i fl h f h briefly. Standard lexical entry: Lexical words carry a full definable meaning and their contribution to a sentence is principally to add meaning. Abbreviation entry: Entries for abbreviations do not carry much information, for they have rarely more than one y y , y y sense and rarely belong to more than one wordclass. Grammatical word entry: As distinct from lexical words, which carry meaning, the principal role of grammatical words is to perform a function in the sentence. y op y y yp o p op y y Encyclopedic entry: These are entry types for proper names and they are necessarily slimmer than lexical and grammatical entries.

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