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Cities social issues


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Cities social issues

  1. 1. AMERICA MOVES TO THE CITY, 1865-1900
  2. 2. THE URBAN FRONTIER  1870-1890  US Population doubles  Population of cities tripled  By 1900, 40% of Americans lived in cities of more than 2500  In 1860, no US city had a million people; by 1890, Philadelphia, NY and Chicago all passed that mark.  NYC was the second largest city in the world with 3.5 million.
  3. 3. Rise of the Cities  What new technology made those large cities possible?  Electric elevator (taller buildings)  Steel (even taller buildings)  Trains (brought goods)  public transportation (could move around big city)  Led to diversification of cities into regions
  4. 4. Lure of the Cities Why were cities attractive to people?  Cities had industrial jobs  Lifestyle was attractive  Electricity, plumbing, department stores, elegance
  5. 5. The Ugly Side of Cities  Produce more waste  Waste disposal problem  Dirty and Smelly  Many didn’’t have easy access to baths  Crime rate high
  6. 6. Slums  Slums grew  Human Pig-sties  Dumbbell tenements  7-8 stories, with 6 families to a floor.
  7. 7. The New Immigration  Immigration continued at a high rate.  From 1850s-1870s, more than 2 million per decade  1880s - Five million.  1882 alone, nearly 800 thousand  Until the 1880s most immigrants integrated into American society relatively easily Why?
  8. 8. The New Immigration  1880s the nature of the immigrants changed. How?
  9. 9. New Immigrants  Integrated differently. Why?  Were swarthier, more Jewish, more Orthodox Christians  Poorer and not used to democratic governments  More illiterate  Did not come looking for farming opportunities Came looking for work, and were comfortable living in cities working industrial jobs.
  10. 10. New Immigrants  Lived together in mini-cities within cities.  Consequences?  Americans began to fear that US a dumping ground for Europe’’s refuse.
  11. 11. Annual Immigration, 1860––1997
  12. 12. Southern Europe Uprooted  Southern and Eastern Europeans left for a number of reasons:  Europe crowded  Also, persecutions in Europe drove some out. Pogroms in 1880s in eastern Europe.  60 Million Europeans abandoned the old continent in the 19th century Half to US.  ““America Fever”” developed in Europe
  13. 13. Southern Europe Uprooted  Railroads, industries and states actively recruited immigrants  Eastern European Jews  ““Birds of passage””  Tensions between immigrants and children. Jewish Bagel Peddler
  14. 14. Reactions To The New Immigration  State and federal governments did almost nothing to help integrate and assimilate the new immigrants. Reasons:  Federal Government was small.  States were not used to the problems of cities.  City governments were overwhelmed.
  15. 15. Integrating the Immigrants  Big-city machines  Protestant clergy: ““social gospel””  Jane Addams: Hull House in Chicago.
  16. 16. Narrowing TheWelcome Mat Nativism resurrected  Fears:  Anglo-Saxon stock would be watered down  Anti-Catholic prejudice.  Immigrants blamed for degradation of city government;  Unions feared cheap labor;  feared the socialism and anarchism that they brought with them.
  17. 17. Anti-Immigrant Backlash  American Protective Association (1887).  Unions pushed for restrictions  1882: paupers, criminals and convicts  1885: workers brought in under labor contracts.  Later laws: insane, prostitutes, alcoholics, anarchist and people carrying contagious diseases.  1882 Chinese banned.  1886 Statute of Liberty arose in New York
  18. 18. Churches Confront The Urban Challenge  New group of urban revivalists  Catholic Church and Jewish faith gain strength.  By 1890 were 150 denominations  Two new denominations:  Salvation Army.  Christian Scientists
  19. 19. Darwin Disrupts The Churches  Old time religion vs. liberal humanist writers.  Darwinism created rifts in the churches between fundamentalists and ““modernists””.  Were also an increasing number of people who challenged religion entirely.
  20. 20. The Lust For Learning  Increase in public education  More states requiring at least a grade school education.  By 1900, over 6000 public HS.  Increasingly, textbooks being supplied for free.  Teacher education increased ““Normal schools””  Kindergartens, imported by Germans, became to become common.  Catholic immigration explodes parochial schools.  Chautauqua movement (like earlier lyceum movement)
  21. 21. Washington v.W.E.B. DuBois  In 1900 44% of African Americans were illiterate.  Booker T. Washington.  Black champion of Black education.  Headed the black school at Tuskegee, Alabama.  Taught blacks useful trades so that they could become economically independent and gain self-respect.  Avoided challenging segregation and white superiority.  He believed that economic development and independence would lead to eventual social equality.  Believed in one step at a time.
  22. 22. Washington v. W.E.B. DuBois  W.E.B. DuBois  Attacked Washington as an ““Uncle Tom””.  First black to obtain a PH.D at Harvard.  Wanted complete equality for blacks  Helped to found the NAACP.  Immediate v. Gradual desegregation
  23. 23. The Hallowed Halls Of Ivy  Colleges and Universities exploded after the War  Morrill Act of 1862land-grant colleges  Hatch Act““A & M””s  1900 Quarter of all college graduates women  Black universities increasing –– Howard.  Private universities such as Stanford and Cornell.  Sharp increase in professional and technical schools.
  24. 24. The March Of The Mind  Curriculum of Universities started changing.  More practical classes based on particular subjects.  Elective system.  Medical schools increased.
  25. 25. The Appeal Of The Press  The growth of libraries / Carnegie.  Linotype  Traditional newspapers became less political  Sex, scandal and sensationalism were featured in new tabloids.  Two journalistic tycoons emerged William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer.  Fierce competitors.  Both more than willing to bend the press to their own aims  Led to lurid tabloids and sensationalism in main-stream press.
  26. 26. The New Morality  Battle in the late 19th century over morals, sexuality and the place of woman.  More opportunities for women.  Beginnings of new sexual freedom.  Divorce rate begins to rise.  Birth control  People actually talking about sex in private.  Shocks conservative Americans  The Woodhull sisters  women’’s rights + free love
  27. 27. Conservative Backlash  Anthony Comstock crusaded against lewd behavior  Comstock Law passed by congress in 1873, outlawed ““obscenity””  He confiscated over 200,000 obscene pictures. O Wicked Flesh
  28. 28. Families AndWomen In The City Urban environment put new stresses on and reshaped the family.  Birth rates declined Why? Divorce rate went up Why? Women growing more independent. Movement for women’’s suffrage was re-invigorated.
  29. 29. Suffrage Movement  National American Woman Suffrage Association,  Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony.  Carrie Chapman Catt  suffragist + prohibition + anti-war  Where did women get the vote first? Why?
  30. 30. Women’’s Suffrage Before the 19th Amendment
  31. 31. Prohibition And Social Progress  Prohibition movement gained strength in the later half of the Gilded Age Reasons?.  Class struggle over alcohol  National Prohibition party (1869).  Woman’’s Christian Temperance Union (1874) - Francis Willard  Carrie Nation  Anti-Saloon League (1893) begins to have success getting prohibition in individual states.  Prohibition——1919.