Commander Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command Clippings June 21-July 5, 2012FURTHER REPRODUCTION OR DISTRIBUTION IS SUBJECT TO ORIGINAL COPYRIGHTRESTRICTIONS. USE OF THESE NEWS ITEMS DOES NOT REFLECT OFFICIAL ENDORSEMENT.Top Story1. June 29-The Washington Post- Saturday night drags on by a leap second to compensate forslightly slower Earth rotation-Page 2U.S. Naval Observatory2. June 29-Sky & Telescope-A Glitch in Time-Page 23. July 1-ABC News-Extra second added to weekend-Page 34. July 1-Boston Herald-World’s atomic clock finds a second coming-Page 45. July 4-CBS News-Earth is farthest from the sun this week-Page 56. July 5-Discover Magazine-Happy aphelion!-Page 6Personnel7. June 21-Navy.mil-Fleet Survey Team Holds Change of Command-Page 68. June 23-The Washington Post- Rich Seesholtz, Navy oceanographer Obituary-Page 89. June 27-Hydro International- Rear Admiral Titley Named as Deputy Under Secretary forOperations-Page 8To subscribe to CNMOC Clippings contact Kelly.LeGuillon@navy.mil
1. Saturday night drags on by a leap second to compensate for slightly slower Earth rotationWASHINGTON — Saturday night will stretch longer by a second. A leap second.International timekeepers are adding a second to the clock at midnight universal time Saturday,June 30, going into July 1. That’s 8 p.m. EDT Saturday. Universal time will be 11:59:59 and thenthe unusual reading of 11:59:60 before it hits midnight.A combination of factors, including Earth slowing down a bit from the tidal pull of the moon, and anatomic clock that’s a hair too fast, means that periodically timekeepers have to synchronize theofficial atomic clocks, said Daniel Gambis, head of the Earth Orientation Service in Paris thatcoordinates leap seconds.The time it takes the Earth to rotate on its axis — the definition of a day — is now about twomilliseconds longer than it was 100 years ago, said Geoff Chester, spokesman at the U.S. NavalObservatory, keeper of the official U.S. atomic clocks. That’s each day, so it adds up to nearlythree-quarters of a second a year.Timekeepers add that leap second every now and then to keep the sun at its highest at noon, atleast during standard time. This is the first leap second since January 2009 and the 25th overall.Gambis said the next one probably won’t be needed until 2015 or 2016.There should be no noticeable affect or inconvenience on computers or any other technology thatrequires precise timekeeping because they adjust for these leap seconds, Gambis said Friday.Earlier this year, official timekeepers from across the world discussed whether to eliminate thepractice of adding leap seconds. They decided they needed more time to think about the issue andwill next debate the issue in 2015.So for now, Chester said, “you get an extra second, don’t waste it.”2. A Glitch in TimeBy Roger SinnottTomorrow night — June 30, 2012 — the worlds official timekeepers will add a leap second for thefirst time in 3½ years.Anyone whod like to "feel" the Earth slowing down can do so on Saturday evening, June 30, 2012.The final minute before midnight Greenwich Mean Time will contain 61 seconds — an adjustmentneeded to bring the worlds clocks back into sync with Earth itself.This is the first occasion in 3½ years when a "leap second" has been necessary, and only the thirdtime since the start of the new millennium. In contrast, seven leap seconds were added during the1990s — a clue that the slowdown is neither regular nor predictable. (Tidal friction within the Earthis the main cause, but there are fluctuations due to shifting proportions of water in the polar andequatorial regions and other factors.) For more on the purpose and history of the leap second, seethis U.S. Naval Observatory press release or this more technical discussion.Should leap seconds be abolished? Since 2003 the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a
United Nations agency, has debated doing just that. Communications engineers say it wouldsimplify time distribution around the globe. But most astronomers favor the current (and time-honored) link of clock time to the Sun, which occasional leap seconds help to maintain. Withmember countries unable to agree, the ITU decided in January to revisit the issue in 2015.How To "Observe" the Leap SecondThe June 30th leap second will be inserted into the very last minute before Greenwich midnight,which corresponds to 8 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (or 5 p.m. PDT) in North America. You might trylistening to the Naval Observatory Master Clock by calling 202-762-1401 or visiting online — butgood luck getting through if too many people have the same idea.Or find a shortwave radio. A few minutes before the appointed hour, tune in a time-signal stationlike WWV (at 5, 10, 15, or 20 megahertz) or CHU (at 3.330, 7.335, or 14.670) and start countingticks. For successive minutes youll get 60, 60, 60, ... , and then 61 seconds, just before the top ofthe hour.Its easy to lose count if signal reception fades, so I prefer to tie a small weight to a string 39 incheslong and let it swing from a nail over an open doorway. I adjust the strings length (a slip knot helps)until the weight makes exactly 60 swings, back or forth, during a normal minute. Then, in the finalmoment before the witching hour, the weight will make one more jog and start the hour with a swingin the opposite direction.3. Extra second added to weekendAn extra second has been added to the worlds atomic clocks in a rare adjustment to keep them instep with the slowing rotation of the Earth.The so-called leap second was added to electronic clocks at midnight universal time on Saturday.At that time, atomic clocks read 23 hours, 59 minutes and 60 seconds before they moved on toGreenwich Mean Time.Super-accurate atomic clocks are the ultimate reference point by which the world sets its wristwatches.But their precise regularity - which is much more constant than the shifting movement of the Eartharound the sun that marks out our days and nights - brings problems of its own.If no adjustments were made, the clocks would move further ahead and after many years the sunwould set at midday.Leap seconds perform a similar function to the extra day in each leap year which keeps thecalendar in sync with the seasons.The last so-called leap seconds happened in 2008, 2005 and 1998.Adjustments to atomic clocks are more than a technical curiosity.A collection of the highly-accurate devices are used to set Coordinated Universal Time whichgoverns time standards on the world wide web, satellite navigation, banking computer networks andinternational air traffic systems.
There have been calls to abandon leap seconds but a meeting of the InternationalTelecommunications Union, the UN agency responsible for international communicationsstandards, failed to reach a consensus in January.Opponents of the leap second want a simpler system that avoids the costs and margin for error inmaking manual changes to thousands of computer networks.Supporters argue it needs to stay to preserve the precision of systems in areas like navigation.A decision is not urgent. Some estimate that if the current arrangement stays, the world mayeventually have to start adding two leap seconds a year. But that is not expected to happen foranother hundred years or so.4. World’s atomic clock finds a second comingBy Rene LynchLOS ANGELES - The planet’s timekeepers added an extra second to the clock at midnightuniversal time Saturday night. But if you blinked, you just might have missed it.The so-called leap second was needed to synchronize the world’s official atomic clocks, said JohnLowe, who heads the time and frequency services group at the National Institute of Standards andTechnology.The reason? Earth is spinning just a bit slowly. The time it takes Earth to rotate on its axis - the verydefinition of a day - is about two milliseconds longer than it was 100 years ago, said Geoff Chester,spokesman at the U.S. Naval Observatory, in an interview with the Associated Press.Over the course of a year, that adds up to nearly three-quarters of a second.A second might not seem like much, Lowe said in an interview with the Los Angeles Times. "But ifyou allow that accumulation to go on, it starts to become apparent." The seconds would stack upand "sunrise" would eventually take place at sunset. And "spring" would arrive in the dead of winter,Lowe said."Soon you’d have an obvious problem," he said.It’s up to the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service to coordinate such leapseconds, and such coordination typically takes place in either June or December. Hence, thisweekend’s skip: Universal time was 11:59:59 and then the rarely seen 11:59:60 before the clocksstruck midnight.When asked what he planned to do with his extra second, Lowe responded:"I am going to observe it by making sure that all our broadcast services take effect," he said.
5. Earth is farthest from the sun this weekBy Tariq Malik(SPACE.com) With a heat wave roasting parts of the United States this week, it may seem strangethat our planet is now actually at its farthest point from the sun this year. Strange, but true.According to the U.S. Naval Observatory, the Earth will reach a point in its orbit called "aphelion" at12 a.m. EDT (0400 GMT) on Thursday (July 5). The Earths aphelion is the spot where it is thefarthest from the sun that it can get in a single year -- about 94.5 million miles (152 millionkilometers).To put that in perspective, the Earth is typically about 93 million miles (150 million km) from the sun.But because our planets orbit is not a perfect circle (its actually an ellipse) it has a farthest pointand closest point to the sun. Earths closest approach to the sun is called perihelion and occurs inearly January.At aphelion, Earth is exactly 3,104,641 miles (4,996,435 km) -- or 3.28 percent -- farther from ourstar than at its closest approach. Those few million miles mean that Earth will receive about 7percent less radiant heat at its farthest point from the sun than at its closest point, researchers say.[50 Amazing Earth Facts]If youre in a heat-wave state in the United States, you may be wondering how it can be so hot ifEarth is farther from the sun than it usually is. Its a good question.But our current warm weather isnt directly tied to Earths relative distance from the sun; rather, the23.5-degree tilt of Earths axis is playing a major role. This tilt means that the sun is above thehorizon for different lengths of time during different seasons. Its this tilt that determines if the sunsrays strike your spot on Earth directly or at a low angle.At the latitude of New York City, the suns direct rays on the June 21 summer solstice mean the cityreceives three times as much heat as it does during the winter solstice in late December. Thereverse is true for the Southern Hemisphere, where it is currently winter.The dates for aphelion and perihelion can vary by a few days. Perihelion typically occurs betweenJan. 1 and 5, and aphelion ranges between July 2 and 5. While this years aphelion occurs on July5, last year it was on July 4, just in time for the Fourth of July celebrations marking theIndependence Day holiday in the United States.So tonight, after catching your local fireworks display to celebrate the Fourth of July, take a momentto mark another annual event on Earth: aphelion. Well only get closer to the sun from here.6. Happy aphelion!Today – July 5, 2012 – at about 04:00 UTC (a few hours ago as I write this) the Earth reachedaphelion, the point in its elliptical orbit when it’s farthest from the Sun.
According to the US Naval Observatory, we were 1.016675058 Astronomical Units from the Sun atthat time. An AU is the average distance from the Earth to the Sun, and is defined as 149,597,870.7kilometers (92,955,807.2 miles).That means that at aphelion the center of the Earth was 152,092,424 km (94,505,851 miles) fromthe center of the Sun.Over the next six months we’ll slowly approach the Sun again until we reach perihelion – the closestpoint in the Earth’s orbit to the Sun – on January 2, 2013, at about 05:00 UTC.When we’re farther from the Sun it appears a little bit smaller in the sky, but you’d never notice. Forone thing, staring at the Sun is a bad idea! For another, the change is so slow day by day that it’simpossible to notice anyway. For a third thing, the total change over the course of six months isn’tvery big either. Astronomer (and friend of the blog) Anthony Ayiomamitis took two pictures thatshow this:These are from aphelion and perihelion in 2005, but the scale is always about the same every year.As you can see, the change in the Sun’s size isn’t terribly big.So even though you may not notice it, it’s still neat to think that after the past 183 days or so we’vebeen steadily moving farther from the Sun, and now we’re on our way back in. And even neater…the Earth has done this over four and half billion times before. So it has some experience here.7. Fleet Survey Team Holds Change of CommandBy Lanee Cooksey, Naval Oceanographic Office, Public AffairsSTENNIS SPACE CENTER, Miss. (NNS) -- The Fleet Survey Team (FST) held a change ofcommand ceremony at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Mississippi, June 21.Cmdr. Ronald R. Shaw relieved Cmdr. Christopher J. Sterbis as commanding officer."You should be extremely proud of what you have accomplished. The Navy understands the valueof the Fleet Survey Team and what it does," said Naval Oceanographic Office Commanding OfficerCapt. Paul Oosterling, guest speaker.Shaw graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1992 and was commissioned as anensign. He earned a masters degree in meteorology and physical oceanography from the NavalPostgraduate School in Monterey, Calif. In 1994, he reported to Naval Support Force Antarctica asa flight meteorologist and served as officer in charge of a detachment in Christchurch, NewZealand.In 2000, Shaw reported to the Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center in San Diego,Calif., as a senior ship router and assistant operations officer.In 2002, he completed a tour as the OA division officer/officer of the deck aboard the USS John C.Stennis (CVN 74). Shaw graduated with a masters degree in hydrography from the University ofSouthern Mississippi in 2005 and reported to the Fleet Survey Team as executive officer. Hegraduated with distinction from the Naval War College in Newport, R.I., and in 2009 served inHawaii on the staff of the U.S. Pacific Command.
His awards include the Defense Meritorious Service Medal, four Navy and Marine CorpsCommendation Medals; two National Defense Medals; Navy Humanitarian Assistance Medal,Armed Service Medal, Antarctica Service Medal; the Global War on Terrorism Medal and variouscampaign and service awards.Sterbis next assignment will be in Washington D.C. at OPNAV N81, Assessment Division, whichprovides capability-based analyses of naval warfare and support requirements.FST is a rapid-response team with the capabilities to conduct quick-turnaround hydrographicsurveys anywhere in the world. It is comprised of approximately 65 military and civilian members.FST is collocated with the Naval Oceanographic Office and the Commander, Naval Meteorologyand Oceanography Command at Stennis Space Center, Miss.8. Rich Seesholtz, Navy oceanographer ObituaryBy Bart BarnesRich Seesholtz, 79, the oceanographer of the Navy who retired as a rear admiral in 1988, died ofleukemia and lymphoma June 8 at his home in the Mount Vernon section of Fairfax County. Thedeath was confirmed by his wife, Marylee Seesholtz.Adm. Seesholtz served as the Navy’s oceanographer from 1983 to 1988. The position includedcommand of five oceanographer centers in the United States and 14 ships doing deep-oceanmapping and magnetic and gravitational surveys.He supervised 3,600 military and civilian employees in the fields of meteorology, hydrography,astronomy, chronometry and oceanography.In 1985, under Adm. Seesholtz’s command, a research submarine discovered a hot spring in thePacific Ocean off the coast of the northwestern United States. It measured 750 degrees Fahrenheitand is believed to be the hottest water recorded on Earth.As oceanographer of the Navy, Adm. Seesholtz was also responsible for the operation of themaster clock at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington.John Richard Seesholtz was born in Ashland, Pa. He graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in1956.Early in his Navy career, he served in Antarctica, where he helped capture six pairs of penguins forthe San Diego Zoo.In 1968, he received a doctorate in oceanography at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.He served aboard submarines, including command of the Dolphin, a deep-diving submarine, whichundertook deep sonar operations.Adm. Seesholtz’s decorations included two awards of the Legion of Merit, the Meritorious ServiceMedal, the Joint Service Commendation Medal and the Navy Commendation Medal.
In retirement, he was a consultant for the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, among otherorganizations.He had lived in the Washington area since 1972. He was a member of Aldersgate United MethodistChurch in Fairfax, where he sang in a choir called the Men of Note. He was also a member of theMount Vernon Civic Association.Survivors include his wife of 52 years, Marylee Gehris Seesholtz of Fairfax; twin children, AmySeesholtz of Alexandria and retired Navy Capt. Dan Seesholtz of Edmond, Okla.; and threegrandchildren.9. Rear Admiral Titley Named as Deputy Under Secretary for OperationsAdministrator Jane Lubchenko has announced Rear Admiral David Titley as the next Deputy UnderSecretary for Operations (DUS/O) at NOAA, USA. As NOAA’s Chief Operating Officer, Dr Titley willbe responsible for managing operations across NOAA’s entire portfolio and will serve as one of DrLubchenkos key advisors on NOAA programme and policy issues.Dr Titley brings to this position experience in leading large, complex organisations and directingmajor operations around the world. A naval officer since 1980, Rear Admiral Titley’s career hasincluded seven deployments to the Mediterranean Sea, Indian Ocean, and Western Pacific regionand multiple commands (Fleet Numerical Meteorological and Oceanographic Center, NavalOceanography Operations Command, and Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command).Shore tours include serving on the staff of the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy and as the seniormilitary assistant to the director of Net Assessment in the Office of the Secretary of Defense.In 2009, he assumed the duties of the oceanographer and navigator of the Navy, and in 2012, hebecame acting assistant deputy chief of Naval Operations for Information Dominance. Dr Titley’seducation includes a Bachelor of Science in meteorology from the Pennsylvania State University, aMaster of Science in meteorology and physical oceanography, and a PhD in meteorology, bothfrom the Naval Postgraduate School. His dissertation focused on better understanding tropicalcyclone intensification. He was elected a Fellow of the American Meteorological Society in 2009.